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Italian Unification

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Title: Italian Unification


1
Italian Unification
2
  • The Italian Unification or Italian Risorgimento
    is known as the chain of political and military
    events that produced a united Italian peninsula
    under the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

3
Five Stages
  • Pre-Revolutionary
  • Revolutionary
  • Cavours Policy and the Role of Piedmont
  • Garibaldis Campaign in Southern Italy
  • Creation of the Italian Kingdom

4
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6
Pre-Revolutionary Phase
  • After the Napoleonic Wars and Napoleon
    Bonapartes second defeat, the major powers that
    has resisted met at a conference called the
    Congress of Vienna in 1815
  • Agenda limit Frances Power, balance of power
    (no nation too strong), divide up territory
    conquered by Napoleon
  • The topic of discussion was to limit Frances
    power, set limits on nations so no one nation
    become too strong, and divide up the territory
    conquered up by Napoleon.

7
  • Italian Peninsula returned to Austria, which
    controlled many of the Italian states
  • Few independant states Kingdom of Sardinia,
    which controlled Piedmont, Savoy, Nice and Genoa
  • In its negotiations, the congress returned
    domination of the Italian Peninsula to Austria.
    Austria now occupied Lombardy and Venice and had
    considerable influence on other Italian states.
    One of the few places of independence was the
    Kingdom of Sardinia, which now controlled
    Piedmont, Nice, Savoy and Genoa..

8
  • Some of the things that conflicted and interfered
    with the unification process were Austrian
    control of Lombardy and Venice, several
    independent Italian states, the autonomy of the
    Papal States, and the limited power and influence
    of Italian leaders

9
Revolutionary Phase
  • During first half of 19th C, only very educated
    wanted unification
  • The masses showed no concern.

10
  • At first, only wanted more rights from govt
  • But they became more revn
  • By 1820, Carbonari involved in many failed
    revolutions against Italian states
  • Austrian Empire crushed all of them

11
  • However, the people with a passion for
    unification started to form secret societies,
    namely the Carbonari. Although at first, they
    only demanded more rights from their respective
    government, the cause began to grow.

12
  • By 1820, the Carbonari were involved in numerous
    failed revolutions against the Kingdom of Two
    Sicilies, the Kingdom of Sardinia, Bolonga, and
    other Italian states. However, the Austrian
    Empire crushed all of these revolutions thus
    leading to more resentment from the Italians.

13
  • Soul and spirit of Carbonari and revns was
    Giuseppe Mazzini
  • Wanted a united Italy with republican govt
  • He popularized the movement by creating Young
    Italy, which spread ideas of unification
  • 1848, revolutions in Europe, some reforms, but
    not enough

14
  • The revolution also occurred in the Kingdom of
    Two Sicilies were the king signed a constitution.
  • In the Papal States, radical took over Rome,
    causing the Pope to flee.
  • In the absence of the pope, Garibaldi and Mazzini
    created a republic called the Roman Republic.
  • In Piedmont, after the insistence of nationals,
    the King Charles Albert was sent to Lombardy in
    their fight for freedom from Austrian rule.

15
  • 1848 revolutions crushed
  • 1849, France sent troops to Rome, and destroyed
    the short lived Roman Republic
  • Piedmont lost to Austria, and the King was forced
    to abdicate, causing his son Victor Emanuel II to
    become King in 1849

16
  • Unification of Italy seemed far off
  • But, a turning point Count Cavour was appointed
    prime minister of Piedmont in 1852
  • Italy would never be the same

17
Cavours Policy and the Role of Piedmont
  • By the use of bargaining, putting great powers
    against each other, war, and political cunning,
    Cavour was able to unite Italy in a short time.

18
  • Piedmont a small state but it had considerable
    influence due to its military strength
  • Also, Victor Emmanuel ruled with parliament,
    which created stability
  • Cavour wanted a strong state ie Piedmont, to lead
    the unification
  • And Piedmont can only become strong with
    railroads, economic freedom, stable finances, and
    a higher standard of living.

19
  • Cavour needed an ally France
  • Got Napoleon III on his side, since they both
    hated Austria
  • Napoleon wanted a liberated Italy
  • To seal the deal of this partnership, both
    leaders met secretly at Plombieres, a French spa.
    Piedmont would stir up trouble in one of the
    territories controlled by Austria, thus forcing
    Austria to go to war against Piedmont. France
    would help Piedmont in exchange for Nice and
    Savoy.

20
  • In April 1859, war broke out between Piedmont and
    Austria.
  • France and Piedmont did well won battles at
    Magenta and Solferino
  • Prussian mobilized in defence of Austria
  • Nap scared, signed a peace with Austria, angered
    Cavour
  • Piedmont received Lombardy from Austria as a
    result of the war. After the war and the
    political maneuvering, Piedmont had greatly
    increased its size. However, Garibaldis campaign
    in southern Italy would more than double the size
    of the kingdom

21
Garibaldis Campaign in Southern Italy
  • If Mazzini was the soul of the unification
    process, then Garibaldi was the hero
  • He recruited soldiers from Genoa to go to Sicily
  • The expedition of soldiers was an instant hit
  • Garibaldis red shirts had tremendous success
  • He wanted Rome, but this worried Cavour
  • Cavour like a fox, started uprisings in papal
    states, and sent Piedmonts army to stop it
  • 1860, 2/3 of papal states joined piedmont, and
    rome was left alone
  • Him and his troops marched south
  • Sept 18, Garibaldi gave up command of his army,
    shook hands with Victor Emmanuel unity of
    Kingdom of Italy in 1861

22
Creation of the Italian Kingdom
  • Although the Kingdom was formed, it did not
    include all of Italy
  • Rome and Venetia missing
  • Rome under control of France, Venetia was
    Austrias
  • 1866, Seven Weeks war with Aust/Prussia
  • Austria promised Venetia if Italy remained
    neutral, Prussia promised it if they joined
    prussia
  • Italy joined prussia, and they won

23
  • In 1870, the Franco-Prussian War occurred between
    France and Germany and Napoleon III was forced to
    pull the French troops from Rome to aid the war
    effort. While Rome and the remaining Papal States
    remained unprotected, Italian troops marched in
    unopposed. In October 1870 Rome voted to join the
    union and in July 1871, it became the capital.

24
  • In the end, Cavour, Garibaldi, and Mazzini became
    the founding fathers of a nation and were
    immortalized.

25
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