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Mechanism of Injuries


Mechanism of Injuries Primary Injury An injury that results directly from trauma Extrinsic external, something hitting the body Intrinsic Results from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mechanism of Injuries

Mechanism of Injuries
  • Primary Injury An injury that results directly
    from trauma
  • Extrinsic external, something hitting the body
  • Intrinsic Results from stressors in the body
  • Secondary Injury Arise from an injury not being
    treated properly or return to participation to
  • Chronic weakness
  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Arthritis

Skin Trauma
  • Wound Classifications
  • Blister continuous rubbing causes fluid buildup
    below epidermis (Epidermis/Dermis)
  • Abrasion Skin scrapped off
  • Skin Bruise (Contusion) Compression or crushing
    force produces bleeding under the skin
  • Laceration Wound in which skin is irregularly
  • Skin Avulsion Skin completely ripped away
  • Puncture Wound Penetration of skin by a sharp

Skin Trauma
Muscle Trauma
  • Muscle Trauma Caused by three mechanisms
  • Compression Force
  • Tension Force
  • Shearing Force

Acute Muscle Injuries
  • Acute Injury Sudden Onset
  • Contusion (bruise) Caused by a blow to the
    muscle tissue
  • Signs/Symptoms
  • Athlete reports being struck
  • Pain
  • Temporary paralysis
  • Palpation reveals hard, swollen area
  • Ecchymosis Tissue discoloration (black blue)

Three Classifications of Muscle Contusions
  • 1st Degree Muscle Contusion
  • Little to no loss of movement
  • Minor pain on palpation
  • No loss of strength
  • 2nd Degree Muscle Contusion
  • Moderate Pain
  • Ecchymosis
  • Swelling, hardness in muscle
  • Some loss of range of motion
  • 3rd Degree Muscle Contusion
  • Severe pain Swelling
  • Ecchymosis
  • Complete restriction of movement

Muscle Strain
  • Muscle Strain Stretch Rip Tear in muscle
    fibers or tendon, generally cause by abnormal
    muscle contraction
  • 1st Degree Muscle Strain
  • Mild local pain , increases with muscle use
  • Minor loss of strength
  • Mild Swelling
  • Mild Ecchymosis
  • Local Tenderness
  • 2nd Degree Muscle Strain Moderate symptoms as
  • 3rd Degree Muscle Strain Severe Injury,
    generally complete tear of muscle
  • Severe Pain
  • Complete Loss of Function
  • Palpable defect

Most Common Muscle Strains
  • Hamstring
  • Gastrocnemius
  • Quadriceps
  • Illiopsoas
  • Hips Adductors
  • Spinals
  • Deltoid
  • Rotator Cuff

Tendon Strain
  • Tendon 2X as strong as muscle, so single event
    usually occurs at belly of muscle, muscle/tendon
    junction or bony attachment
  • Tendon Strain usually caused by continually
    abnormal tension
  • Increased Collagen Tissue
  • Weakness in tendon

Muscle Cramp Spasm
  • Muscle Cramp Spasm Involuntary contraction of
  • Clonic Muscle Twitch Contract/relax
  • Tonic Rigid Muscle no relaxation
  • Muscle Cramp
  • Electrolyte Imbalance
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle Spasm
  • Reflex reaction of muscle
    caused by direct

Chronic Muscle Injuries
  • Chronic Muscle Injury Slow progressive injuries
    over a period of time
  • Repeated Acute Injuries
  • Constant Irritation by Poor Technique
  • Constant Stress beyond Physiological Limits
  • Acute Injuries improperly managed

  • Bursitis Inflammation of Bursae
  • Pain on/over bursae
  • Swelling/ egg shape
  • Loss of function
  • Myositis Ossificans Calcification within Muscle
  • Repeated trauma causes calcium deposits to form
  • Hard bumps in bed of muscle
  • Discovered on x-ray
  • Usual Sites are Biceps Quadriceps

Complications to Muscle/tendon Injuries
  • Atrophy Shrinking/wasting away of muscle
  • Contracture Abnormal shortening of muscle with
    resistance to stretch

Joint Injuries
  • Synovial Joints Freely moving joints
  • Characteristics of a Synovial Joint
  • Synovial Capsule covering encapsulating each
  • Ligaments - Intrinsic part of capsule,
    Extrinsic Outside of joint, not part of capsule.
    Support Joint
  • Synovial Fluid Joint lubrication
  • Articular Cartilage Cushions Bone Ends, provide
    no support

Joint Injuries
  • Sprains Twist, stretch, tearing of connective
    tissue ligaments, cartilage, capsule.
  • 1st Degree Sprain
  • Minimal pain
  • Minimal loss of function
  • Mild point tenderness
  • Little to no swelling
  • No instability
  • 2nd Degree Sprain moderate symptoms with slight
  • 3rd Degree Sprain
  • Very painful
  • Major Loss of Function
  • Marked Instability
  • Severe Tenderness Swelling

Joint Injuries
  • Acute Synovitis Inflammation of capsule caused
    by contusion or sprain
  • Pain on joint movement
  • Swelling
  • Skin sensitivity at joint capsule
  • If properly managed heals quickly in a few days
  • Subluxation Dislocation
  • Subluxation partial dislocation moved but did
    not come out of joint
  • Dislocation Total disunion of bone ends
  • Recognizing a Dislocation
  • Loss of function
  • Deformity
  • Swelling point tenderness
  • 1st Time Dislocation Severe trauma, tearing,
    breaking, chipping of bone. Always treat 1st time
    dislocation like a fracture Splint Medical

Joint Dislocations
Bone Trauma
  • Periostitis
  • Acute Fracture
  • Stress Fracture
  • Epiphyseal Damage
  • Periostitis Inflammation of periosteum
    (covering of bone) Bone Contusion/Bruise

Bone Trauma
  • Acute Bone Fracture Fracture vs. Break
  • Closed Fracture
  • Open Fracture (Compound Fracture)
  • Avulsion Fracture pulled away piece of bone
    ligament or tendon, chip
  • Epiphyseal Fracture Injury to growth area
    ages 10-16 yrs
  • Stress Fracture Exact etiology unknown
  • Overload stress caused by muscle
  • Altered stress caused by muscle fatigue
  • Rhythmic muscle vibration over long period of
  • Vibration caused by ground reaction
  • Bones are more vulnerable to stress fracture the
    1st few weeks of physical training

Causes of Stress Fractures
  • Too Much too Soon
  • Going From One Sport to Another Without Proper
  • Going Back to competition too soon after an
  • Changing environment running surfaces, gym to
    track, grass to concrete, shoes

Signs of Stress Fracture
  • Shin Splints Stress fracture
  • Swelling
  • Shin Splints pain on initial activity
    decreases once warm only to increase over time
  • Night Pain
  • Tenderness-Pain
  • Shin Splints more generalized pain
  • Stress Fracture more local (size of a quarter)
    pain on vibration
  • Most Common Sights of Stress Fractures
  • Tibia, Fibula, Metatarsal, Calcaneus, femur,
    Lumbar Spine, Ribs, Humerus

Nerve Trauma
  • Nerve Trauma caused by direct blow, stretch or
  • Hypoesthesia Diminished sense of feeling
  • Hyperesthesia Increased feeling to pain or
  • Paraesthesia Numbness, prickling, tingling
  • Referred Pain Pain that is felt at another
    location other than actual site of original