BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia

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BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia Emotion and Memory Complexities Emotion is both an experience to be remembered and a mediator of memory. Emotion affects recall and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia


1
BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia
  • Emotion and Memory

2
Complexities
  • Emotion is both an experience to be remembered
    and a mediator of memory.
  • Emotion affects recall and recognition in
    opposite ways, and has different effects on
    explicit and implicit memory.
  • This is the same dissociation seen earlier.
  • Emotion itself is a complex phenomena
  • Moods vs discrete emotions, what is emotion?

3
Classical Conditioning
  • Classical conditioning involves a form of memory
    because associations are formed and used in the
    future.
  • Conditioning is strengthened by strong emotion.
  • LeDoux decorticated rats and showed that learning
    persisted but could not be unlearned, so amygdala
    is essential.

4
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5
LeDouxs Two Roads
  • High road goes from a stimulus to the sensory
    thalamus to the sensory cortex and then back to
    the amygdala.
  • The cortex processes sensory information first
  • Low road goes from the emotional stimulus to the
    sensory thalamus and then directly to the
    amygdala.
  • No cortical involvement

6
Implications of Two Roads
  • Subsequent learning can permit the cortex access
    via the high road to overrule the activation of
    the amygdala
  • Interpretation
  • Unlearning
  • When fast response is essential to survival, the
    low road is very fast and motivates an automatic
    response.

7
Amygdala as the Hub
Rhinal Cortex (transition)
Memories
Memories Context
Sensory Cortex
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Sensory Thalamus
Medial Prefrontal
Extinction
8
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9
The Cortex Works Through the Hippocampus
Visual Cortex
Auditory Cortex
Somatic Cortex
Transition Cortex (perirhinal, parahippocampal,
entorhinal)
Hippocampus
10
Two Systems
Emotional Situation
Amygdala System
Hippocampal System
Explicit Memory About Emotional Situation
Implicit Emotional Memory
11
Intersection of Two Systems
Immediate Conscious Experience (working memory)
Amygdala-dependent emotional arousal (current)
Hippocampal-dependent explicit memory (past
emotions)
12
Role of Adrenaline
  • Adrenaline is produced by stimulation of the
    hypothalamus by the amydala.
  • Adrenaline forms stronger memories by stimulating
    the hippocampus and amygdala (as well as many
    other areas).
  • LTP is enhanced.

13
Mood-Dependent Memory
  • Mood affect encoding (as described earlier).
  • Later, mood affects recall as a state-dependent
    or context effect.
  • Mood-dependent recall requires strong emotion and
    is most obvious in autobiographical memory.
  • Other memory phenomena contribute (e.g., causal
    belonging associations).

14
Memory About Emotion
  • Includes the same semantic organizational
    structures as other categories.
  • Basic, subordinate and superordinate levels.
  • Fuzzy boundaries, prototypes.
  • Schemas and scripts for the evoking and
    expression of emotion (cultural).

15
Body Memory
  • Body and other sense memory is an example of
    classical conditioning.
  • The response is in the brain, not the body, but
    evoked via sensory stimulation.
  • Senses can evoke powerful memories of past
    experiences through such associations.

16
PTSD
  • Includes repetition compulsion and occurs as a
    dysfunctional response to perceived threat.
  • Intrusive memories may be distortions affected by
    an internal conflict or concern.
  • Triggering is classical conditioning.
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