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Title: Splash%20Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Chapter Menu
Chapter Preview Section 1 Minority, Race, and
Ethnicity Section 2 Racial and Ethnic
Relations Section 3 Theories of Prejudice and
Discrimination Section 4 Minority Groups in the
United States
3
Chapter Preview 1
Chapter Preview Section 1
Minority, Race, and Ethnicity (pages 276279)
Sociologists have specific definitions for
minority, race, and ethnicity. Ethnic minorities
have often been subjected to prejudice and
discrimination.
4
Chapter Preview 2
Chapter Preview Section 2
Racial and Ethnic Relations (pages 280283)
Patterns of racial and ethnic relations take two
forms assimilation and conflict. Patterns of
assimilation include Anglo-conformity, melting
pot, and cultural pluralism. Conflict patterns
include genocide, population transfer, and
subjugation.
5
Chapter Preview 3
Chapter Preview Section 3
Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination (pages
284289)
Prejudice refers to attitudes, while
discrimination is about behavior. Prejudice often
leads to discrimination, but in some instances
discrimination creates prejudiced attitudes due
to stereotyping. Each of the three major
perspectives looks at different aspects of
prejudice.
6
Chapter Preview 4
Chapter Preview Section 4
Minority Groups in the United States (pages
290301)
Discrimination has caused some ethnic and racial
groups to lag behind the white majority in jobs,
income, and education. Progress is being made,
but the gains made by all minorities remain
fragile. African American, Latino, Asian
American, Native American, and white ethnics are
the largest minorities in this country.
7
Chapter Preview-End
8
Section 1-Preview
  • Sociologists have specific definitions particular
    to their field of study for minority, race, and
    ethnicity. Ethnic minorities have historically
    been subjected to prejudice and discrimination.

9
Section 1-Key Terms
  • minority
  • race
  • ethnic minority

10
Section 1-Polling Question
Do you feel that prejudice and discrimination
still exist today? A. Very much B. Somewhat C. No
t very much D. Not at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

11
Section 1
Minorities
  • A minority population is defined by something
    more than size or number.
  • A minority has several key features
  • A minority has distinctive physical or cultural
    characteristics that can be used to separate it
    from the majority.

12
Section 1
Minorities (cont.)
  • The minority is dominated by the majority.
  • Minority traits are often believed by the
    dominant majority to be inferior.
  • Members of the minority have a common sense of
    identity, with strong group loyalty.
  • The majority determines who belongs to the
    minority through ascribed status.

13
Section 1
Which of the following characteristics sets the
minority group apart from the majority group?
A. Religion B. Skin color C. Language D. All of
the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

14
Section 1
Defining Race
  • Members of a race share certain
    biologically-inherited physical characteristics
    that are considered equally important within a
    society.
  • Sociologists focus more on the social attitudes
    and characteristics that relate to race more than
    physical differences.

15
Section 1
Defining Race (cont.)
  • There is no scientific evidence that connects any
    racial characteristic with innate superiority or
    inferiority.

16
Section 1
Does the term pure race exist? A. Always
B. Sometimes C. Never D. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

17
Section 1
Ethnicity
  • An ethnic minority is socially identified by
    unique characteristics related to culture or
    nationality.
  • This type of minority is a subculture defined by
    its own language, religion, values, beliefs,
    norms, and customs.

18
Section 1
Ethnicity (cont.)
  • Negative attitudes toward ethnic minorities exist
    in part because of ethnocentrism (judging others
    in terms of ones own cultural standards).
  • The majority may view a minority as inferior
    because they differ in beliefs, values, and
    norms.

Attitudes of Americans Toward Immigrant Minorities
19
Section 1
Do you believe that there are ways to bridge the
gaps between an ethnic minority and a majority
group? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure D. Sometimes
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

20
Section 1-End
21
Section 2-Preview
  • Patterns of racial and ethnic relations take two
    forms assimilation and conflict. Patterns of
    assimilation include Anglo-conformity, melting
    pot, cultural pluralism, and accommodation.
    Conflict patterns include genocide, population
    transfer, and subjugation.

22
Section 2-Key Terms
  • assimilation
  • cultural pluralism
  • genocide
  • subjugation
  • de jure segregation
  • de facto segregation

23
Section-Polling Question
Are there positive and negative effects of
different races and ethnicities living together?
A. Yes B. No C. Sometimes D. Not at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

24
Section 2
Patterns of Assimilation
  • Assimilation refers to the blending or fusing of
    minority groups into the dominant society.

25
Section 2
Patterns of Assimilation (cont.)
  • Different forms of assimilation
  • Anglo-conformityimmigrants are accepted as long
    as they conform the most common pattern of
    assimilation in America.
  • Melting pot/tossed saladall ethnic and racial
    minorities voluntarily blend together.

26
Section 2
Patterns of Assimilation (cont.)
  • Cultural pluralismimmigrants maintain some of
    their old ways, which can result in introducing
    some of their culture to the United States.
  • Accommodationa minority maintains its own
    culturally-unique way of life.

27
Section 2
Which method of assimilation do you think is best
and why do you think this? A. Anglo-conformity B.
Melting pot C. Cultural pluralism D. Accommodation
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

28
Section 2
Patterns of Conflict
  • Different forms of conflict
  • Genocidethe systematic effort to destroy an
    entire population.
  • Population transfera minority is forced either
    to move to a remote location or to leave entirely
    the territory controlled by the majority.

Impact of the Holocaust
29
Section 2
Patterns of Conflict (cont.)
  • Subjugationthe minority is denied equal access
    to the culture and lifestyle of the larger
    society the most common pattern of conflict.
  • De jure segregationsubjugation based on the law.

30
Section 2
Patterns of Conflict (cont.)
  • De facto segregationa situation of segregation
    that exists regardless of what the law is.

31
Section 2
Which of the following is the most common form of
conflict? A. Genocide B. Subjugation C. de jure
segregation D. de facto segregation
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

32
Section 2-End
33
Section 3-Preview
  • Prejudice involves attitudes, while
    discrimination is about behavior. Prejudice often
    leads to discrimination. Conversely, in some
    instances, discrimination creates prejudiced
    attitudes through stereotyping. Each of the three
    major perspectives looks at different aspects of
    prejudice.

34
Section 3-Key Terms
  • prejudice
  • racism
  • discrimination
  • hate crime
  • stereotype
  • self-fulfilling prophecy

35
Section 3-Polling Question
Has there ever been a time when youve felt
discriminated against because of someone elses
prejudices? A. Yes B. No C. It depends on
the situation
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

36
Section 3
Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination
  • To a sociologist, prejudice refers to the
    widely-held preconceptions of a group (minority
    or majority) and its individual members.
  • Prejudice involves a generalization based on
    biased or insufficient information.

37
Section 3
Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination (cont.)
  • Racism is an extreme form of prejudice. Racists
    believe that discrimination or exclusion is
    morally justified because of their own natural
    superiority.
  • Discrimination involves acting upon those biased
    opinions by treating people unfairly.

38
Section 3
Does prejudice always results in
discrimination? A. Yes B. No C. Sometimes
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

39
Section 3
Hate Crimes
  • A hate crime is a criminal act that is motivated
    by extreme prejudice.
  • Each of the perspectivesfunctionalist, conflict,
    and symbolic interactionismcan help us
    understand reasons for hate crimes.

Hate Groups in America
40
Section 3
Do you agree with the following statement Hate
crimes occur in relatively small numbers, but the
frequency is increasing. A. Very
much B. Somewhat C. Not very much D. Not at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

41
Section 3
Stereotypes
  • A stereotype is a set of ideasbased on
    distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplificationt
    hat is applied to all members of a group.

42
Section 3
Have you ever been guilty of stereotyping a
person and later found out that you were wrong?
A. Always B. Sometimes C. Never D. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

43
Section 3
The Functionalist Perspective
  • Negative aspects of prejudice and racism
  • The social, political, educational, and economic
    costs to society are extremely high.
  • The safety and stability of the larger society
    are at risk due to violence.

44
Section 3
The Functionalist Perspective (cont.)
  • Positive aspect of prejudice and racism
  • The self-concepts within the majority group are
    strengthened due to a feeling of superiority.

45
Section 3
Do you agree with the functionalist view of the
positive aspect of discrimination?
A. Agree B. Disagree C. Sometimes D. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

46
Section 3
The Conflict Perspective
  • According to the conflict theory, a majority uses
    prejudice and discrimination as weapons of power
    to control a minority.
  • They do this in order to increase control over
    property, goods, and other resources.
  • Minorities tend to view one another as
    competitors instead of allies in the struggle
    against the majority.

47
Section 3
Do you think the example in the book,
demonstrates the conflict perspective? A. Very
much B. Somewhat C. Not very much D. Not at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

48
Section 3
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
  • According to this perspective, members of a
    society learn to be prejudiced in much the same
    way that they learn to be patriotic.
  • Two stages in learning to be prejudiced
  • Pregeneralized learning periodchildren overhear
    parents making racist statements, but they have
    not yet learned to separate people by race or
    ethnic group.
  • Total rejection stagechildren can use physical
    clues to sort people into groups.

49
Section 3
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective (cont.)
  • Language itself can also reflect prejudices.
  • Self-fulfilling prophecyan expectation that
    leads to behavior that then causes the
    expectation to become realityalso plays a large
    role in this perspective.
  • Members of a minority fail because of the low
    expectations they have for their own success.

Prejudice and Discrimination
50
Section 3
Do you agree that language reflects prejudices?
A. Agree B. Disagree C. Not sure D. Sometimes
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

51
Section 3-End
52
Section 4-Preview
  • Discrimination in the United States has caused
    some ethnic and racial groups to lag behind the
    white majority in jobs, income, and education.
    Progress is being made, but gains remain fragile.
    African American, Latino, Asian American, Native
    American, and white ethnics are the largest
    minority groups in this country.

53
Section 4-Key Terms
  • institutionalized discrimination
  • hidden unemployment
  • underclass

54
Section 4-Polling Question
Can you think of some ways that discrimination
effects minorities? A. Very much B. A
little C. Not at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

55
Section 4
Institutionalized Discrimination
  • Institutionalized discrimination results from
    unfair practices that are part of the structure
    of society and that have grown out of
    traditional, accepted behaviors.
  • Examples
  • Seniority systems
  • Public school systems

U.S. Resident Minority Populations, 2000 and 2003
56
Section 4
Do you think that a solution is possible to both
of these examples of discrimination? A. Yes
B. No C. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

57
Section 4
African Americans
  • African Americans are the largest racial minority
    in the United States.
  • Reasons for their minority status
  • Skin color and physical features
  • History as slaves

58
Section 4
African Americans (cont.)
  • Hidden unemploymentdiscouraged workers who have
    stopped looking or part-time workers who would
    prefer to have full-time jobs.

Majority and Minority Median Household Incomes
59
Section 4
African Americans (cont.)
  • Inequalities
  • African American income is 62 of what whites
    earn.
  • A lower percentage of African Americans are
    employed in higher paying professional positions.
  • The jobless rate of African Americans was
    slightly more than double that of whites in 2005.

60
Section 4
African Americans (cont.)
  • Hidden unemployment rates are high.
  • Differences in unemployment rates between whites
    and African American workers exist even for
    college-educated people.
  • African American teenagers have a high
    unemployment rate.

61
Section 4
African Americans (cont.)
  • Despite these inequalities, gains have been made
  • More than 25 of African Americans work in
    professional and managerial positions.
  • Business ownership has been increasing
    dramatically.
  • African Americans have also increased their
    political presence.

62
Section 4
African Americans (cont.)
  • Some scholars see an emergence of two black
    Americasa growing black middle class and a black
    underclass.

63
Section 4
How strongly do you feel about the following
statement In a very real sense, then, African
Americans have experienced barely forty years of
constitutional equality. A. Very
strongly B. Somewhat strongly C. Not very
strongly D. Not strongly at all
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

64
Section 4
Latinos
  • Latino is a term that refers to ethnic minorities
    from Latin America, a region that includes
    Mexico, Central America, South America, and the
    islands of the Caribbean.
  • Latinos
  • are the largest minority group in America.
  • fall behind white Americans in formal education.

65
Section 4
Latinos (cont.)
  • make an average income that is higher than that
    of African Americans but significantly lower than
    that of non-Latino whites.
  • are becoming a force in shaping American
    politics.

U.S. Population by Race and Ethnicity, 2000 and
2050
66
Section 4
What are the largest Latino groups in the United
States? A. Mexican descent B. Puerto
Ricans C. Cubans D. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

67
Section 4
Native Americans
  • Native Americans, more than any other minority,
    are suffering today from the effects of hundreds
    of years of discrimination.
  • Native Americans are running casino-type gaming
    establishments, which is helping the quality of
    life for many families.
  • Many challenges, such as better health care and
    education, still need to be met.

68
Section 4
The following are areas of hardship for the
Native Americans EXCEPT A. Abject poverty
B. Low annual income C. High school
graduation rates D. Protecting their
reservations
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

69
Section 4
Asian Americans
  • The road for Chinese Americans has not been easy
    since they began immigrating in the 1850s
    however, today they are recognized as successful.
  • Japanese Americans also had a rocky beginning,
    but are now one of the most successful racial
    minorities in the U.S.

Socioeconomic Characteristics of Minorities
70
Section 4
Asian Americans (cont.)
  • Why are they so successful?
  • They have not had to deal with centuries of
    prejudice and discrimination like the African and
    Native Americans.
  • They have used the educational system for upward
    mobility.

71
Section 4
Which Asian American minority group do you think
is the most successful today? A. Chinese B. Japa
nese C. Filipinos D. Both A B
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

72
Section 4
White Ethnics
  • White ethnics are the descendents of immigrants
    from Eastern and Southern European nations,
    particularly Italy and Poland.
  • White ethnics also include Greek, Irish and
    Slavic people.
  • During the 1960s, white ethnics were labeled as
    being conservative, racist, pro-war hardhats,
    but this was not true.

73
Section 4
White Ethnics (cont.)
  • White ethnics have not traditionally been victims
    of discrimination, but still feel the need to
    display their cultural and national origins.

74
Section 4
What reasons are the white ethnics wanting to
take a seat at the multicultural
table? A. White ethnic roots movement
B. Establish a public identity C. To show
white ethnicity as being beautiful D. All of
the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

75
Section 4-End
76
Figure 9.1
Attitudes of Americans Toward Immigrant Minorities
77
Figure 9.2
Impact of the Holocaust
78
Figure 9.3
79
Figure 9.4
U.S. Resident Minority Populations, 2000 and 2003
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical
Abstract of the United States, 20042005.
80
Figure 9.5
Majority and Minority Median Household Incomes
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005.
81
Figure 9.6
The U.S. Population by Race and Ethnicity, 2000
and 2050
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2004.
82
Figure 9.7
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005.
83
Snapshot
Hate Groups in the United States
Source Adapted from Southern Poverty Law Center
Intelligence Project, Active U.S. Hate Groups in
2004.
84
Transparency Menu
Sociology Chapter Transparencies
Hate Crimes in the United States Projected
Changes in U.S. Racial/Ethnic Composition Whos
on the NetBy Income Level Whos on the NetRace
and Education
85
Transparency 1
86
Transparency 2
87
Transparency 3
88
Transparency 4
89
Vocab 1
minority
a group of people with physical or cultural
traits different from those of the dominant group
in the society
90
Vocab 2
race
people sharing certain inherited physical
characteristics that are considered important
within a society
91
Vocab 3
ethnic minority
group identified by cultural, religious, or
national characteristics
92
Vocab 4
assimilation
the blending or fusing of minority groups into
the dominant society
93
Vocab 5
cultural pluralism
desire of a group to maintain some sense of
identity separate from the dominant group
94
Vocab 6
genocide
the systematic effort to destroy an entire
population
95
Vocab 7
subjugation
process by which a minority group is denied equal
access to the benefits of a society
96
Vocab 8
de jure segregation
denial of equal access based on the law
97
Vocab 9
de facto segregation
denial of equal access based on everyday practice
98
Vocab 10
prejudice
widely held negative attitudes toward a group
(minority or majority) and its individual members
99
Vocab 11
racism
an extreme form of prejudice that assumes
superiority of one group over others
100
Vocab 12
discrimination
treating people differently based on ethnicity,
race, religion, or culture
101
Vocab 13
hate crime
a criminal act motivated by prejudice
102
Vocab 14
stereotype
a distorted, exaggerated, or oversimplified image
applied to a category of people
103
Vocab 15
self-fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that leads to behavior that causes
the expectation to become reality
104
Vocab 16
institutionalized discrimination
unfair practices that grow out of common
behaviors and attitudes and that are a part of
the structure of a society
105
Vocab 17
hidden unemployment
unemployment that includes people not counted in
the traditional unemployment categories
106
Vocab 18
underclass
people typically unemployed who come from
families that have been poor for generations
107
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