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Democratic Policies, Religious Revival and Reform


Democratic Policies, Religious Revival and Reform Chapter 10 1824-1840 Introduction Questions How were Americans democratized between 1800 and 1840? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Democratic Policies, Religious Revival and Reform

Democratic Policies, Religious Revival and Reform
  • Chapter 10
  • 1824-1840

Introduction Questions
  • How were Americans democratized between 1800 and
  • Why was Andrew Jackson so popular with voters?
  • How and why did Democratic and Whig parties
  • What new assumptions about human nature did
    religious and reform leaders in the 1830s make?

The Rise of Democratic Politics 1824-1840
  • Introduction
  • Republican Party is fragmenting because of
    pressures produced by industrialization in the
    North, the spread of cotton growing in the South
    and westward expansion
  • Those who retained Jeffersons distrust of a
    strong federal government and preferred states
    rights became Democrats
  • Those who favored an active federal government
    became Whigs
  • Both Democrats and Whigs appealed to the common
    man to support them

Democratic Ferment
  • Property qualifications for voting were
  • Written Ballots replaced voting aloud
  • The minority party sought to increase the number
    of voters to attempt to turn itself into the
    majority party

The Election of 1824
  • Four Republicans Run
  • Andrew Jackson received the most electoral votes
    but not a majority calls Adams election the
    Corrupt Bargain
  • John Quincy Adams is elected for the Presidency
    by the House of Representatives
  • William Crawford dies during the election
  • Henry Clay is named Secretary of State by John
    Quincy Adams after Clay supports his Presidency
    in the House of Representatives

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John Quincy Adams as President
  • Tried to encourage economic growth
  • Did not communicate with other members of his
    political party and had a hard time as President

The Rise of Andrew Jackson
  • Battle of New Orleans made Jackson a National
  • Jackson was a political outsider
  • Jackson and Martin Van Buren referred to
    themselves as Democrats
  • Democrats nominated Jackson for President in 1828
  • Those who supported Adams called themselves
    National Republicans

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The Election of 1828
  • Jackson is portrayed as a man of the people
  • Adams is labeled as an aristocrat
  • South and Southwest voted for Jackson
  • North voted for Adams
  • Mudslinging

Jackson in Office
  • Spoils System
  • Opposed Federal monies for internal improvements,
    vetoed Marysville Road project
  • Southerners supported the Indian Removal Act of
    1830 but did not like that Jackson did nothing
    against the Tariff of 1828

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  • Led to a break between Jackson and his VP John C.
  • Calhoun argued that tariffs were unconstitutional
    and therefore the Southern states did not have to
    follow (nullify) them

The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832
  • Jackson did not like the National Bank, he
    thought it was a monopoly
  • Nations Bank controlled the nations credit and
    was a depository for federal monies
  • National Bank was run by private stockholders
  • Nicholas Biddle was the head of the bank and
    asked that the bank be re-chartered in 1832
  • Jackson vetoed the bill
  • Jackson and Van Buren run for re election
  • National Republicans run Henry Clay- American
  • Jackson wins easily

The Bank Controversy and the Second Party System
  • The War on the Bank
  • Jackson tries to bankrupt the National Bank by
    removing federal monies and depositing them in
    state banks of his choice
  • Jacksons state banks are called pet banks
    because their leaders supported Jackson
  • The State Banks issued credit and paper money
    which led to rapid inflation and speculation

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The Rise of Whig Opposition
  • National Republicans changed their name to Whigs
    during Jackson's second term
  • Southerners that were angry over the tariff
    issue, temperance and public school reformers,
    anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic Protestants,
    commercial merchants and bankers and
    manufacturers supported the Whigs

The Election of 1836
  • Martin Van Buren runs as a Democrat- wins a clear
  • Whigs run 4 candidates
  • William Henry Harrison
  • Hugh L. White
  • Daniel Webster
  • Willie Person Mangum

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The Panic of 1837
  • Economy goes into a severe depression
  • Jacksons bank policies create inflation and
  • Specie Circular- Government owned land may only
    be purchased with gold

The Search for Solutions
  • Independent Treasury Bill 1840- Federal
    government will stay out of banking and federal
    monies will be kept in National treasury

The Election of 1840
  • Democrats choose Van Buren again
  • Whigs choose William Henry Harrison and John
    Tyler (Tippecanoe and Tyler too)
  • Harrison runs as the Jackson look alike man of
    the people and wins

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The Second Party System Matures
  • Number of people voting increase by 60
  • Popular campaigning techniques
  • Strong contrast between parties
  • Tariffs
  • Banking

The Rise of Popular Religion
  • Introduction
  • American Preachers reject the Calvinist doctrine
    of Predestination
  • Message of salvation becomes more individualistic
  • Second Great Awakening begins

The Second Great Awakening
  • Religious camp meetings
  • Methodists are most successful
  • Helped promote law and order in the West

Eastern Revivals
  • New York
  • Burned Over District
  • Charles G. Finney
  • Slave Owners were sinners

Critics of the Revivals The Unitarians
  • New England educated and economic elite were
    turned off my the emotionalism and turned to
  • Goodness is cultivated by a gradual process of
    character building and living by the teachings of

The Rise of Mormonism
  • Joseph Smith- 1820s
  • Founded Nauvoo Illinois
  • Polygamy
  • Mob attacks the group and kills Smith
  • Mormons must separate themselves from the rest of
  • Brigham Young- Utah

The Shakers
  • Mother Ann Lee
  • Rejected economic individuality
  • No marriages or reproduction
  • Shaking with the Spirit during services

The Age of Reform
  • Reform Movement was strongest in New England and
    areas affected by the Second Great Awakening

The War on Liquor
  • Temperance began by preaching moderation in the
    use of liquor
  • American Temperance Society began to demand total
    abstinence and prohibition
  • Most members were middle class
  • Alcohol consumption was cut in half from

Public Schools Reform
  • Horace Mann advocated education reform
  • State supported public schools
  • Grouping students by age
  • Longer school terms
  • Standardized textbooks
  • Compulsory attendance
  • Businesses wanted educated workers
  • Workingmen saw education as a road to mobility
  • Women wanted education to open careers for women
  • 1900-70 of teachers were women

  • William Lloyd Garrison- The Liberator 1831
  • American Anti-slavery Society- 1833
  • Main argument between anti-slavery groups was
    womens rights
  • Constitutional issues of right to freedom of
    expression and petition
  • South on the defensive

Womens Rights
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott- Seneca
    Falls convention 1841
  • Declaration of Sentiments launched the feminist

Penitentiaries and Asylums
  • Proper discipline could solve the problems of
    crime, poverty and deviancy
  • Dorothea Dix
  • Punishment vs. Rehabilitation

Utopian Communities
  • New Harmony
  • Hopedale
  • Brook Farm
  • Based upon ideal or utopian ideals

  • 1820-1840 politics and religion respond to the
    common man
  • Jackson is elected by the common man, but his
    stance on internal improvements, protective
    tariffs, nullification and the national bank
    divided citizens and led to a 2 party system
  • The Panic of 1837 furthered the divide in
    American Politics
  • Reformers try to improve America idealistically
    to advance their aims