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Scientific Literature Tutorial

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Scientific Literature Tutorial Introduction The Parts of a Paper Literature Cited Peer Review Discussion Discussion/Conclusion This is where the authors will ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Literature Tutorial


1
Scientific Literature Tutorial
  • Introduction
  • The Parts of a Paper
  • Literature Cited
  • Peer Review

2
In this tutorial, you will learn
  • What peer-reviewed scientific literature is.
  • The components of a peer-reviewed research paper.
  • How to cite a research paper.

Credits Figures and images by N. Wheat unless
otherwise noted. Stick figures from
openclipart.org. Science and Ecology cover shots
from the respective websites. Funded by Title
V-STEM grant P031S090007.
3
Introduction
  • What happens after scientists complete a study?
    Theyve performed experiments, analyzed their
    results, and perhaps even decided what questions
    need to be addressed next.

4
Introduction
  • Now what? Their results arent very helpful if
    nobody knows about them, so they must communicate
    their results to the rest of the scientific
    community.

5
Scientific Journals
  • When scientists want to share the results of a
    study, they do so by publishing their work in a
    scientific journal. There are many journals out
    there.

6
Scientific Journals
  • Some are very general (Science, Nature) and some
    are more specific (Ecology, Journal of
    Experimental Marine Biology, Animal Behaviour).

7
Scientific Journals
  • One year of a journal is included in a volume.
    Journals are published in several (4-12) issues
    throughout the year.

8
Research Articles
  • Each issue of a journal contains several original
    research articles.
  • Check out the Table of Contents for the May/June
    2011 issue of Behavioral Ecology.
  • These research articles are written by the
    scientists that performed the research.

9
How many original, full-length research articles
are found in this issue?
Question 1
  • 1
  • 28
  • 31
  • 32

10
Sorry!
Question 1
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

11
Congratulations!
Question 1
  • You are correct!

12
Popular Science Magazines
  • Some publications contain articles written by
    professional science writers.
  • They are writing about research that others have
    done.
  • The information in these publications may be very
    accurate, and well-written, but they do not
    contain peer-reviewed research articles.

13
Who writes peer-reviewed original research
articles?
Question 2
  • Professional science writers
  • The editor of the journal
  • The scientists that performed the research
  • Other scientists working in the same field as the
    scientists that did the research

14
Sorry!
Question 2
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

15
Congratulations!
Question 2
  • You are correct!

16
Format
  • Original research articles in these journals
    follow the same general format
  • Title
  • Authors Affiliation
  • Abstract
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion/Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References/Literature Cited

17
Example Paper!
  • Use this article as an example to examine the
    parts of a research article.
  • As we look at each section of a paper, find it in
    the example paper.

18
Title
  • Title A summarized statement of the research.
    It should be written to help other researchers
    find their study. Scientific names of study
    species should be included when applicable.

19
Authors
  • Authors If there are multiple authors listed on
    a paper, they will be listed according to
    workload. The author that did most of the
    research writing will be listed first. They are
    not listed alphabetically.

20
Author Affiliation
  • Author affiliation The university or
    institution where each author works. Note that
    some authors may be affiliated with more than one
    institution.

21
In our example, where is the first author, Robert
Payne, affiliated?
Question 3
  • Department of Biology, University of Michigan
  • Department of Biology, Hartnell College
  • Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan
  • Both Department of Biology and Museum of Zoology,
    University of Michigan

22
Sorry!
Question 3
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

23
Congratulations!
Question 3
  • You are correct!

24
Abstract
  • Abstract A summary of the research. The
    abstract allows researchers to determine if the
    paper is likely to contain the information they
    are looking for. The abstract is often the last
    thing that is written before submitting a paper.

25
Introduction
  • Introduction Background information on the
    organism, the topic of study, and the study site
    are found in the introduction. Prior research on
    the topic should be detailed here. All of the
    papers that are cited will have their references
    listed at the end of the article. A clearly
    stated hypothesis should also be included here.

26
How many hypotheses are stated at the end of the
introduction in our example?
Question 4
  • 0
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3

27
Sorry!
Question 4
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

28
Congratulations!
Question 4
  • You are correct!

29
Methods
  • Methods The materials and methods used to
    conduct the study must be described with enough
    detail that another researcher would be able to
    evaluate the quality of the study or even repeat
    it.

30
Results
  • Results - The data that were gathered during the
    study are presented in the results section. This
    information is given in written form as well as
    in figures and tables. Results of statistical
    analyses are given in this section as well. The
    authors do not interpret the data in the results
    section.

31
Did raising a cowbird rather than their own chick
affect reproduction in female buntings the next
year?
Question 5
  • Yes
  • No
  • The paper doesnt say

32
Sorry!
Question 5
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

33
Congratulations!
Question 5
  • You are correct!

34
Discussion
  • Discussion/Conclusion This is where the authors
    will offer their interpretation of the data. They
    will discuss how well their data supports their
    initial hypothesis and how it fits in with
    research done by others. If their data is open to
    multiple interpretations, they will discuss these
    possibilities, or why they think one
    interpretation is the strongest.

35
Acknowledgements
  • Acknowledgements Authors will acknowledge their
    funding source and any help given during the
    research process.

36
Where did Payne Payne get the funding for their
research?
Question 6
  • University of Michigan Faculty Research Grant
  • The George Reserve Research Fund
  • The National Science Foundation
  • All of the above

37
Sorry!
Question 6
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

38
Congratulations!
Question 6
  • You are correct!

39
Literature Cited
  • References/Literature Cited All papers that
    have been mentioned in the text will be listed in
    the references section at the end of the paper.
    They are listed alphabetically by the first
    authors last name.

40
Do the authors of our example paper have others
listed in the Literature Cited section?
Question 7
  • No, they are not listed
  • Only Laura Payne
  • Only Robert Payne
  • Yes, they have many papers

41
Sorry!
Question 7
  • That is incorrect.
  • Try again!

42
Congratulations!
Question 7
  • You are correct!

43
Literature Cited
  • The format for these references varies from
    journal to journal, but the general format looks
    like this
  • Author, A. A., B. B. Author, and C. C. Author.
    Year. Article Title. Journal Title. Volume
    (Issue) Page Range.

44
Literature Cited
  • Using this format, here is the citation for our
    example paper
  • Payne, R. B. and L. L. Payne. 1998. Brood
    parasitism by cowbirds risks and effects on
    reproductive success and survival in indigo
    buntings. Behavioral Ecology. 9(1) 64-73.
  • Notice that all lines after the first are
    indented. This allows the reader to find a
    citation quickly.

45
Getting Published
  • Once finished gathering and analyzing data, the
    researchers will write up their results into a
    paper with the above format.

46
Getting Published
  • They will have to decide which journal they would
    like to submit their paper to.
  • Some journals are more prestigious than others
    and they often have a somewhat narrow focus.

47
Getting Published
  • Each journal will have particular format
    requirements that need to be addressed before
    submitting the paper.

48
Getting Published
  • Once the paper is written, and has been reviewed
    by the authors and often a couple of colleagues,
    it is time to submit the paper to the editor of
    the chosen journal.

49
Peer-Review
  • The editor reads it and decides if it fits with
    the journal. If it does, it will be sent to
    several other researchers working in the same
    field. This process is called peer-review.

50
Peer-Review
  • The reviewers are looking closely at the paper to
    be sure that the methods and data analysis are
    sound, their conclusions make sense, and that
    relevant background information has been
    included.

51
Peer-Review
  • Some journals leave the name of the authors in
    place, some remove this information (double-blind
    peer-review).
  • The names of the reviewers are withheld from the
    authors.
  • This allows the reviewers to be free with their
    critique.

52
Peer-Review
  • The result of the peer-review may be that the
    paper will be accepted as written, it may be
    accepted pending revision to address the comments
    of the reviewers, or it may be rejected.
  • Getting a paper published represents quite a lot
    of work!
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