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Space Exploration

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Title: Space Exploration


1
Space Exploration
  • http//www.space.com/
  • For All Things Space..

2
What is a Rocket?
  • A rocket is a machine that uses escaping gas to
    move

3
Modern Rocketry
  • Robert Goddard is known as the father of modern
    rocketry.
  • American inventor and physicist
  • Launched the first successful liquid fuel rocket
    in 1926.He tested more than 150 rocket engines.
  • By WWII his work became of interest to the US
    military.

4
Goddards First Rocket- Nell
  • On March 16, 1926, Goddard finished building a
    spindly, 10-ft. rocket he dubbed Nell, loaded it
    into an open car and trundled it out to his aunt
    Effie's nearby farm.
  • Traveled upward at 60 m.p.h.
  • Altitude of 41 ft.
  • Entire flight lasted just 2 1/2 sec. but that
    was 2 1/2 sec. longer than any liquid-fueled
    rocket had ever managed to fly before.

5
Goddard Moves to Roswell New Mexico in 1930.
  • Over the next nine years, his Nells grew from 12
    ft. to 16 ft. to 18 ft., and their altitude
    climbed from 2,000 ft. to 7,500 ft. to 9,000 ft.
  • He built a rocket that exceeded the speed of
    sound and another with fin-stabilized steering,
    and he filed dozens of patents for everything
    from gyroscopic guidance systems to multistage
    rockets.

6
  • By the late 1930s, however, Goddard grew
    troubled. He had noticed long before that of all
    the countries that showed an interest in
    rocketry, Germany showed the most.
  • Now and then, German engineers would contact
    Goddard with a technical question or two, and he
    would casually respond. But in 1939 the Germans
    suddenly fell silent.
  • With a growing concern over what might be afoot
    in the Reich, Goddard paid a call on Army
    officials in Washington and brought along some
    films of his various Nells.
  • He let the generals watch a few of the launches
    in silence, then turned to them. "We could slant
    it a little," he said simply, "and do some
    damage." The officers smiled benignly at the
    missile man, thanked him for his time and sent
    him on his way.
  • The missile man, however, apparently knew what
    he was talking about. Five years later, the first
    of Germany's murderous V-2 rockets blasted off
    for London. By 1945, more than 1,100 of them had
    rained down on the ruined city.

7
  • Rebuffed by the Army, Goddard spent World War II
    on sabbatical from rocketry, designing
    experimental airplane engines for the Navy.
  • When the war ended, he quickly returned to his
    preferred work. As his first order of business,
    he hoped to get his hands on a captured V-2.
  • From what he had heard, the missiles sounded
    disturbingly like his more peaceable Nells.
    Goddard's trusting exchanges with German
    scientists had given Berlin at least a glimpse
    into what he was designing.
  • What's more, by 1945 he had filed more than 200
    patents, all of which were available for
    inspection.
  • When a captured German scientist was asked about
    the origin of the V-2, he was said to have
    responded, "Why don't you ask your own Dr.
    Goddard? He knows better than any of us.
  • When some V-2s finally made their way to the
    U.S. and Goddard had a chance to autopsy one, he
    instantly recognized his own handiwork. "Isn't
    this your rocket?" an assistant asked as they
    poked around its innards. "It seems to be,"
    Goddard replied flatly.

8
Germany and the V-2
  • Many of Goddards ideas were used to design the
    German V-2 rocket.
  • Wernher Von Braun worked for the German military
    developing the
  • V-2 rocket.
  • In 1945 Von Braun and his research team
    surrendered to the US military and the US gained
    127 of the best German rocket scientists.

9
  • As part of a military operation called Project
    Paperclip, he and his rocket team were scooped up
    from defeated Germany and sent to America where
    they were installed at Fort Bliss, Texas.
  • There they worked on rockets for the U.S. Army,
    launching them at White Sands Proving Ground, New
    Mexico.
  • In 1950 von Brauns team moved to the Redstone
    Arsenal near Huntsville, Ala., where they built
    the Armys Jupiter ballistic missile.

Von Brauns surrender to the US Army, WWII.
10
  • Wernher von Braun (19121977) was one of the most
    important rocket developers and champions of
    space exploration during the period between the
    1930s and the 1970s.

11
  • In 1960, his rocket development center
    transferred from the Army to the newly
    established NASA and received a mandate to build
    the giant Saturn rockets.
  • Accordingly, von Braun became director of NASAs
    Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,
    Alabama, and the chief architect of the Saturn V
    launch vehicle, the super booster that would
    propel Americans to the Moon.
  • Huntsville, Alabama was home to the facilities
    the United States government used to develop the
    country's first space vehicles.

12
Space Race- US and the Soviet Union
  • October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union
    successfully launched Sputnik I.
  • The world's first artificial satellite was about
    the size of a beach ball and took about 98
    minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical
    path.
  • The public feared that the Soviets' ability to
    launch satellites also translated into the
    capability to launch ballistic missiles that
    could carry nuclear weapons from Europe to the
    U.S.
  • That launch ushered in new political, military,
    technological, and scientific developments. While
    the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked
    the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R
    space race.

13
Sputnik-First Orbiting Artificial
Satellite-Soviet Union-1957
14
What is a Satellite?http//www.gma.org/surfing/sa
ts.html
  • Although anything that is in orbit around Earth
    is technically a satellite, the term "satellite"
    is typically used to describe a useful object
    placed in orbit purposely to perform some
    specific mission or task
  • We commonly hear about weather satellites,
    communication satellites and scientific .
    satellites.
  • The path a satellite follows is an orbit.

15
How are Satellites Used?
  • Satellites come in all shapes and sizes and play
    a variety of roles.
  • Weather satellites help meteorologists predict
    the weather or see what's happening at the
    moment.
  • Communications satellites allow telephone and
    data conversations to be relayed through the
    satellite.
  • Broadcast satellites broadcast television signals
    from one point to another (similar to
    communications satellites).
  • Scientific satellites perform a variety of
    scientific missions. The Hubble Space Telescope
    is the most famous scientific satellite, but
    there are many others looking at everything from
    sun spots to gamma rays.
  • Navigational satellites help ships and planes
    navigate.
  • Rescue satellites respond to radio distress
    signals
  • Earth observation satellites observe the planet
    for changes in everything from temperature to
    forestation to ice-sheet coverage.

16
Military Satellites
  • Military satellites are up there, but much of the
    actual application information remains secret.
    Intelligence-gathering possibilities using
    high-tech electronic and sophisticated
    photographic-equipment reconnaissance are
    endless.
  • Applications may include
  • -Relaying encrypted communications
  • -Nuclear monitoring
  • -Observing enemy movements
  • -Early warning of missile launches
  • -Eavesdropping on terrestrial radio links
  • -Radar imaging
  • -Photography (using what are essentially large
    telescopes that take pictures of militarily
    interesting areas)

17
GPS- Global Positioning System
  • When people talk about "a GPS," they usually mean
    a GPS receiver.
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) is actually a
    constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites (24
    in operation and three extras in case one fails).
  • The U.S. military developed and implemented this
    satellite network as a military navigation
    system, but soon opened it up to everybody else.
  • They are constantly moving, making two complete
    orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites
    are traveling at speeds of roughly 7,000 miles an
    hour.
  • GPS Receivers can be found in newer model cars,
    airplanes, ships, telephones and in a handheld
    version.
  • It will pinpoint your location by latitude and
    longitude.
  • It will show you the direction you are traveling
    and map out a route you would like to travel.

18
  • A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of
    these satellites, figure out the distance to
    each, and use this information to deduce its own
    location.

http//electronics.howstuffworks.com/gps2.htm
19
  • Space Exploration Part 2

20
Satellites
  • Satellites are used to transmit information as
    they orbit the Earth.
  • They are used in weather, communications,
    science, navigation and Earth observation.
  • GPS satellites (Global Positioning System) allow
    people to find their location anywhere on Earth
    and help planes, ships and cars navigate their
    routes.
  • GPS uses 27 Earth orbiting satellites.
  • Weather and communication satellites are used
    daily and are in GEO, Geosynchronous Orbit.

21
Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) Satellites
  • A satellite in geosynchronous (or geostationary)
    orbit are positioned a fixed point at approx.
    21,000 miles above the earth's surface.
  • GEO satellites primary purpose is weather
    imagery.
  • The GEO satellites above the US transmit weather
    imagery and information to help forecasters relay
    weather information to us.

22
GEO Satellites
  • http//www.satsig.net/sslist.htm
  • List of GEO satellites

23
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24
NASA
  • The launch of the first satellite, Sputnik,
    launch led directly to the creation of National
    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
  • In July 1958, Congress passed the National
    Aeronautics and Space Act (commonly called the
    "Space Act"), which created NASA as of October 1,
    1958.

25
Marshall Space Flight CenterHuntsville, Alabama
  • On January 31, 1958, rocket called a Jupiter-C
    launched Explorer I, Americas first orbiting
    satellite.
  • 1960 Von Braun became director of NASAs new
    George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in
    Huntsville where he and his team would develop
    the Saturn rockets that launched astronauts to
    the moon in 1969.

26
Van Allen Belt
  • Data returned by Explorer 1 and Explorer 3
    (launched in March 1958) provided evidence that
    the Earth is surrounded by intense bands of
    radiation, now called the Van Allen radiation
    belts.
  • This was the first major scientific discovery of
    the space age.

27
Explorer 1, First satellite launched by the US.
Jupiter C Rocket
28
Saturn V- Apollo 8 and 11
  • The Saturn V was flight-tested twice without a
    crew.
  • The first manned Saturn V sent the Apollo 8
    astronauts into orbit around the Moon in December
    1968.
  • After two more missions to test the lunar landing
    vehicle, in July 1969 a Saturn V launched the
    crew of Apollo 11 to the first manned landing on
    the Moon.

29
First on the Moon-Apollo 11- July 1969
  • The US was the first to put a man on the moon.
  • Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander
    Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot
    Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin
    Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr.
  • On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first
    humans to land on the Moon.

30
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31
  • Video Clips from the moon.
  • http//history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11v_1092338.mpg
  • http//history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11f.1093409.mov
  • http//history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11f.1093543.mov
  • http//history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.v1100253.mov

32
Space Shuttle
  • On January 5, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon
    announced plans to develop the Space Shuttle for
    routine access to space. It would be launched
    like a rocket but would land like an airplane.

33
Space Shuttle
  • April 12, 1981 marked a new era in the history of
    space flight.
  • The worlds first reusable space vehicle, the
    Space Shuttle, powered by Marshall developed
    propulsion systems, was thrust into orbit with
    two astronauts aboard.
  • This new chapter in the history of the Center
    would feature Marshall at the forefront of the
    nations space exploration efforts, among them
    launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990,
    responsibilities for more than 20 Spacelab
    missions, and much more.
  • One of Marshalls prime responsibilities included
    developing the Hubble Space Telescope, an optical
    observatory that is returning unprecedented views
    of the universe.

34
Space Shuttle
Hubble Space Telescope
35
Space Shuttle
  • On April 12, 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia
    became the first shuttle to orbit the Earth.
  • Flown by Commander John W. Young and Pilot Robert
    L. Crippen, Columbia spent 2 days aloft on its
    check-out mission, STS-1, which ended in a smooth
    landing, airplane-style, at Edwards Air Force
    Base in California.

36
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37
Shuttle Disasters
  • In 1986, the shuttle Challenger exploded in
    flight and the entire crew was lost.
  • The Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73
    seconds into its flight.
  • A member of its crew was a civilian and first
    teacher in space, Christa McAuliffe.
  • In 2003, while re-entering the Earth's
    atmosphere, the shuttle Columbia broke up over
    the United States.

38
Future of the Space Shuttle
  • While the space shuttles are a great
    technological advance, they are limited as to how
    much payload they can take into orbit.
  • The shuttle cannot go to high altitude orbits or
    escape the Earth's gravitational field to travel
    to the Moon or Mars.
  • NASA is currently exploring new concepts for
    launch vehicles that are capable of going to the
    Moon and Mars.

39
Space Probes
40
Space Probes
  • Space Probes are used to gather information about
    distant objects in the solar system.
  • They are unmanned vehicles that can reach
    distances that humans would not be able to reach.
  • Space probes are made to conduct science
    experiments and take photographs.
  • Luna 1The first successful space probe was the
    Soviet Luna 1 flyby of the Moon in 1959.

41
Mariner Space Probe
  • NASA launched the first series of planetary
    probes, called Mariner.
  • Mariner 2 first reached Venus in 1962.
  • Later Mariner spacecraft flew by Mars in 1964 and
    1969, providing detailed images of that planet.
  • In 1971, Mariner 9 became the first spacecraft to
    orbit Mars.
  • During its year in orbit, Mariner 9 transmitted
    footage of an intense Martian dust storm as well
    as images of 90 percent of the planet's surface
    and the two Martian moons.

42
Mariner Space Probe
43
Space Probes
  • The Mars Exploration Rovers
  • The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and
    Opportunity landed on Mars to explore the Martian
    surface and geology, and search for and clues to
    past water activity on Mars. They were each
    launched in 2003 and landed in 2004.
  • Voyager 1Voyager 1 is an 733-kilogram probe
    launched September 5, 1977. It is currently still
    operational, making it the longest-lasting
    mission of the U.S. National Aeronautics and
    Space Administration (NASA). It visited Jupiter
    and Saturn and was the first probe to provide
    detailed images of the moons of these planets.
  • Voyager 1 is the farthest human-made object from
    Earth, traveling away from both the Earth and the
    Sun at a relatively faster speed than any other
    probe. As of August 12, 2006, Voyager 1 is over
    100 AU, or 9.3 billion miles from the Sun and has
    left our solar system never to return.

44
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47
Future Arrivals
  • Two missions have been launched and are now
    making the long trips to their target solar
    system objects.
  • The Messenger spacecraft was launched in 2004 and
    will arrive at Mercury in 2011. It will be only
    the second probe sent to that small, rocky
    planet.
  • The New Horizons spacecraft was launched in 2006,
    and will arrive at Pluto in 2015. It will be the
    first spacecraft to visit that very distant dwarf
    planet.

48
Space Technology in Everyday Life
  • In 2008, NASA celebrated 50 years of exploring
    the solar system and expanding human knowledge of
    the universe.
  • The agencys pioneering research also has
    produced or contributed to such technologies as
    satellites, space-based telescopes and cell
    phones, and new products used every day in every
    nation that have contributed to advances in
    health care, transportation, public safety,
    consumer goods, environmental resources and
    information technology.

49
Examples of Space Technology in our Everyday Lives
  • MRI Machine-In the mid-1960s, the Jet Propulsion
    Laboratory developed digital image processing to
    allow computer enhancement of moon pictures.
    Today, digital image processing is used to create
    and enhance images of body organs in computed
    axial tomography (CAT scans) and MRI.
  • FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL use in spacecraft
    materials and spacesuits now used in firefighter
    suits, homes, race cars and clothes.

50
More Space Innovations
  • Temper foam used in prosthetics (artificial arms
    and legs).
  • Enriched Baby food
  • Scratch Resistant Lenses
  • Portable coolers
  • Trash compactors
  • Athletic shoes
  • Fogless ski goggles
  • Self-adjusting sunglasses
  • Invisible braces
  • Portable x-ray device
  • Water Purification
  • Cordless Tools
  • Robotic hands
  • To read more about Space Innovations click below
  • http//www.thespaceplace.com/nasa/spinoffs.htmlch
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