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Sensible Safe Play

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Sensible Safe Play A Practical and Educational Interpretation of the North Carolina Child Care Commission s Permanent Playground Rules * * 6 The first step in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sensible Safe Play


1
Sensible Safe Play
  • A Practical and Educational Interpretation
  • of the North Carolina Child Care Commissions
  • Permanent Playground Rules

2
Training Requirements
  • For centers serving less than 30 children, one
    staff member must complete Playground Safety
    training within 6 months of hire
  • For centers serving 30 or more children, the
    Center Director and one other staff member must
    complete Playground Safety training within 6
    months of hire

3
Setting the Scene
4
The Difference Between Risk and Hazard
a RISK contains a decision or judgment a HAZARD
cannot be seen by a child and therefore cannot
be judged
5
Why All the Fuss?
6
Why All the Fuss?
There are three reasons why a child care provider
should provide a safe playground environment
1 - It is morally the right thing to do 2 - It
is backed by child care requirements 3 -
Negligence could result in liability claims
7
Why All the Fuss?
It is your obligation as child care providers to
supply a physically and emotionally safe
environment for the children in your care On the
playground, a safe environment is one where the
hazards are removed or addressed
8
National Trends
  • 1988 CPSC Data
  • More than 150,000 playground related injuries per
    year
  • A playground related injury an emergency room
    visit
  • 1994 CPSC Data
  • More than 200,000 playground related injuries
  • Estimate of 17 playground related deaths per year
  • 1999 CPSC Data
  • More than 205,000 playground related injuries
  • Fractures were the most commonly reported injury

9
North Carolina Injuries
  • 2002 Calendar Year
  • 1,388 injuries occurred at child care centers
    that required medical attention
  • Of these injuries, 37.5 percent or 521 injuries
    occurred on the playground

10
Number of Injuries by Age Group
11
Cause of Injuries
12
Equipment Associated with Fall From Height
Injuries
13
Playground Hazards
  • Provide Hazard Free Environments
  • Sharp Points, Corners, Edges
  • Protrusions
  • Pinch, Crush, Shearing Points

14
General
  • Sharp points
  • Play equipment should not be able to puncture a
    childs skin
  • Open, exposed ends of tubes or pipes should be
    covered or plugged
  • Wooden parts should be sanded smooth and not
    produce splinters
  • Corners
  • Metal or wood corners should be rounded
  • Edges
  • Metal edges should have rounded capping or be
    rolled

15
General
  • Paint
  • Metal surfaces should be painted or galvanized to
    prohibit rust
  • To prevent lead poisoning, paints or finishes
    used on playground equipment must meet the
    Federal Law - Title 16, Code of Federal
    Regulations, Part 1303
  • No more than 600 parts/million maximum lead by
    dry weight
  • If you are concerned about potential lead-based
    paint hazard with your play equipment, contact
    your consultant for guidance on lead hazard
    assessment and control

16
Wooden Playground Equipment
  • chromated copper arsenate - CCA

17
Consumer Products Safety Commission
  • Risk to young children via hand contact
  • Put hands in mouth
  • Touch other objects that will go into their mouths

18
To Minimize Risk
  • Care givers should thoroughly wash childrens
    hands with soap and water after playing
  • Children should not eat while on the playground
    equipment
  • Sealants or stains must be applied at least every
    2 years
  • Soil under CCA wood must be removed, covered or
    made inaccessible to children

19
Alternatives to CCA
Alkaline Copper Quat
Copper Azole
CCA
20
Protrusions
  • Playground equipment components should not be
    able to entangle childrens clothing

21
Gauges
22
Testing for Protrusions
3
2
1
  • Use the smallest of the three gauges first
  • Move from smallest gauge to largest
  • If any part of the protrusion extends beyond the
    face of the gauge, IT IS A HAZARD!

2
1
3

23
Special Protrusion Concerns
  • Diameter should not increase in direction towards
    exposed end


Causes a hook-like effect
24
Pinch, Crush, Shearing Points
  • Play pieces or components that.
  • Move against one another
  • Move relative to a stationary component
  • should not allow children access!
  • Equipment that might have pinch, crush, and shear
    points
  • Merry-go-rounds
  • Seesaws
  • Spring Rockers
  • Sand Diggers
  • Clatter Bridges
  • Steering Wheels
  • Tire Swing Chains
  • Tricycle Go-Rounds

25
Playground Hazards
  • Entrapment and Entanglement
  • Surfacing
  • Specific Equipment Issues

26
Entrapment
  • Any opening on play equipment or structure where
    a child could get stuck
  • Stairs
  • Decks
  • Ladders
  • Rope climbers
  • Barriers
  • To prevent entrapment, openings should be smaller
    than 3.5 or greater than 9.0

27
Reason
  • A childs torso is smaller than a childs head

Cross Section of a five year old childs head
(95th Percentile) from the tip of the chin to the
back of the head is 9.0
Cross Section of a two-year old childs (5th
percentile) torso is 3.5 by 6.2
Back
3.5
6.2
Belly Button
28
What Can Happen?
29
Hazard
  • Any opening between 3.5 and 9.0 may entrap a
    childs head whether
  • the child enters head first in one orientation
    and attempts to withdraw the head in a different
    orientation
  • the child enters an opening feet first where the
    opening is large enough to allow the body to pass
    through, but not the head
  • Entrapment can occur even if the childs feet are
    touching the ground

30
Templates/Probes
31
Testing for Entrapment Hazard
  • Using templates/probes
  • Any opening that allows the small torso
    template/probe to pass through, but does NOT
    allow the large head template/probe to pass
    through
  • FAILS HAZARD
  • Any opening that does NOT allow the small torso
    template/probe to pass through OR allows BOTH the
    small torso template/probe and the large head
    template/probe to pass through
  • PASSES NO HAZARD

32
Conditions
  • Exception
  • Where the ground acts as the lowest border of the
    opening
  • Special Condition
  • Openings formed by flexible or moving climbing
    components

33
Exception
  • Where the ground acts as the lowest border of the
    opening

NO HAZARD
34
What About Synthetic Surfaces?
35
Special Condition
  • Openings formed by non-rigid climbing components
  • A force no greater than 50 lbs. may be applied
    when testing both the small torso template/probe
    and large head template/probe
  • If one template passes and the other does not
  • FAILS HAZARD

36
Entrapment Activity
37
Entrapment Activity
38
Entrapment Example
39
Entrapment Activity
40
Entanglement
  • Childrens clothing can become entangled in play
    equipment
  • Areas that can entangle clothing include
  • Protrusions and projections
  • Upright V angles of less than 55?

41
Upright V Angle Hazard
x
  • Defined - any V shaped corner less than 55 ?
    formed by adjacent components of play equipment
  • Exception I - if one leg of the V is horizontal
    or sloping downwards

Horizontal
X ? 55 ?
Horizontal
42
Entanglement Activity
43
Surfacing for Stationary Play Equipment
  • Nationally nearly 70 of playground related
    injuries are from falls
  • Fall injuries are a result of two things
  • the height a child falls from
  • the material/surface the child falls upon
  • Provide soft, resilient, surfaces under and
    around stationary playground equipment that is
    more than 18 high

44
Surfacing Activity
45
Soft, Resilient Surfaces
  • Wood mulch
  • Double shredded bark mulch
  • Engineered wood fiber
  • Sand, both fine and coarse
  • Pea gravel (!!ONLY in play areas for children 3
    years or older!!)
  • Manufactured/synthetic surfaces that meet the
    ASTM 1292 standard

46
Surfaces Pros and Cons
Type Pros Cons
Organic Loose Low initial cost Decompose
Easy to install Microbial growth
Attractive Compact
Readily available Spreads easily
Inorganic Loose Low initial cost Combines with dirt
Easy to install Can be swallowed
Do not pulverize Conceal excrement
Readily available May be blown
47
Critical Height and Depth of Surface
  • Critical height - the maximum height a child may
    climb, sit or stand on the play equipment
  • The depth of surface should be based upon the
    critical height of the equipment

The higher the equipment, the deeper the
surface!!
48
Depths of Acceptable Surfaces
(In Inches of Surfacing)
(ONLY in play areas for children 3 years or
older!!)
49
Under and Around
  • For equipment used by children 2 and older,
    surfacing (at the appropriate depth) should be
    placed around stationary play equipment for a
    distance of 6 feet
  • For equipment used by children lt2 years,
    surfacing only needs to extend for a distance of
    3 feet.
  • This area around stationary play equipment is
    called the fall zone
  • Stationary equipment anchors located in the fall
    zone must be covered with surfacing material and
    not exposed

50
Movable Equipment?
51
Fall Zones
  • Fall zones may only overlap in certain
    situations
  • Around spring rockers
  • Around adjacent equipment that is more than 18
    but less than 30 in height
  • Special Fall Zones
  • To-Fro Swings
  • Tot Swings (enclosed seats)
  • Tire Swings

52
Swing Activity
53
To-Fro Swing Fall Zone
  • Fall zone should be equal to twice the distance
    from the pivot point to the surface (X), to the
    front and back of the swing

X
X 8 feet
2 x 8 (X) 16
54
Tot Swing Fall Zone
  • Fall zone should be equal to two times the
    distance from the pivot point to bottom of the
    swing seat (Y), to the front and back of the swing

Y
Y 6 feet
2 x 6 (Y) 12
55
Tire Swing Fall Zone
  • Fall zone should be equal to six feet plus the
    measurement of the distance from the pivot point
    to top of the swing seat (H), to the front and
    back of the swing, and six feet around the
    support structure

H
H 5 feet
6 feet
6 feet
11 feet
6 feet 5 feet (H) 11 feet
56
Guardrails and Protective Barriers
  • Guardrails prevent inadvertent or unintentional
    falls from elevated platforms
  • Barriers prevent attempts to climb over, around
    or through
  • Elevated platforms intended for different ages
    have different requirements
  • Children under two years
  • Both preschool and school age children
  • Preschool children only
  • School age children only

57
Critical Height and Elevated Platforms
  • Measure critical height for platforms with
    guardrails from the top of the guardrail to the
    ground
  • Measure critical height for platforms with
    protective barriers from the platform surface to
    the ground
  • Maximum height of platforms used by children
    under 2 is 32.

58
Guardrails Are Needed When
A B C
If equipment is used by and height of elevated surface is then minimum height top surface is and height lower edge is
Preschool and School Age (2 - 13) gt 20 but 30 38 23
Preschool (2 5) gt 20 but 30 29 23
School Age (513) gt 30 but 48 38 28
59
Protective Barriers Are Needed When
If equipment is used by children who are - A - height of elevated surface is B - then minimum height top surface is
Under 2 years of age gt 18 24
Preschool and School Age (2 to 13) gt 30 38
Preschool (2 to 5) gt 30 29
School Age (5 to 13) gt 48 38
60
Playground Hazard Mastery Quiz
61
Playground Hazard Mastery Quiz
62
Playground Hazard Mastery Quiz
63
Playground Hazard Mastery Quiz
64
Playground Hazard Mastery Quiz
65
Playground Hazard Mastery Quiz
66
Implementing a Playground Safety Program
67
Putting a Program in Place
  • A playground safety program must be comprehensive
    and consistent. A comprehensive system should
    include
  • Developing an INVENTORY
  • Conducting an AUDIT
  • Performing an INSPECTION
  • Creating a MASTER FILE

68
Implementing a Playground Safety Program
  • Developing an Inventory

69
Inventory
  • Location map of equipment complete with fall
    zones
  • Name and address of equipment manufacturer
  • Installation and assembly information
  • Age of equipment
  • Depth of surfacing and type of surfacing
  • Critical height for each play component
  • Age of intended users for the playground or
    specific pieces of equipment

70
Example of Location Map
71
Proper Installation and
Assembly
  • Proper installation and assembly is CRITICAL to
    maintaining stability and integrity of playground
    structure
  • Anchor all play equipment to the manufacturers
    specifications
  • Have manufacturers representative or a person
    qualified to inspect playgrounds verify and
    DOCUMENT that the equipment was assembled and
    installed properly

72
Implementing a Playground Safety Program
  • Conducting an Audit

73
Audit
  • The safety audit is a detailed examination of
    each individual play component as well as the
    whole play area
  • The audit consists of three elements
  • Test
  • Evaluate
  • Repair

74
Test Each Play Piece
  • Test
  • General Hazards
  • Sharp points
  • Corners
  • Edges
  • Protrusions and projections
  • Pinch, crush, shearing points
  • Entrapment and Entanglement
  • Surfacing
  • Specific Equipment

75
Evaluate
  • Establish some criteria to evaluate level of
    hazard
  • HIGH LEVEL OF HAZARD - Life or limb threatening
  • MEDIUM LEVEL OF HAZARD - Injury potential but not
    life or limb threatening (pinch, crush, shearing
    points)
  • LOW LEVEL OF HAZARD - Minor injury potential
    (rough, splintered wood)
  • DOCUMENT!!

76
Repair
  • Utilize evaluation
  • HIGH LEVEL OF HAZARD - Remove from play
    immediately!! Contact equipment manufacturer and
    your consultant. If unable to retrofit or
    repair, remove permanently!!
  • MEDIUM LEVEL OF HAZARD - Repair or replace, first
    priority expense
  • LOW LEVEL OF HAZARD - Repair or replace, second
    priority expense
  • DOCUMENT!!

77
Implementing a Playground Safety Program
  • Performing an Inspection

78
Inspection
  • Use a checklist
  • Incorporate manufacturers suggested maintenance
    into routine inspections
  • Inspections must be HANDS-ON
  • If necessary, initiate the repair process
  • If broken equipment discovered, remove from play
    immediately!!

79
Implementing a Playground Safety Program
  • Creating a Master File

80
Master File
  • Inventory - once
  • Update when changes are made to the playground
  • Audits - once a year
  • Test, Evaluate, and Repair phases
  • Inspections - once a month
  • Use NCDCD Inspection Form
  • Injury - whenever they happen
  • Use NCDCD Incident Report Form, Incident Log
  • Training - as employees receive training
  • Keep a copy of the staff members certificate from
    playground safety training

81
First Soapbox
Operate under the principal that if it has not
been documented in the Master File, it has not
been done!!
82
Getting Everyone Involved
  • Childcare Staff

83
Principles of Supervision
  • Locate yourself so you can see the children at
    play, and they can see you
  • Enforce proper use of play equipment!
  • Review playground rules with children in class
    and on the playground
  • If equipment is broken, prevent children from
    using by
  • removing the equipment from the playground or
  • placing a barrier around the broken equipment
  • check with your local NCDCD consultant for
    further advice and suggestions

84
Wrong Location
  • Your field of vision should not exceed 180
  • Make sure that one piece of play equipment does
    not block your view of others

85
Right Location
  • Supervise near high use or potentially dangerous
    areas
  • If more than one teacher, swap positions at least
    once during the play period

86
Second Soapbox
Supervision on the playground is just as
important as supervision in the classroom!
87
Getting Everyone Involved
  • Parents
  • Children

88
Getting Parents Involved
Making a playground safe requires the cooperation
of many people planners, equipment
manufacturers, child care staff and
administrators, teachers, maintenance employees,
children, and PARENTS! Parents must be made aware
of potential playground hazards and how THEY can
contribute to making their childs play time a
safe time
89
Getting Children Involved
Engage older children in an ideas session where
they come up with their own rules for safe play.
Here are some ideas to get them started or to
help if they get stuck
  • Always wait your turn
  • One at a time on equipment
  • Only sit upright in swings
  • No pushing, shoving or rough play
  • Grip rungs with thumb underneath rung
  • Dont walk close to swings and slide
  • Always wear shoes

90
Getting Children Involved
What are some fun activities that would encourage
children to begin thinking about safety?
  • Create a game out of memorizing safety rules
  • After time on the playground, ask children to act
    out or share a story about how they played
    safely
  • Ask them to draw pictures of safe or unsafe
    practices on the playground
  • Cut pictures out of magazines to create a safe,
    fun playground

91
Summary
  • Children do get injured on playgrounds
  • Everyone can identify and remove hazards from
    their playgrounds
  • Providing hazard free play environments is
    important for the development and safety of
    children
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