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Friday January 10, 2013

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Title: Friday January 10, 2013


1
Friday January 10, 2013
  • Obj SWBAT determine how representative Congress
    is of America by viewing data.
  • Drill Who gets elected to Congress? What
    qualifications do they need, what traits are
    desirable? Are there any that would prevent
    someone from being elected?
  • Homework Throw the Bums Out summary and your
    opinion.
  • Study for midterm, come Monday with questions

2
Quotes About Congress
  • Read the quotes about Congress and answer the
    following questions.
  • What does the quote mean (your interpretation)
  • What does the author seem to think of Congress
    (bias)
  • What does the quote show us about how Congress
    works?

3
Monday January 13, 2014
  • OBJ SWBAT understand who represents us in
    Congress. SWBAT understand the first 4 units of
    the AP Government curriculum through a review
    game.
  • Drill What is logrolling in Congress? What
    importance does it have?
  • Homework Study for Midterm, come in after school
    with questions.
  • Throw the Bums out reading and summary.

4
Logrolling Answer
  • Logrolling is the trading of favors, or quid pro
    quo, such as vote trading by legislative members
    to obtain passage of actions of interest to each
    legislative member.

5
Who Represents US?
  • With a partner look over the chart about the
    representation in Congress and answer the
    questions below.

6
Congress vs. US Society
  • Does Congress mirror the American society?
  • In religious belief (2001-2003)
  • Protestant 341
  • Catholics 149
  • Jewish 37
  • Mormon 16
  • Policy implications
  • Abortion
  • Same sex marriage

7
Congress vs. US Society
  • Minorities in Congress
  • Women

8
Congress vs. US Society
  • Minorities in Congress
  • Race

9
Congress vs. US Society
  • Professional background

10
Congress vs. US Society
  • A typical member of Congress
  • Middle-aged
  • Male
  • White
  • Lawyer
  • Whose father is of the professional or managerial
    class
  • Native born or from northwestern or central
    Europe, Canada

11
To run for Congress
  • 2000 Senatorial Race of New York

12
To run for Congress
  • Three success factors
  • 1 Who the person to run
  • Candidate characteristics have an edge over
    others
  • A record of prior public service
  • National name recognition
  • Hillary Clinton versus Rep. Rick Lazzio
  • Fund-raising capability

13
To run for Congress
  • Why members of Congress easily win re-election?

14
To run for Congress
  • 2 Incumbency Advantages
  • Visibility
  • Advertise thru contacts with constituents
  • Stay visible thru trips to home districts

15
To run for Congress
  • 2 Incumbency Advantages
  • Visibility
  • Campaign contributions
  • Donations go to those in office
  • Donations to challengers offend incumbents
  • Credit claiming thru services to individuals
    district
  • Casework
  • Attend to voter concerns, requests and problems
  • Help cut thru bureaucratic red tape to get what
    one believes he has a right to get
  • Pork barrel
  • List of federal projects, grants contracts
  • Help obtain or make known such projects to
    district

16
To run for Congress
  • 2 Incumbency Advantages
  • Visibility
  • Campaign contributions
  • Credit claiming thru services to individuals
    district
  • Incumbent resources
  • Institutional connections and access to channels
    of communications
  • franking privilege (free use of the US mails)
  • Tax-funded travel allowance to stay visible in
    ones own district
  • Incumbents scaring challengers away
  • calls for term limits aim to eliminate
    incumbency advantage

17
To run for Congress
  • Congressional Districts
  • District 23 (Texas) and District 3 (Florida in
    92 and 96)

18
To run for Congress
  • 3 Redistricting
  • Congressional districts redrawn every 10 years
  • To avoid under- or over-representation
  • Re-drawing districts is highly political
  • Can create open seats
  • Can pit incumbents of the same district against
    one another, ensuring one of them to lose
  • Can create advantage for one Party
  • Putting people of the same party in one district
  • Or separating them into two or more districts.

19
To run for Congress
  • Congressional Districts
  • District 23 (Texas) and District 3 (Florida in
    92 and 96)

20
To run for Congress
  • 3 Redistricting
  • Congressional districts redrawn every 10 years
  • To avoid under- or over-representation
  • Re-drawing districts is highly political
  • Can create open seats
  • Can pit incumbents of the same district against
    one another, ensuring one of them to lose
  • Can create advantage for one Party
  • Putting people of the same party in one district
  • Or separating them into two or more districts.

21
Cost of Congressional Race
  • Cost to Get Elected
  • Congressional elections are getting more costly
  • Jon Corzine (NJ-D), 63 million own money on
    Senate race
  • 928 million spent on 1999-2000 Congressional
    election
  • Incumbents outspend their opponents
  • E.g., 7.5 million spent by Newt Gingrichs
    reelection in 1998
  • Candidates of major states spend more
  • 85 million attracted in Hillary-Lassio race, 2000

22
Cost of Congressional Race
  • Cost to Get Elected
  • Spending on House race
  • Winners 800,000
  • Losers at least 300,000
  • Spending on Senate race
  • Winners 7 million up to 40 million or more
  • Rising Cost

Senate     1998   2000      
Average winner spent     5,227,761   7,266,576      
Average loser spent     2,839,813   3,864,638      
Most expensive campaign     27,159,681   63,000,000 (Jon Corzine, D-NJ)      
                 
House                
Average winner spent     650,428   840,300      
Average loser spent     210,614   307,121      
Most expensive campaign     7,578,716   6,900,000 (James E. Humphrey, D-WV)      
23
Cost of Congressional Race
  • Rising Cost

24
Organization of Congress
  • Get your chart out. Make sure you have the
    correct information.

25
Organization of Congress
  • Congress not only represents, it also legislates.
  • Internal complexity makes it hard to conduct
    business without organization.
  • Congress is organized around
  • Political parties
  • A committee system
  • Parliamentary rules of the House Senate
  • And others

26
Organization of Congress
  • Political Parties
  • House leader election every two years
  • Majority party leader House Speaker
  • Every party has a Committee on Committees
    (Democrats call theirs the Steering Policy
    Committee)
  • Assign new legislators to committees
  • Transfer incumbents to new committees on request
  • Majority minority leaders jointly control
    Senate calendars (agenda)

27
Organization of Congress
  • Party leaders legislative agenda
  • Leaders are enthusiastic for agenda
  • To create consensus within party
  • 1980
  • 1994-1995 (when Congress not controlled by
    Presidents party)

28
Organization of Congress
  • Committee System
  • Standing Committees
  • Important policy-making bodies
  • Existing from Congress to Congress
  • Paralleling executive agencies
  • Foreign Affairs Committee - State Department
  • Intelligence Committee CIA others
  • Having power to report legislation

29
Organization of Congress
  • Select Committee
  • Temporary committees
  • No power to report legislation
  • Set up to handle specific issues that fall btwn
    the jurisdiction of existing committees
  • A special committee for investigating the
    Watergate scandal (1973)

30
Organization of Congress
  • Joint Committee
  • With members from both parties
  • Permanent
  • No power to report legislation
  • Four types of joint committees
  • Economic
  • Taxation
  • Library
  • printing

31
The Committee System
  • Conference Committee
  • Temporary
  • Members appointed by Speaker Senate presiding
    officer
  • For reconciling any differences on legislation
    once it has been passed by House Senate

32
The Staff System
  • A number of staff members for every legislator
  • Staff members (7,216 in House alone, 1999)
  • Handle constituency requests
  • Take care of legislative details
  • Formulate draft proposals
  • Organize hearing, deal with administrative
    agencies, reporters and lobbyists

33
The caucuses
  • What is a caucus?Informal group or committee
    composed of Senators or Representatives who share
    opinions, interests or social characteristics.
  • Ideological causes
  • Liberal Democratic Study Group
  • Issue-oriented caucuses
  • Travel Tourism Caucuses
  • Congressional Friends of Animals
  • Common background caucuses
  • The Congressional Black Caucus

34
The caucuses
  • What is a caucus?
  • Objectives of the Caucuses
  • To advance interests of the groups they represent
    by promoting legislation, encouraging Congress to
    hold hearing, and pressing administrative
    agencies for favorable treatment

35
Quick Review Based on Emails
  • The Mayflower Compact
  • Agreement signed by the Pilgrims before they
    landed in America laying out basic laws for how
    they would govern themselves.
  • First example of American Government as we know
    it today.

36
Government Philosophers
  • Hobbes Believed that rule under a King was the
    best form of government. Thought the church
    should not be involved in government.
  • Social Contract people give up some of their
    natural rights, for the protection of the
    government. (state of nature is a hostile
    place).
  • Locke life, liberty, and property existed in the
    state of nature and could never be taken away or
    even voluntarily given up by individuals.
  • Locke favored a representative government.
  • Natural rights of individuals limited the power
    of the king.
  • Although Locke spoke out for freedom of thought,
    speech, and religion, he believed property to be
    the most important natural right

37
Government Philosophers
  • Montesquieu Unlike Hobbes and Locke, Montesquieu
    believed that in the state of nature individuals
    were so fearful that they avoided violence and
    war. Montesquieu wrote that the main purpose of
    government is to maintain law and order,
    political liberty, and the property of the
    individual.
  • Rousseau Rousseau argued that the general will
    of the people could not be decided by elected
    representatives. He believed in a direct
    democracy in which everyone voted to express the
    general will and to make the laws of the land.
    Rousseau had in mind a democracy on a small
    scale, a city-state like his native Geneva.

38
Government Philosophers
  • Voltaire He was a strong activist who held a
    central role during the 18th century's
    Enlightenment, in particular speaking in support
    of personal and philosophical liberty, skepticism
    and careful scientific procedure. His battle
    against the irrational and superstitious was
    allied with the much later philosophies of
    Charles Darwin and Richard Dawkins

39
Significance Of The Elections of 1800 and 1824
  • No majority was won be any candidate,
    Presidential election was decided in the House of
    Representatives.

40
History of Political Parties
  • Understand how parties have shifted, ideology,
    and realignment. Which parties took over and
    when.

41
Code of Hammurabi
  • An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth."
  • This phrase, along with the idea of written laws,
    goes back to ancient Mesopotamian culture that
    prospered long before the Bible was written or
    the civilizations of the Greeks or Romans
    flowered.
  • "An eye for an eye ..." is a paraphrase of
    Hammurabi's Code, a collection of 282 laws
    inscribed on an upright stone pillar. The code
    was found by French archaeologists in 1901 while
    excavating the ancient city of Susa, which is in
    modern-day Iran.

42
Political Baseball
  • Class is divided into two teams, you can choose a
    single, double, or triple.
  • If you get the question right you advance that
    many bases. If not, it is an out, 3 outs per
    inning.
  • Runners advance when they are forced. I.E. if
    you score a triple and the next person up scores
    a single the person on third does not advance.
  • The most runs wins the game

43
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44
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • Some facts
  • For a bill to become law, there are many routine
    hurdles
  • It is easier for opponents to kill a bill than to
    pass it
  • The law-making process is highly political

45
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • Introducing legislation
  • Who can introduce legislative proposals?
  • Members of Congress
  • Executive branch
  • Interest groups
  • Constituents

46
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 2. Assignment to Committee
  • Given a number in House preceded by H. R. and
    by S in Senate
  • Bill referred to a committee
  • Most bills assigned to the appropriate committees
  • Complex bills referred to several committees
  • Controversial bills are sometimes handled by
    temporary or ad hoc committees set up for that
    purpose

47
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 2. Assignment to Committee
  • Often, nothing happens to the bills in committee.
    Neglect leads to death of many bills
  • Bills to be acted on are often referred to the
    appropriate sub-committees.

48
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 3. Hearing
  • Once the sub-committee or full committee decides
    to act, hearings are held participated by
  • Executive agency representatives
  • Academia
  • Interest groups
  • Other interested persons
  • In a typical two-year Congress
  • Senate 1200 hearings
  • House 2300 hearings

49
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 4. Reporting a Bill
  • When a sub-committee decides to act on a bill, it
    drafts it line by line
  • It reports it to the full committee
  • The full committee accepts, rejects or amends the
    bill.

50
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 5. Schedule Debate
  • When a committee agrees to submit a bill to the
    two houses, it is put on the House Senate
    calendar, a list bills for action
  • Each house has different calendars for different
    bills
  • In House, non-controversial bills are put on the
    Consent Calendar or Private Calendar to be passed
    without debate

51
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 5. Schedule Debate
  • Each house has different calendars for different
    bills
  • Controversial or important bills are placed on
    the Union Calendar or house Calendar. Rules
    procedures (length of debate) are requested from
    the Rules Committee.Define the
    followingfilibuster, cloture, open rule, closed
    rule.

52
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 6. Debate Amendment
  • Opponents proponents have equal debate time
  • Relevant amendments, if allowed, can be added
  • Floor debate seldom change views of others
  • In Senate, debate can last long time
  • In Senate, filibuster can be used
  • Senators can propose amendments irrelevant to the
    bill.

53
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 7. The Vote
  • How do members vote? What impact their voting
    behavior?
  • Personal views
  • Opinions of the constituents
  • Advice of knowledgeable trusted
    colleaguesOccasionally, President can win over
    wavering members of their Party to stick with the
    team or by cutting deals with pivotal members.
  • It is important for members to cast an
    explainable vote, one that is defendable in
    public when challenged.

54
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 7. The Vote
  • How do members vote? What impact their voting
    behavior?
  • It is important for members to cast an
    explainable vote, one that is defendable in
    public when challenged.
  • Not every vote has to please the constituents.
    But, too many bad votes are costly and show
    distance with ones folks at home.

55
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 8. In Conference Committee
  • Once passed, a bill is sent to the other chamber
    for consideration
  • If the 2nd chamber passes the bill, it is then
    sent to the White House for action.
  • But, controversial bills need to go to a
    Conference Committee to reconcile the differences
    in the two versions of the bills
  • After Conference, details of the bill are
    reported back to each chamber before sending to
    the President.

56
How a Bill Becomes Law
  • The Law-making Steps
  • 7. To the President
  • Approve the bill into law
  • Ignore it, with the result it becomes law in 10
    days (not including weekend when Congress is
    still in session)
  • Veto it ( facing override in Congress)
  • Pocket veto it (if Congress adjourns before the
    10 days are up)When President vetoes a bill, he
    usually explains why he does so.

57
How a Bill Becomes Law
The Law-making Steps 7. Congressional Override of
Veto A two-thirds majority is required in each
chamber to override the Presidential veto
58
Influences on Law-making
  • There are two major forces impacting
    Congressional law-making
  • External influences
  • Constituency
  • Interest groups
  • Internal/governmental influences
  • Party leadership
  • Congressional colleagues
  • President/executive branch

59
Influences on Law-making
  • Influence from the Constituency
  • Members of Congress comply with views of
    constituents due to re-election need
  • They voluntarily anticipate or find out
    constituents positions
  • 1998, 31 House democrats crossed the party line
    and voted in favor of an impeachment inquiry
    (e.g., Congressman Gary Condit)

60
Influences from Interest Groups
  • Mobilize followers in a members congressional
    districts
  • Astroturf lobbying
  • Provide information

61
Influences from Party Org
  • Party leaders in Congress have influence over
    members
  • Party organizations have resources
  • Leadership PACs
  • PACs (1) raise funds and then (2) distribute to
    members for running for election
  • PACs enhance party power
  • PACs create bond between leaders members who
    receive money
  • Committee Assignments
  • Access to Floor
  • The whip systemcommunication network, with info
    on member intentions in voting
  • Logrolling

62
Influences from the President
  • Since 1940s, President submitted yearly
    legislative proposals to Congress
  • Since mid-1950s, Congress has looked to the
    President for legislative proposals
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