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Title: Europe%201500-1650

Europe 1500-1650
Outwards vs. Inwards
  • Inwards Ming China
  • Early 15th century voyages for Tribute
  • But they had decided outsiders were useless,
    thanks to Mongols, so they gave up reaching out
  • Also, China had little need for outside goods
  • Outwards Europe
  • Europe finally overcome centuries of invasion and
  • Economy was growing
  • Europe needed goods from other regions due to
    temperate climate.

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The Silk Road
The Thousand Buddha Cave (On Silk Road)
The Silk Road and Spice Trade
  • Romans, Han, Maurya, and Parthians together
    assembled this route
  • Rise of Islam disrupted the trade
  • Black Pepper and Cloves were valuable trade items
    along with silk and Porcelain
  • Venetians controlled Mediterranean end
  • Fall of Constantinople prompts search for new

Prince Henry the Navigator (March 4,
1394November 13, 1460)
  • Sponsors voyages of exploration and new

New Technologies Caravel
Technical Innovations
  • Caravel combined European square rigging and
    Arabian lateen rigging, allowing it to sail
    better against the wind and thus return up coast
    of Africa
  • Compass Allowed sailing away from shore
  • Gunpowder Military edge
  • Chinese invented Compass and Gunpowder, but
    rejected large scale sea exploration for
    political / cultural reasons.

The Rounding of Africa
  • 1488Bartholemew Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
  • Italian Sailor
  • Approaches Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to go
    west to reach Asia
  • Based on thinking Earth is much smaller than it
    actually is
  • They sponsor him, having just conquered Grenada
    in 1488.

The Four Voyages of Columbus
Columbus Discovers America
  • 1492First Voyage
  • October 12, 1492Discovers San Salvador
  • He brings back natives, tobacco, gold, chile
  • Also brings back syphillis and gives the natives
    the gift of Black Plague, Herpes, Gonorhea,
    measles, small pox, etc, etc.
  • Thought he'd found India

  • Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512) and Ferdinand
    Magellan (1480-1521) explored the coast of South
    America and began mapping it.
  • Amerigo named the new world after himself and the
    name stuck.

The Ravages of Disease
  • As civilization grows, nastier plagues can last
  • Human trade networks spread disease
  • Cities become plague pits
  • Isolation of Americas had protected them from
    Eurasian Diseases
  • These now crossed the ocean and slaughtered
    30-50 of Indians
  • Mexico loses 95

The Columbian Exchange Food
  • To Europe From America
  • Potato
  • Corn
  • Beans and Squash
  • From Africa to America
  • The Yam
  • From Europe and Asia to America
  • Wheat and Spices
  • Alcohol

The Impact of Domesticated Animals
  • End of Lack of Draft Animals
  • Better agriculture
  • Easier Long Distance Trade
  • Impact on Nomads
  • Plains Indians (North) Llanos and Pampas Indians
    (South) now became horse nomads and much more

Family Life in Early Modern Europe
  • Average European is a poor farmer who probably
    rents his land
  • Problem of the Little Ice Age (1450-1850)
  • People marry later to save up resources for own
    business or farm
  • Familes are part of extended families
  • You expect to lose half your kids by age 10
  • Live until 50 or 60 if you make it past 10.
  • Birth Control is not very high quality
  • Nursing children is the most effective way

Family Life II
  • Family life is rather utilitarian in order to
  • Children are apprenticed young to give them a
  • Towns are small by modern standards (most are
    5-10,000 or less. Largest is Naples with 212,000
  • Towns dominated by artisan guilds and merchants
    and clergy

Leadup to the Reformation
  • 15th century clergy is 6-8 of urban population
  • Many literate are technically clergy but don't
    work as priests/nuns/monks
  • Church owns 1/3rd of land
  • Church controls the rituals of life
  • Church Services in Latin
  • Upper class dominates the upper Priesthood

Problems of Renaissance Catholicism
  • Temptations of Temporal Power
  • Rising Heresies from Rising Literacy
  • Monastic Corruption
  • The Indulgences Issue

Northern Renaissance Humanism
  • Christian Humanism wanted to use Humanist studies
    to reform the Church.
  • Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536) Erasmus "aspired
    to unite the classical ideals of humanity and
    civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love
    and piety." (THOWC, p. 444).
  • He wanted a religion which focused on ethics, not
    symbolism, magic, relics, etc.
  • Tried to restore religious texts to original,
    pure state
  • His work laid the foundation for new translations

Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536)
English Humanism
  • Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • Criticized the accretion of traditions and
  • Wanted to focus on ethical reform
  • Executed by Henry VIII for refusing to become

Why Germany?
  • 1. A growing literate population, combined with
    the printing press, which made it easier for new
    ideas to spread and for translations of the bible
    to be produced.
  • 2. Political divisions which made it hard for
    central authorities to suppress heresy German
    princes agreed that the Emperor needed to be kept
    weak, which made it hard for him to fight local
    princes who hid and supported reformers.
  • 3. Problems of clerical corruption and a
    low-point in the morale and behavior of the
    monastic orders.
  • 4. Acceptance of secular influence over the
    church because local secular authorities
    controlled church appointments, they could change
    the content of religion without their populace
    necessarily turning on them.

The Reformation Martin Luther (1483-1586)
  • Origins Luther was a German Augustinian monk,
    who came to feel he wasn't holy enough despite
    being a monk, and who came to criticize the
    Church, leading to him nailing the famous 95
    Theses (a list of complaints about the Church) to
    the door of his local cathedral.
  • His Protests
  • Sale of Indulgences
  • The Focus on Penances and Works as key to
  • The refusal to translate the Bible into modern

Martin Luther
Luther's Theology
  • Teachings
  • Salvation by Faith
  • An End to Celibacy
  • Translation of the Bible into German
  • Sola Scriptura
  • His Impact Luther shattered the unity of the
    Western Church and opened the way for the
    creation of the several thousand Protestant
    denominations which exist today.

Spread of the Reformation
  • Reformation spreads in the urban centers and the
    literate elites
  • Nobility could use it to justify autonomy from
    royal or imperial control
  • Denmark and Sweden made it the state religion
  • So did many German Princes
  • Peace of Augsburg (1555) stated that each prince
    would have the right to set his territory's

Luther's Flaws
  • Luther's revolt made modern religious toleration
    and freedom possible
  • But Luther didn't seek religious freedom, he
    sought religious TRUTH. Thus, he felt free to
    persecute those who disagreed with him, as they
    were clearly agents of the Devil
  • Despised peasants and Jews too

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) and Swiss Reformation
  • He led rejection of indulgences and superstition
    / tradition in Zurich
  • Abandoned any practice not literally mentioned in
  • Religious art
  • Much of the mass
  • Music
  • He translates the Froschauer Bible (printed
    between 1524-1531)
  • He dies fighting Swiss Catholics

Anabaptists and Radicals
  • Rejected Infant Baptism
  • Only adults could consciously choose to accept
  • Some practiced communal living
  • They tended to withdraw from society into
    isolated communities of only the faithful
  • Only those who underwent a conversion experience
    could be baptized and join the church
  • Over time, it becomes an oft persecuted rural

John Calvin and Thomas Hobbes...or not
John Calvin
John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Calvin would fuel revolution across Europe
  • Calvinists felt it their duty to force God's law
    down everyone's throat, even though most were
    damned and no human action could change that.
  • This required control of government, and the
    overthrow of 'ungodly' magistrates
  • A perfect tool for rebellious nobles and city folk

John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • A French student of the Bible
  • Drew up guidelines for the Geneva church
  • Created a model for alliance of Church and State
    copied by many
  • Civil magistrate enforces religious law
  • All must be made to act like the elect, though
    most are damned
  • Predestination God decided who was saved or
    damned when the world began. Human action can't

  • Henry VIII (1491-1547, ruled 1509-1547) wants a
    son his wife Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536)
    gives him a daughter Mary (1516-1558, ruled
    1553-8) but no legitimate sons.
  • Henry needs an annulment (which would declare the
    marriage invalid so he is free to remarry)
  • So he founds his own church!!!!

Anglicanism Quest For a Son
  • Pope won't give Henry an annulment he is a
    puppet of Charles V, nephew of Catherine of
  • Henry now gets Parliament to help him take over
    the Church
  • Appoints his own Archbishop, Thomas Cranmer, who
    gives him an annulment
  • He sends Catherine to a nunnery
  • He marries Anne Boleyn, his mistress

Anglicanism Quest For a Son II
  • Anne Boleyn is a Protestant. She gives birth to
    Elizabeth I (1533-1608, ruled 1558-1603),
  • So Henry trumps up charges and kills her.
  • The Anglican Church at this stage is mostly
    Catholic in theology
  • Monasteries are shut down
  • Parliament's involvement strengthens its power
    and importance.

The Heir Troubles
  • Jane Seymour, Wife 3, dies in childbirth
    producing Edward VI (1537-1553, theoretically
    ruled 1547-53 (actually a regency))
  • Henry churns through three more unfortunate wives
    and dies a bloated, evil, syphillitic beast of a
    man in 1547.
  • Edward VI is too young to rule his uncles take
    the country in a more protestant direction.
  • But his death at 16 means STILL CATHOLIC Mary I,
    his sister, inherits...

The Catholic Reaction Under Mary
  • Mary I (r. 1553-58) persecutes Protestants,
    restores Catholicism
  • But she has no child and foolishly marries
    Phillip II of Spain, who just wants her kingdom
    and is basically focused on killing Dutch people
    and Turks
  • When she dies, the throne passes to her sister
    Elizabeth I

The Elizabethan Settlement
  • Elizabeth I (1558-1603) just wants a compromise
    which will please the largest possible group the
    lunatic fringes can be driven out, she hopes.
  • Catholic style hierarchy and top-down control of
    theology and ritual
  • Local gentry, lords, merchants appoint parish
    priests and theology and ritual are Protestant in
  • This creates a split between High Churchmen (like
    fancy ritual) and Puritans (Calvinists)

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) and the Society of
  • Loyola was a courtier and soldier
  • Turns to religion after an injury
  • Author of Spiritual Exercises (1548)
  • Founder of Society of Jesus (1534)
  • Jesuits became educators and intellectuals

Council of Trent (1545-63)
  • It abolishes various kinds of corruption
  • the sale of office, indulgences, etc., by Popes
    to raise money for palaces and wars ('Simony')
  • Forced higher moral quality on clergy
  • Increased Bishopric staff
  • Seminaries created
  • Retained traditional theology and sacraments
  • Created a better behaved church, but one still
    using most old practices

Counter Reformation
  • Spain, Italy, PolandReformation is rolled back
    by better clergy and Inquisition
  • Protestantism flourishes in North and Central
    Europe, however

Results of Reformation
  • Clergy Shrinks 2/3rds
  • Many monasteries destroyed and Church lands taken
  • Worship is now in everyday language and Bible too
  • Old practices (Shrines, relics, pilgrimages,
    confession, etc.) abandoned.
  • Clergy can marry subject to secular authority
  • A fifth of Europe is Protestant in 1650.

The Wars of Religion (1560-1650)
  • Geneva vs. the Society of Jesus
  • Jesuits Provide a spiritual revival on Catholic
    tradition, improved clergy, obedience to
    authority. Stabilizing, usually. Episcopal
  • Calvinists State enforces godly law, community
    of believers, predestination and salvation by
    faith alone. Revolutionary, often. Presbyterian

French Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion (1559-1600)
  • Henry II dies while jousting, leaving weak
    child-heirs dominated by his wife, Catherine de
  • Rebellious French nobles use Calvinism to excuse
    rebellion against the throne (Huguenots)
  • Bourbon and Montmorency-Chatillon
  • 2/5ths of nobility, many peasants
  • Guise are Ultra-Catholics but also challenge
    royal power

French Wars of Religion (1559-1600)
  • Catherine tries to play Protestants vs. Guise to
    preserve her own autonomy, but finally feels it
    necessary to slaughter Protestants in the Saint
    Bartholomew's Day Massacre (3000 dead), only to
    find this leaves her totally alone
  • War now erupts for decades
  • Rise of the politiques
  • Henry IV (1589-1610) Bourbon emerges as winner,
    converts to Catholicism. Paris is worth a mass
    Allows toleration of all Christian faiths.

The Troubles of Mary, Queen of Scots
  • Mary I of Scotland (1542-1587, Queen of Scots
    1542 at age 6 days to 1567) took the throne at
    the age of 6 days old
  • Married Francis I of France and had a French
  • She was not well suited to rule over Scotland
    with its violent, hard-to-control nobles who
    began turning to Calvinism, in part due to
    preacher John Knox (c. 1510 24 November 1572)

John Knox (c. 1510 24 November 1572) and The
Scottish Presbyterians
  • Theologically, John Knox combined Calvinism
    (salvation by faith alone, predestination, Bible
    is only source of authority, rejection of old
    traditions) with extreme misogyny
  • Wrote multiple books on why no woman should ever
    be in charge of anything
  • Believed women should be submissive to men in all
    things and have no autonomy or independence at
  • Married a 17 year old at age 50 (she gave him
    three more kids) this was his second marriage

John Knox vs. Queen Mary
  • Queen Mary was faced with ongoing problems
    between her Catholicism and the Protestant
    nobles, especially Knox.
  • Her own bad decisions as ruler and in marriage
    (including blowing one of her husbands to bits
    with gunpowder. He was her half-first cousin
    Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley) ultimately led the
    Scottish nobles to overthrow her and drive her
  • John Knox was a dominant figure in the ensuing
    regency for her son James VI (1567-1625)

The End of Queen Mary
  • Queen Mary fled to England, but plotted against
  • First Elizabeth had her imprisoned, and then
    eventually when she kept plotting, Mary was
    murdered (possibly Elizabeth's orders, possibly
    someone trying to curry favor)
  • Mary Queen of Scots is the source of the
    Children's rhyme Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary

Imperial Spain and Phillip II (1556-1598)
  • Spain becomes head of the Counter-Reformation
  • Dutch Revolt in 1564, lasts off and on to 1648
  • Phillip marries Mary I of England, but it is
    largely nominal
  • After death of Mary Queen of Scots, he invades
    England in 1588, the famous Spanish Armada, which
  • His meddling in France only increases the Death
  • But he crushes the Turks at Lepanto in the Med.

Further Collapse in Holy Roman Empire
  • HRE is divided into hundreds of tiny to small
    states by 1618
  • Three Bishops, 3 Protestant Princes and the
    elected monarchy of Bohemia choose the Holy Roman
  • This enables the Catholic Habsburgs to monopolize
    the Throne

Thirty Years' War (1618-48)
  • In 1618, Fredrick II, elector of the Palatinate,
    is elected King of Bohemia. He is the Protestant
    son-in-law of James I of England
  • Habsburgs respond with war, touching off a series
    of wars which devastate Germany
  • Bohemia Palatinate vs. Habsburgs
  • Danes vs. Habsburgs
  • Sweden vs. Habsburgs
  • France vs. Habsburgs

Thirty Years' War (1618-48)
  • War goes from Protestants vs. Catholics to France
    vs. Austria to dominate Central Europe
  • France also beats up Spain
  • Treaty of Westphalia leaves the nation devastated
    and divided
  • Elites increasingly disgusted with religion

Superstition and Enlightenment The Witch Panic
  • Massive Witchhunting in 1400 to 1700 About
    70-100,000 are accused and tried for it
  • Some villagers tried to leverage old
    superstitions to gain power in villages
  • But old village unity was crumbling and marginal
    people were most likely to be attacked as witches
  • Further, the Clergy had declared since 13th
    century that all non-Church 'powers' were of the
  • Reformation triggered religious turmoil

Superstition and Enlightenment The Witch Panic
  • Scapegoating Europe was in a cold period,
    harvests were often bad, society was in turmoil
    and old social niceties were being abandoned.
    Many sought to blame witches
  • Why Women? Single women tended to be poor
    widows and those who had never married and both
    had more independence than women were allowed but
    also were poor and vulnerable. Many of the
    accused were midwives, which was a socially
    dangerous job, given so many babies died
  • Witchhunting declines as elites become
    secularized. .

Writers and Philosophers Miguel de Cervantes
Saavedra (1547-1616)
  • Traditional Spanish literature was obsessed
    with Chivalry and Knighthood (King Phillip III
    nearly drowned trying to re-enact an Arthurian
  • Cervantes was a realistic soldier
  • Don Quixote was published in halves in 1605 and
  • Story of a delusional old would-be Knight and his
    peasant squire
  • Parodies traditional chivalry
  • It ends with him a broken man

Pablo Picasso's Don Quixote
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
  • Greatest of English Playwrights
  • Wrote a mixture of historicals, tragedies,
    comedies and English historicals (not very
  • Accepted the culture of his day but sometimes
    teased it and examined it
  • Tragedies seen as his greatest Hamlet, Othello,
    King Lear, and Macbeth (1603-6)
  • His English Historicals are basically propaganda
    for the monarchs who patronized his work

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • Mathematician, Philosopher, Theologian
  • He fought vs. both skepticism and dogmatism
  • Religion had to be based on a leap of faith
  • Reason was a tool for the material world
  • God was a loving being who would redeem the
  • Pascal's Wager It's better to act as if God
    exists than gamble he doesn't, as the
    consequences for being wrong he exists are not as
    bad as the ones for if you gamble he doesn't and
    you're wrong.

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
  • Dutch Jewish Philosopher
  • God and Nature are one and the same
  • Mind and Material are both made out of God
  • God's Will rules all
  • Human minds may think they control the world, but
    they merely observe

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
  • Leviathan (1651)
  • Hobbes thinks humanity is basically,
    fundamentally NASTY
  • Only brute force can tame the beasts
  • Thus, society must be ruled by a tyrant who
    crushes all underfoot to a semblance of
  • Fails totally to explain how this monarch won't
    be a hideous beast too.
  • Hobbes preferred Tyranny to the anarchy of
    post-Civil Wars England when he wrote this

John Locke (1632-1704)
  • John Locke, by contrast, thought men began as
    blank slates and were then shaped by their
    experience and upbringingBlank Slate Theory
    Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • The best government was not an absolute monarch,
    but rather, the legitimacy of all government
    flows from the consent of the governed they may
    revoke this in face of tyranny (Two Treatises of
    Government (1690)) and form a new government. A
    basis for the American Revolution