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The World of the Romans

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Title: The World of the Romans


1
5
  • The World of the Romans

2
The Pre-Roman World
3
The Geography of Rome
4
Ancient Italy and the City of Rome
5
Italy in 750 BCE
6
Emergence of Rome
  • Importance of geography in the development of
    Rome
  • Apennine Mountains
  • Agricultural areas
  • Location of the City of Rome on the Tiber River
  • Early Rome, 753-509 B.C.E.
  • Romulus and Remus, 753 B.C.E.
  • Etruscans
  • First road, the Sacred Way, constructed before
    575 B.C.E.
  • Etruscan monarchy overthrown, 509 B.C.E.

7
The Mythical Founding of Rome Romulus Remus
8
Roman Republic
  • The Roman Conquest of Italy
  • By 340 B.C.E. Rome had defeated the Latin states
    of Latium
  • Greeks had colonized southern Italy between 750
    and 550 B.C.E.
  • The Roman Confederation
  • The Roman State
  • Offices and institutions
  • The Struggle of the Orders Social Divisions in
    the Roman Republic
  • Struggle between patricians and plebeians
  • Assembly of Plebeians.

9
The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE
  • Providing political and social rights for the
    plebeians.

10
Roman Conquest
11
Rome Expands
12
Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133
B.C.E.)
  • Punic Wars
  • First Punic War, 264-241 B.C.E.
  • Carthage has to surrender Sicily
  • Sicily becomes Roman province
  • Second Punic War, 218-201 B.C.E.
  • Hannibal attacked Rome
  • Carthage loses Spain
  • Rome becomes the dominant power in the western
    Mediterranean Sea
  • Third Punic War, 149-146 B.C.E.
  • Carthage completely defeated
  • Carthage becomes the Roman province of Africa
  • The Eastern Mediterranean
  • Roman Imperialism
  • Stages of expansion
  • Changing motives and tactics

13
Carthaginian Empire
14
Remains of Carthage
15
The Roman Forum
16
Romes Early Road System
17
Roman Roads The Appian Way
18
Roman Aqueducts
19
The Roman Colosseum
20
The Colosseum Interior
21
Circus Maximus
22
Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic (133-31
B.C.E.)
  • Growing Unrest and a New Role for the Roman Army
  • Latifundia contribute to the decline of small
    farms
  • Reform Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
  • Politics and the Army Marius and Sulla
  • Collapse of the Republic
  • First Century B.C.E. had two characteristics
  • Jostling for power by powerful individuals
  • Civil wars that were caused by the desire for
    power
  • Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar
  • First Triumvirate
  • Basic Aims
  • Competition for power after the death of Crassus
    in 53 B.C.E.
  • Civil war between Antony and Octavian
    (grandnephew of Julius Caesar)
  • Battle of Actium, 31 B.C.E., Antony defeated and
    Octavian rules the Roman world

23
Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE
24
Expansion of Roman Territories to 100 C.E.
25
Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.)
  • Augustus given title of imperator
    (commander-in-chief) by the senate
  • Army
  • Standing army of 28 legions 150,000 men
  • Auxiliaries, 130,000 men who were non-citizens
  • Praetorian Guard of elite troops 9,000 men
  • Governing the provinces
  • Senate governed some provinces and some were
    given to the emperor
  • Augustus could overrule the senatorial governors
    and establish his own policies
  • Stabilization of the frontiers
  • Augustus conquered the central and maritime Alps
    and then expanded control of the Balkan peninsula
    up to the Danube
  • Failure in Germany where three legions were
    massacred in 9 C.E.
  • Augustan society
  • Social stratification
  • Growing power of the equestrian order

26
The Roman Empire from Augustus to Trajan (14
117)
27
The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire 14 CE
28
The Early Empire (14-180)
  • Five Good Emperors (96-180)
  • Pax Romana
  • Capable men adopted as successors
  • Public work projects
  • Frontiers and Provinces
  • Rome withdrew from some areas
  • Built defensive fortifications along frontier
    lines
  • Finally all free inhabitants became a citizens
  • Greco-Roman world Latin in the west, Greek in
    the east
  • Cities and towns spread culture and law

29
Products of the Roman Empire, c. 200 C.E.
30
Trade, Industry, and Farming
  • Prosperity
  • Extensive trade -- food and luxury goods
  • Agriculture the primary occupation
  • Gulf between rich and poor
  • Upper classes needed to be supported by
    agricultural surplus

31
Culture and Society in the Roman World
  • Roman Literature
  • Catullus (c. 87-54 B.C.E.)
  • Poetry to express emotions
  • Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.), Aeneid
  • Virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness
  • Roman Art
  • Copy Greek statues
  • Architecture Arch, vault, and dome
  • Construction Baths, roads aqueducts, and
    bridges
  • Roman Law
  • Twelve Tables, 450 B.C.E.
  • Civil law applied to all Roman Citizens
  • Law of nations applied to both Romans and
    foreigners
  • Law of nature universal law based on reason

32
Roman family
  • Paterfamilias
  • Arranged marriages for daughters
  • Some educated their daughters
  • Paterfamilias no longer dominant by 2nd century
    C.E.
  • Upper-class women had much freedom and
    independence in the Early Empire

33
Slaves and Their Masters
  • Residential slaves household help, tutors
  • Farm slaves many times worked to death
  • Construction used to build roads, aqueducts,
    other public structures

34
Slave revolts
  • Revolts in Sicily at the end of the 2nd century
    B.C.E.
  • Spartacus, 73 B.C.E.
  • 70,000 slave followers
  • Crushed in 71 B.C.E., 6,000 crucified

35
Imperial Rome
36
Imperial Rome
  • Population of nearly 1 million
  • Enormous gulf between rich and poor
  • Bread and circuses
  • Gladiatorial shows

37
Crisis and the Late Empire
  • Unstable succession
  • Invasions on many sides
  • Decline in trade
  • Labor shortage

38
The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Revival end of the 3rd century beginning of 4th
  • Diocletian and Constantine and The Late Empire
  • New governmental and economic systems
  • New state religion
  • Both enlarged the administrative bureaucracies
  • Larger army
  • New Capital Byzantium (Constantinople)
  • Shortage of labor and a caste system

39
Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two 294 CE
40
Fall of Rome
41
Fall of Rome
42
Fall of Rome
43
The Empire in Crisis 3c
44
The End of the Western Roman Empire
  • Empire divided into Western and Eastern
  • Invasions in the west
  • Huns
  • Visigoths
  • Burgundians
  • Vandals
  • Ostrogoths

45
Possible Hypotheses for the collapse of Rome
  • Lack of innovation. Best indicator, the total
    lack of interest in geography.
  • Slavery. The attitude that any services could be
    bought, and therefore Romans need not bother with
    practical matters.
  • Religious cultism and mysticism
  • Lead poisoning? (not from lead pipe but from
    lead-based ceramic glazes)

46
Transformation of the Roman World The
Development of Christianity
  • Religious World of the Romans
  • Polytheistic
  • Importance of proper ritual
  • Toleration
  • Mystery religions from the east

47
The Later Restored Roman Empire
48
The Jewish Background
  • By 6 C.E. Judea was made a Roman province
  • Unrest among the Jews
  • Sadducees favored cooperation with the Romans
  • Pharisees wanted Judaea free of the Romans but
    did not advocate violence
  • Essenes awaited a messiah
  • Zealots were militant extremists advocating the
    violent overthrow of the Romans
  • Revolt of Jews in 66 was crushed by Romans four
    years later
  • The Jewish temple in Jerusalem was destroyed

49
The Rise of Christianity
  • Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E.-29 C.E.), Christos
  • Jesus message
  • Romans saw a potential revolutionary
  • Paul of Tarsus (c. 5-c. 67)
  • Preach the message to all, not just Jews
  • Spread of Christianity
  • Increasing intolerance of Christianity by the
    Romans
  • Would not worship state gods or the imperial cult
  • Refusal of Christians to recognize other gods
  • Persecution never systematic

50
The Rise of Christianity
51
The Spread of Christianity
52
Triumph of Christianity
  • Growth of hierarchy
  • Promised salvation
  • Another mystery religion
  • Filled a need to belong
  • Renewed persecution in the 3rd century
  • Constantine and toleration

53
Comparison of the Roman and Han Empires
  • Although little contact between the two they had
    similarities
  • Both lasted for centuries
  • Both centralized control
  • Elaborate road systems
  • Spread their art and culture to provinces
  • Family unit the most important structure to
    transmit values
  • Differences
  • Social mobility more limited in China
  • Merchants more highly regarded in Rome
  • Ruled from a divine mandate
  • Both empires will eventually weaken and fall

54
Discussion Questions
  • How did the geography of Italy affect Roman
    development?
  • Give a brief description of the Punic Wars and
    the reasons why Rome went to war with the
    Carthaginians.
  • How did expansion undermine Republican
    institutions?
  • What led to the third century crisis? How did the
    Romans respond to threats facing their empire?
  • How would you explain the growth of Christianity
    in the second and third centuries? How did its
    appeal change as it grew?
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