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Rome:%20INTRODUCTION

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Title: Rome:%20INTRODUCTION


1
Rome INTRODUCTION
  • Rome was the culmination of ancient civilization
  • It consolidated the heritage of much of the
    ancient world
  • The most powerful army and most developed
    civilization of the ancient world
  • Masters of war, engineering, management, and art
  • However, it featured slavery, inequality,
    violence, and excesses of every type

2
GREEKS IN ITALY
  • Greeks colonized southern Italy
  • Brought Greek culture including highly developed
    arts and crafts, literature, religion,
    philosophy, and architecture

3
FOUNDING OF ROME
  • In the mid-700s, a Latin clan established a new
    settlement overlooking a bend in the Tiber River
  • Roman legend attributed the founding of this
    village to Romulus and Remus
  • Twin grandsons of a king
  • Orphaned when young and raised by a wolf

4
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • 509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king
    (monarchy) and established a republic.
  • Power rests with the citizens who have the right
    to vote for their leaders.
  • In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was
    granted only to free-born male citizens.

5
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • Class Divisions
  • Patricians- wealthy landowners who held most of
    the power inherited power and social status
  • Plebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and
    merchants who made up the majority of the
    population can vote, but cant rule

6
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • A Balanced Government
  • Rome elects two consuls (executive) one to lead
    army, one to direct government
  • Senate- chosen from patricians, make foreign and
    domestic policy
  • Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for
    plebeians (commoners)
  • Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of
    crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)

7
Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in
Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century),
Giuseppe Becchetti
8
Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy the
Mediterranean World?
9
The Roman Army
  • All citizens were required to serve
  • Army was powerful
  • Organization fighting skill
  • Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot
    soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback)

10
Romes Commercial Network
  • Rome establishes a large trading network
  • Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade
    routes
  • Brings Rome into conflict with Carthage a
    powerful city-state in North Africa

11
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • Three Wars between Rome and Carthage
  • 1st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily
    western Mediterranean Sea.

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

12
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibals
    surprise attack through Spain France
  • 60,000 soldiers and 60 elephants march over the
    Alps
  • Romans experience severe losses, but eventually
    ward off attacks invade North Africa

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

13
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage
  • Scipio- Roman Strategist
  • Conquered people sold into slavery
  • Carthage burned
  • Legend says the earth sewed with salt

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

14
Imperial Rome
15
Punic Wars
  • With Carthage destroyed, Rome conquered pretty
    much all of the Mediterranean

16
Effects of the Punic Wars
  • Soldiers that had been away at war for years
    return home to find their farms possessed by rich
    families
  • Citizens now unemployable because cheap slave
    labor is flooding the market
  • Plebeians and middle-class farmers flood the
    streets of Rome demanding justice

17
Civil War
  • Civil war spreads throughout the republic
  • Julius Caesar, governor of Gaul (France), returns
    to Rome with his army to bring peace
  • Greeted as a hero and declared to be dictator for
    life

18
The problem with being dictator for life
19
Augustus
  • Caesars nephew rules after Caesars death
  • Brings era of peace called Pax Romana
  • Expands borders of empire, including into Egypt

20
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21
The Colosseum
22
Aqueduct
23
The Worst of Rome
  • Nero (54-68) Nero murdered his mother and wife.
    He confiscated senators' property and severely
    taxed the people to build his own golden home.
    Whether he played his lyre while Rome burned or
    was involved behind the scenes in some other way,
    he put the blame on the Christians and had many
    killed.

24
The Worst of Rome
  • Elagabalus (218-224) Elagabalus did not act in a
    manner befitting an emperor, stopping short of
    self-castration in his pursuit of alien
    religions. This transvestite emperor raped a
    vestal virgin and in his unsatiable sexuality,
    set up a brothel at the palace. He imprisoned and
    executed those who criticized him.

25
The Worst of Rome
  • Caligula (37-41) Little Boots Caligula revived
    the treason trials of his predecessor, Tiberius,
    opened a brothel in the palace, raped whomever he
    wished, reported on the woman's performance to
    her husband, committed incest, killed for greed,
    and thought he should be treated as a god.

26
Good Emperors
  • See chart on p. 164
  • Trajan Enlarged social welfare system
  • Hadrian Reorganized govt.
  • Antoninus Pius Peace and prosperity
  • Marcus Aurelias Economic prosperity

27
Rome and Christianity
  • Rome controlled Judea (the historic Jewish
    kingdom)

28
Jewish Beliefs
  • The Jews believed that the savior or Messiah
    would come to retake the Jewish kingdom
  • According to Christian tradition, this messiah
    was a boy named Jesus, born in Bethlehem and
    raised in Nazareth
  • Jesus would begin new Jewish teachings ones
    that not all Jews supported

29
Jesus teachings
  • Jesus taught that God was forgiving, but
    emphasized the ten commandments
  • Jesus 12 closest followers were called Apostles
  • Jesus was crucified after being accused by Jewish
    leaders and convicted by a Roman governor

30
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31
Constantine the Great
  • General takes over Rome to end the violence and
    misrule
  • Moves capital to Byzantium and renames it
    Constantinople
  • Ends the persecution of Christians

32
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33
Christianity Becomes Official
  • Constantine, on the way to battle, sees an image
    of the cross in the sky
  • Sees it as a sign, tells his soldiers to paint
    crosses on their shields and armor
  • Wins a massive victory the next day
  • Ends persecution of Christians and makes
    Christianity an official Roman religion

34
Division of the Church
  • Peter becomes the first pope of Rome, founds the
    Catholic Church
  • The Byzantine empire makes Christianity an
    official religion and founds the Eastern Orthodox
    Church

35
Spread of Christianity
  • Paul, a man who formerly persecuted Christians
    spread Christianity throughout the Roman world

36
Fall of Rome
  • Chinese push Huns west
  • They invade Roman territory looking for new
    homeland
  • Rome sacked
  • Western empire ends

37
Byzantine Empire Begins
38
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39
What does this meeting represent?
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