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CHANGING ROLES OF THE MILITARY

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CHANGING ROLES OF THE MILITARY ASSIGNMENTS Smith, Democracy, ch. 3 Modern Latin America, ch. 13 PARENTHESIS: PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS (2010) Ricardo Martinelli ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHANGING ROLES OF THE MILITARY


1
CHANGING ROLES OF THE MILITARY
2
ASSIGNMENTS
  • Smith, Democracy, ch. 3
  • Modern Latin America, ch. 13

3
PARENTHESIS PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS (2010)
  • Ricardo Martinelli (Panama) 91
  • Mauricio Funes (El Salvador) 84
  • Luis Inacio Lula da Silva (Brazil) 83
  • Michelle Bachelet (Chile) 81
  • Álvaro Uribe (Colombia) 64
  • Tabaré Vásquez (Uruguay) 61
  • Evo Morales (Bolivia) 60
  • Felipe Calderón (Mexico) 55

4
RATINGS (cont.)
  • Fernando Lugo (Paraguay) 50
  • Barack Obama (USA) 48
  • Álvaro Colom (Guatemala) 46
  • Oscar Arias (Costa Rica) 44
  • Rafael Correa (Ecuador) 42
  • Stephen Harper (Canada) 32
  • Alan García (Peru) 29
  • Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) 25
  • Cristina F. de Kirchner (Argentina) 19

5
OUTLINE
  • Questions
  • Historical Perspective
  • Self-Assumed Roles
  • Missions and Coups
  • Types of Military Regimes
  • Approval Ratings
  • Reflections on Central America
  • Impacts of 9/11?

6
QUESTIONS
  • What roles for the military in democratic (or
    democratizing) settings?
  • What level (or type) of political power?
  • Why accept any reduction in political influence?
  • Issue not necessarily coups, but
    civilian-military relations

7
ARMED FORCES OVER TIME
  • Wars of independence (1810-1825)
  • One element in triangle of powerchurch, economic
    elite, and military
  • Path to upward mobility and political influence
  • Duty maintenance of internal order
  • Impact of professionalization?
  • Saber-rattling against neighboring countries, but
    without real war (especially in 20th century)

8
Military Folklore Forging Fatherlands Patterns
of Participation Incidence of Coups
Missions and Regimes Wars against
Subversion The Democrats Dilemma To Amnesty or
Not? Argentina Chile
9
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10
  • Military Regimes Key Factors
  • Power structure personalistic or collegial?
  • Institutional role of military in decision-making
  • Ideological orientation
  • Social base of civilian support

11
Types of Authoritarian Regime ________________
Power Structure___________________
Personalist Institutionalized Leadership ______
______ Traditional Caudillo
or Collective Junta or Military Man on
Horseback Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regim
e Technocratic State, One-Party State
or Civilian Delegative Semi-Democracy, Corporatis
t Regime or Sultanistic Despotism
12
Prominent Military Regimes in Latin
America Reformist/Inclusionary Argentina 1946-5
5 judgment call here Ecuador 1963-66,
1972-78 Peru 1968-80 Reactionary/Exclusionary
Argentina 1966-73, 1976-83 Brazil 1964-85 Chile
1973-1989 Guatemala 1963-85 Uruguay 1973-84
13
Modes of Interaction The Armed Forces and
Democracy Military control political
subordination of nominally civilian governments
to effective military control Military tutelage
participation of armed forces in general policy
processes and military oversight of civilian
authorities Conditional military subordination
abstention by the armed forces from overt
intervention in political questions, while
reserving the right to intervene in the name of
national interests and security Civilian
control subordination of armed forces in
political and policy terms to civilian
authorities, usually including a civilian
minister of defense
14
Patterns of Civil-Military Relations, ca. 2000
  • Military Control (N0)
  • None (maybe Guatemala)
  • Military Tutelage (N4)
  • Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Venezuela
  • Conditional Military Subordination (N9)
  • Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican
    Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru
  • Civilian Control (N6)
  • Argentina, Costa Rica, Haiti, Mexico, Panama,
    Uruguay

15

16
Levels of Trust in the Military, ca.
2000 Ecuador 60 Venezuela 54 Brazil 53 Chil
e 46 Uruguay 44 Central America 26 Note A
lot some
17
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18
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19
IMPACTS OF 9/11?
  • Involvement in war on drugs, and now
  • Emphasis on internal security
  • Police functions
  • Focus on borders
  • From anti-subversion to anti-terrorism
  • Renewal of U.S. support?
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