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ROCKS FOR JOCKS AND SOIL FOR GUYRLS

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Title: ROCKS FOR JOCKS AND SOIL FOR GUYRLS


1
ROCKS FOR JOCKS AND SOIL FOR GUYRLS
2
ROCK CYCLE
3
IGNEOUS ROCK
  • Formed when
  • magma cools underground
  • EX granite
  • Or above ground
  • EX lava rock/pumice

4
SEDIMENTARY ROCK
  • Repeated settling of eroded soil.
  • Compressed layer by layer until it turns into
    rock.
  • Ex shale, limestone

5
METAMORPHIC ROCK
  • Sedimentary or igneous rock that has morphed into
    another type of rock
  • Due to intense pressure or heat
  • EX schist, gneiss

6
SOIL
7
What is soil?
  • The loose covering of broken rock particles and
    decaying organic matter (humus) covering bedrock.

8
Why is soil important?
  • Grow food
  • Wood for building
  • Plants provide oxygen
  • Filter pollutants

9
How is soil created?
  • Rock is chemically and physically weathered.
  • Bacteria, fungi, lichens, insects live in
    weathered rock.
  • These organisms die and add nutrients to
    weathered rock.
  • As soil builds, larger organisms can move in and
    colonize.
  • Takes 100s of years to create a few cm of soil.

10
What is a soil profile?
  • Vertical sequence of soil layers (horizons).
  • O Horizon- vegetation/ leaf litter on top of soil
  • A Horizon- dark-colored thin layer rich in
    organic matter humus
  • B Horizon- thick layer of subsoil may be red or
    brown clay based soil
  • C Horizon- contains weathered parent rock larger
    particles of rock no organic matter
  • R Horizon- unaltered parent bedrock

O horizon
R horizon
11
TYPES OF SOIL
  • Polar soil-Artic Tundra/Alpine Tundra
  • Form at high elevations high altitudes
  • No distinct horizons- soil too thin
  • Under top few inches of soil, ground is
    permanently frozen- PERMAFROST.

12
  • Temperate soils
  • Vary depending on rainfall type of vegetation
  • Tropical Grasslands- very thick, rich, humus
  • Forests- thinner, less fertile clay soil
  • Prairies- less rain, so soil not as thick, but
    still fertile.

13
  • Desert soils
  • Very thin A horizon
  • Very little organic matter
  • High in minerals
  • Soil is usually light colored and coarse
    textured.

14
  • Tropical soils-Tropical Rainforest
  • Intensely weathered due to high precipitation and
    temp.
  • Very little humus very few nutrients
  • High concentrations of iron- when oxidizes causes
    characteristic red color.

15
SOIL TEXTURES
  • Size of particles determines
  • Water holding capacity
  • How compacted soil is
  • Ability to support plant
  • Sand- larger particles
  • Silt- smaller particles
  • Clay- smallest particles
  • Loam- equal mix of sand, silt, and clay

16
SOIL FERTILITY
  • Measure of how well soil can support plant life.
  • Factors that affect fertility of soil
  • Level of minerals nutrients
  • Level of bacteria
  • Amount of precipitation
  • Topography
  • Acidity of soil

17
What nutrients are important in soil?
  • 1. Nitrogen- (N)
  • Need for making chlorophyll for leaves
  • Rapid plant growth and healthy leaves.
  • Important for leafy veggies- spinach, lettuce,
    cabbage, soybeans, corn
  • Deficiency results in yellow or reddish leaves.

18
What nutrients are important in soil?
  • 2. Phosphorus- (P)
  • Needed for root development growth.
  • Helps produce flowers fruit
  • Deficiency results in darkening of leaves then
    reddish tinge around edges.
  • Important for beets, potatoes, carrots,
    radishes.

19
What nutrients are important in soil?
  • 3. Potassium- (K)
  • Also called potash
  • Deficiency results in puckering yellow-brown
    leaves.
  • Needed for
  • Rapid cell growth at root tips
  • Resistance to disease
  • Makes stems strong

Important for potatos, beets, carrots, radishes,
bud crops (asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower)
20
Why should we know about soil pH?
Prefer neutral (6.0-6.8) Prefer slightly acidic (5.0-6.5) Prefer strongly acidic (4.0-5.0)
Grains Holly Sundew
Veggies Orchids Pitcher plants
Evergreen Venus fly trap
Strawberries Azalea
Potato Rhododendron
Carrot camellia
  • pH of soil can affect how plants absorb N, P, K
  • Most plants like neutral to slightly acidic soil
    (6.0-6.8)
  • Some carnivorous plants like more acidic
    (4.0-5.0)
  • To adjust soil pH
  • Add lime to make more basic
  • Add alum to make more acidic

21
What do those numbers mean on a bag of fertilizer?
  • Indicates of N, P, K in the fertilizer
  • Different plants have different nutrient needs.
  • Pros of commercial fertilizer
  • Greatly increases crop yield
  • Greatly increase crop quality
  • Cons of commercial fertilizer
  • Pollute degrade soil
  • Cause eutrophication

22
Alternatives to commercial fertilizers
  • Crop rotation- alternating corn crop with legume
    (peas, beans, clover) to add nutrients back to
    soil

23
Alternatives to commercial fertilizers
  • Limestone- reduces acidity of soil

24
Alternatives to commercial fertilizers
  • Organic fertilizers- compost, manure, peat moss

25
SOIL CONSERVATION
  • Soil is easily eroded.
  • Methods to prevent erosion include

26
Contour Farming- plowing along slope instead of
up and down it. Furrows btwn rows of crops
collect water.
27
  • Terracing- series of platforms are built into
    slopes. Effective with steep slopes, slows water
    flow.

28
  • Shelter Belts- rows of trees planted along outer
    edges of s creating a windbreak to prevent wind
    erosion.

29
  • Strip-Cropping- Farmers plow so that plowed
    strips are separated by planted strips. Roots of
    planted strips hold soil in place.

30
Other methods of soil conservation
  • Reduce Grazing Permits
  • Put up fencing
  • Animals cannot compact and destroy plants
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