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Music Appreciation: The History of Rock


Music Appreciation: The History of Rock Chapter 1: Elements of Music – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Music Appreciation: The History of Rock

Music Appreciation The History of Rock
  • Chapter 1 Elements of Music

Music is...
  • The art of combining tones or sounds
  • Organizing sound (melody, harmony, words,
    rhythms, and beat) to please the human ear.

Listening types
  • Passive listening Listening to music while
    doing other things.
  • Active listening Listening to music while
    directly paying attention to it.

Why the Study of Music is Important
  • 1) Part of our daily lives (know more about
    everyday things)
  • 2) Soothes and Relaxes the soul (music therapy
  • 3) Allows us to communicate better with our
    fellow man

The Six Major Elements of Music
  • 1) Sound
  • 2) Harmony
  • 3) Melody
  • 4) Rhythm
  • 5) Form
  • 6) Text (Words)

1) Sound
  • Includes source/instrumentation, timbre (tone
    color), texture and volume

The Four areas used to identify SOUND in Rock
Music are
  • 1) Source (instrumentation)- what is being
    played, what is used to contribute to the types
    of sounds
  • 2) Timbre (tone color)- think of the adjectives
    youd use to describe a voice.

  • 3) Texture
  • Monophonic- single voice or instrument
  • Unison- same melody, same notes and pitch
  • Homophonic- principal line with one or more
    instruments/voices as backup to that line.
  • Polyphonic- several melodies occurring all at
    once in different parts or instruments.
  • 4) Volume- dynamic level (soft or loud).
  • Crescendo- gradually louder
  • Decrescendo or diminuendo- gradually softer

2) Harmony
  • The way that sounds are combined to create a
    piece of music.
  • The use of intervals (scales) and chords that add
    depth to the musical line.
  • Chord progression- the combination of sounds
    (notes like F, A, C create a major chord, etc.)

Scales- from scala in Italian, meaning ladder
  • Provides the basic harmonic and melodic material
    for a given piece of music.
  • A selection of pitches within the interval of an
  • Major scales (diatonic) pattern WWhWWWh in
  • Tonic- the home key, original note.
  • Semitone- a half-step (ex. Bb to B, one note to
    the next on a piano) Also called chromatic.
  • Whole step- two half-steps
  • Enharmonic- Same note, different name, like A
    and Bb.

  • Harmony occurs when two different notes are
    played simultaneously. Three or more pitches at
    the same time produce a chord.
  • The first, third and fifth notes of a scale form
    a chord. Same for the 2nd, 4th, 6th, etc.
  • Tonic chord- based on the first scale degree.
  • Dominant chord- based on the fifth scale degree.
  • Subdominant chord- based on the fourth scale.

Chord progressions
  • Most rock progressions follow the progression of
    I, IV, V, I
  • Many country songs use the same.
  • Blues progressions- 12 bar blues is very common
    (in Chapter 2)
  • A common, but more complex chord pattern is
    called a descending minor progression Tonic, to
    Subtonic, to Submediant, to Dominant.

Modal progressions
  • Modes are based on scales, but they start on
    different notes of the scale.
  • Ionian (C-C) also called the Major scale
  • Dorian (D-D)
  • Phrygian (E-E)
  • Lydian (F-F)
  • Mixolydian (G-G)
  • Aeolian (A-A) also called the minor scale
  • Locrian (B-B)

3) Melody
  • A musical line that has a succession of single
    notes that have a beginning, middle and an end.
  • In melodies, look for
  • Range (wide or narrow)
  • Motion (conjunct or disjunct)
  • Shape (ascending, descending or static)

4) Rhythm
  • Relationship between music and time- the
    heartbeat of music.
  • Tempo is known as the musical pace.
  • Meter is the way in which pulses are organized.
    Beats are organized into measures.
  • Three levels of musical time
  • Background time- pulse or beat
  • Middle-ground time- meter and tempo, duple,
    triple, quadruple
  • Foreground time- the surface rhythm, short and
    long durations that give a melody its character.
    Syncopation- occurs when a strong beat occurs on
    a weak beat.

5) Form
  • Design and structure of a musical work. It helps
    the listener keep track of the units of music
    that are used to make a song.
  • Standard form most often AABA, ABAB, or ABAC
  • Strophic form Verses set to the same music, but
    the words change verse to verse. (Think about
    Blues and Folk Songs)
  • Through-Composed form Follows the form of the
    text or words. There is no repetition of
    previously-heard material.

6) Text (words)
  • Convey and idea which the listener can relate to
    his or her life.
  • Two things we look for in song text are
  • The sentiment (emotions or feelings) and the mode
    (the way the song is presented- as a narrator,
    3rd person) of the text. The verb tense informs
    the listener as to when the action of the song
    takes place.

Five families of musical instruments
  • 1) Woodwind
  • 2) Brass
  • 3) Percussion (keyboards also)
  • 4) Stringed
  • 5) Electronic

Musical Advancements by Technology
  • 1) Recording Industry- Invention of the
    grammaphone, records, radio, tape/8 tracks, CD
    and .mp3 files
  • 2) Use of synthesizers and electronics in
    performance and recording.
  • 3) Computers (creating, writing, producing and

Scientific classifications of Musical Instruments
  • 1) Idiophones- vibrating mass of material (most
    percussion instruments). Usually struck, shaken,
    plucked or rubbed.
  • 2) Membranophones- sound produced by vibrating
    skin (percussion instruments)
  • 3) Aerophones- movement of air causes vibrations
  • 1. Brass- vibration of lips/air in a mouthpiece
  • 2. Reed- vibration of reed by air
  • 3. Flutes/Whistles- air column vibrates, splits.

Scientific classifications of Musical Instruments
  • 4) Chordophones- string vibrates to produce a
  • 1) Zithers
  • 2) Lutes
  • 3) Lyres
  • 4) Harps

Scientific classifications of Musical Instruments
  • 5) Electrophones- sound is produced by electric
  • 1) Amplification
  • 2) Generating frequencies
  • 3) Differences of 2 frequencies
  • 4) Digital means- assigned to a frequency (MIDI)