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New Movements in America


Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850) Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850) Section 1 America s Spiritual Awakening The Second Great Awakening ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Movements in America

Chapter 15
  • New Movements in America
  • (1815-1850)

Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)
  • Section 1
  • Americas Spiritual Awakening

The Second Great Awakening
  • Started in mid-1790s
  • Spread through upstate New York and frontier
    regions of Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and South
  • In 1820s and 1830s it spread to New England, the
    Appalachians, and the South
  • Charles Grandison Finney one of the most
    important leaders
  • Challenged some traditional Protestant beliefs
  • Each individual responsible for own salvation
    sin avoidable
  • Angered some traditional ministers
  • Church membership grew a great deal
  • Many new members women
  • Some African Americans became Baptist, Methodist
    or Presbyterian ministers
  • African Methodist Episcopal Church (founded by
    Richard Allen of Philadelphia) spread across
    mid-Atlantic states

Transcendentalism and Utopian Communities
  • Transcendentalism belief that people could
    transcend, or rise above, the material things in
    life, such as money and personal belongings
  • People should depend on themselves instead of
    outside authority
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson wanted people to follow
    personal beliefs and use own judgment What I
    must do is all that concerns me, not what the
    people think (in Self-Reliance)
  • Margaret Fuller said that women had the right to
    choose their own paths in life
  • Henry David Thoreau believed in self-reliance and
    did not trust institutions
  • Some transcendentalists experimented with utopian
  • Brook Farm, Massachusetts (1840s)
  • Tried to form a perfect society on Earth
  • Some formed as places to practice their religious
  • Ann Lee community of Shakers (named because
    their bodies would shake during worship)
  • Did not believe in private ownership of property,
    lived very plain lifestyle

The American Romantics
  • Ideas about spirituality, the simple life, and
    nature also shaped painters and writers
  • Drew upon the idea that each individual brings a
    unique perspective to the world
  • Thomas Cole painted American landscape
  • Example of romantic literature Nathaniel
    Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter and Herman
    Melville former sailor, wrote tales of the sea,
    ex. Moby-Dick
  • Edgar Allan Poe best known for his short
    stories and poetry (ex. The Raven)
  • Gifted American poets Emily Dickinson, Henry
    Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier,
    and Walt Whitman
  • Longfellow best known American poet of
  • Dickinson published only two poems during her

Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)
  • Section 2
  • Immigrants and Cities

Waves of Immigrants
  • More than 4 million immigrants settled in U.S.
    between 1840 and 1860
  • More than 3 million of these were Irish or German
  • Irish came to U.S. during potato famine approx.
    1 million died of starvation and disease
  • Catholic, very poor
  • Settled in towns and cities in Massachusetts, New
    Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
  • Those who did not live in cities worked on
    building canals and railroads
  • Irish women worked as domestic servants for
    wealthy families men could usually only find
    unskilled work
  • Germans came to U.S. to escape persecution under
    harsh ruler and for new economic opportunity
  • Protestants, Catholics and Jews
  • Many arrived with money
  • More likely to become farmers and live in rural
  • Moved to Midwestern states such as Michigan, Ohio
    and Wisconsin
  • Often had to take low-paying jobs despite their

The Nativist Response
  • American labor force changed by industrialization
    and waves of people from Europe
  • Industrial jobs in northeast drew many immigrants
    who filled need for cheap labor
  • Fueled local economies, led to the creation of
    new jobs for clerks, merchants, supervisors, and
    professional workers
  • Nativists Americans who opposed immigration
  • Native-born citizens feared losing jobs to
    immigrants who might work for lower wages
  • Also felt threatened by different cultures and
  • Before Catholic immigrants arrived, most people
    in U.S. were Protestant
  • American Protestants did not always trust
    Catholic immigrants because of long-standing
    conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in

The Nativist Response
  • Know-Nothing Party founded by nativists in 1849
  • Called this because if asked questions by
    outsiders, members usually answered I know
  • Wanted to keep Catholics and immigrants out of
    public office
  • Wanted immigrants to live in U.S. 21 years before
    becoming citizens
  • Won several state elections during 1850s

The Growth of Cities
  • U.S. cities grew rapidly during the mid-1800s
  • Industrial Revolution drew immigrants as well
    as migrants from rural areas
  • Transportation Revolution connected cities,
    made it easier for people to move to them
  • Rise of industry and growth of cities changed
    American life
  • Business owners and skilled workers benefited the
  • Middle class emerged merchants, manufacturers,
    professionals, and master craftspeople
  • People found entertainment and enriched cultural
    life in cities
  • Libraries, clubs, theaters
  • Cities compact and crowded
  • Most walked to work
  • Streets paved with stones

Urban Problems
  • Public and private transportation was limited,
    most people lived a short distance from workplace
  • Poor wage workers, rising middle class, and
    wealthy often lived near each other
  • Disagreements between social classes often led to
    conflict, sometimes riots
  • Lack of safe housing and public services
  • Tenements dirty, overcrowded buildings where
    many (especially immigrants) lived
  • No clean water, public health regulations, or
    clean ways to get rid of garbage and human waste,
    diseases spread rapidly
  • Centers of criminal activity
  • No permanent police force to fight crime, used
    volunteer night watches
  • Fire protection often poor as well

Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)
  • Section 3
  • Reforming Society

  • Teachings of 2nd Great Awakening inspired many to
    improve society
  • Growth of cities caused problems that many wanted
    to correct
  • Growing middle class, especially women led reform
    movements they had free time

Prison Reform
  • Dorothea Dix visited prisons throughout
    Massachusetts and reported terrible conditions
  • Gave speech to legislature about how mentally ill
    often jailed with criminals
  • Government of Massachusetts created special,
    separate facilities for mentally ill people
  • Influence spread around country, more than 100
    state hospitals were built for mentally ill
    people to receive professional care
  • Some reformers protested treatment of young
  • Children arrested for begging or stealing often
    treated as adults
  • 1820s, several state and local governments
    founded reform schools for children who were once
    housed in prison
  • Efforts to end overcrowding and cruel conditions
    in prisons resulted in houses of correction
    used punishment and tried to change prisoners
    behavior through education

Campaigning Against Alcohol Abuse
  • Many believed Americans were drinking liquor at
    an alarming rate
  • During 1830s, average alcohol consumption per
    person was seven gallons a year
  • Believed alcohol abuse caused social problems
    such as family violence, poverty and criminal
  • Temperance movement social reform effort urging
    people to stop drinking hard liquor and limit
    drinking of beer and wine to small amounts
  • American Temperance Society and American
    Temperance Union
  • Some did not believe temperance was sufficient
    wanted to see ban of the sale of alcohol

Education in America
  • Poor public education
  • Reformers believed that education would help
    Americans become good workers and citizens
    (fueled by immigration)
  • Many families believed education was important
    but did not expect children to receive a lot of
    formal education
  • Generally wanted children to be able to read
    Bible, write and do simple math
  • Availability of education varied a great deal
    throughout the U.S.
  • New England had the most schoolhouses
  • South and West had fewest
  • School-teachers untrained young men

Education in America (continued)
  • Textbooks most often used McGuffeys Readers
    put together by William McGuffey an educator and
    Presbyterian minister
  • Made up mostly of British and American literature
  • Teach students about moral and social values as
    well as literature and reading
  • People of different backgrounds received
    different educations
  • Rich could send their children to private schools
    or hire private tutors
  • Poor children could only attend public school

The Common-School Movement
  • Common-school movement wanted all children
    educated in a common place, regardless of class
    or background
  • Horace Mann leading voice for education reform
  • Became first Secretary of Education for
    Massachusetts in 1837
  • Doubled the state school budget and helped
    teachers earn better salaries
  • Made the school year longer and founded first
    school for teacher training
  • His work set the standard for education reform
    throughout the country

Womens Education
  • Catherine Beecher became one of the most
    effective reformers of womens education in the
    early 1800s
  • Believed women were better at teaching moral
    lessons that made good citizens
  • Started an all-female academy in Hartford,
  • Emma Willard founded college-level institution
    for women in New York
  • Troy Female Seminary first school of its kind
    in U.S.
  • Studied subjects ranging from math to philosophy
  • Several womens colleges opened in the 1830s
  • Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts founded
    by Mary Lyon
  • Oberlin College in Ohio was the first co-ed
    college in the U.S. (both women and men)

African American Schools
  • Free African Americans also enjoyed some benefits
    of education reform
  • Almost always went to separate schools from white
  • New York African Free School opened in NYC in
  • Philadelphia supported development of African
    American education
  • By 1800, 7 schools for black students
  • In Boston (1855) African Americans were allowed
    to attend white schools
  • African Americans rarely attended college because
    only a few institutions of higher education would
    accept them
  • Oberlin the first to do so in 1835 Harvard later
  • In the South, fewer free African Americans were
    able to obtain an education
  • Laws in South prevented most slaves from
    receiving education (due to southern whites
    fears of potential slave rebellions)

Teaching People with Disabilities
  • Samuel Gridley Howe worked to improve education
    of visually impaired Americans
  • Also worked for education reform, prison reform
    and care for mentally ill people
  • Perkins Institution Massachusetts for people
    with visual impairments
  • Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet worked to improve
    education of hearing impaired
  • Founded first free American school for people
    with hearing impairments in Hartford, CT

Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)
  • Section 4
  • The Movement to End Slavery

  • Abolition complete end to slavery in U.S.
  • Emancipation all African Americans freed from
  • Abolitionists were a minority but very vocal
  • Quakers first group to challenge slavery on
    religious grounds started during colonial times
  • Abolitionists disagreed about what ending slavery
    would mean for African Americans
  • Treated same as white Americans
  • Opposed full social and political equality
  • Send freed African Americans to Africa to start
    new colonies there
  • Robert Finley started the American Colonization
    Society in 1817
  • Founded Liberia on west coast of Africa
  • Approx. 12000 eventually settled there

Spreading the Abolitionist Message
  • Went on speaking tours, wrote newspaper articles
    and pamphlets
  • Horace Greeley (editor) strong voice for
    movement in the New York Tribune
  • William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator,
    an abolition newspaper
  • Outspoken, controversial
  • Helped found American Anti-Slavery Society
    wanted immediate emancipation and racial equality
    for African Americans
  • Amer. Anti-Slavery Society split in 1840
  • Two groups disagreed over role of women in the
    abolition movement
  • Angelina and Sarah Grimké members of
    slaveholding family in SC, but they did not
    support slavery
  • Moved to Philadelphia and joined the abolitionist

African Americans Fight against Slavery
  • Frederick Douglass escaped slavery at age 20 and
    became one of the most important African American
    leaders of 1800s
  • Secretly learned to read and write when he was
  • Went on many speaking tours in U.S. and Europe
    (supported by AASS)
  • Published North Star pro-abolition newspaper
  • Sojourner Truth famous for dramatic speeches
    former slave later fought for womens rights

The Underground Railroad
  • Created by free African Americans (former slaves)
    and a few white abolitionists
  • Network of people arranged transportation and
    hiding places for fugitives and escaped slaves
  • stations or stops along the railroad were
    homes of abolitionists (conductors)
  • Most famous conductor Harriet Tubman
  • She escaped in 1849, returned 19 times led 300
    plus her family to freedom
  • Historians estimate 40,000 slaves used
    Underground Railroad to reach freedom (1810-1850)

Opposition to Abolition
  • Many white northerners did not believe in equal
    treatment for African Americans
  • Warned free slaves would move north and take jobs
    from white workers
  • U.S. House of Representatives used Gag Rule to
    prevent discussion of thousands of antislavery
    petitions received
  • Violated 1st Amendment, but Southern delegates
    did not want to discuss, Northern delegates
    wanted to avoid
  • Southerners argued slavery was a vital part of
    southern economy and culture

Chapter 15 New Movements in America (1815-1850)
  • Section 5
  • Womens Rights

The Influence of Abolition
  • Female abolitionists became part of womens
    rights movements of mid-1800s
  • Women had to defend right to speak in public
  • Critics believed women should not give public
    speeches, did not want women to leave traditional
  • Sarah Grimké argued for equal rights, equal
    educational opportunities

Womens Rights
  • Reform and abolition efforts led to the rise of
    the womens rights movement
  • Took advantage of better educational
  • Organized more effectively by working together in
    reform groups
  • Many activists upset because women could not vote
  • Married women had little or no control over their
    own property
  • Many people (men and women) did not agree with
    some goals
  • Did not need new rights
  • Not unequal to men, just different
  • Work for change at home within families, not in
  • Some did not believe that women had physical or
    mental strength to survive without mens

The Seneca Falls Convention
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton attended Worlds
    Anti-Slavery Convention in London with her
  • Women had to sit separately from men, could not
  • William Lloyd Garrison broke rules by sitting
    with women wanted equal participation for all
  • Seneca Falls Convention organized by Stanton
    and Lucretia Mott
  • Began July 19, 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York
  • Launched womens rights movement
  • Wrote Declaration of Sentiments (based on
    Declaration of Independence) outlining beliefs
    about social injustice toward women
  • Frederick Douglass attended
  • First time women organized as a group to promote

The Continuing Struggle
  • Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony, and Stanton became
    the most important leaders of the womens rights
  • Anthony brought strong organizational skills
  • Largely responsible for turning it into a
    political movement
  • Argued women should receive equal pay and be
    allowed to enter traditionally male professions
  • Led campaign to change laws regarding womens
    property rights
  • New York finally gave married women ownership of
    their wages and property