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River%20Valley%20Civilizations

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River Valley Civilizations 3500 to 500 BC The Cradles of Civilization Where did the earliest civilizations develop? River valleys Why did ancient civilizations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: River%20Valley%20Civilizations


1
River Valley Civilizations
  • 3500 to 500 BC

The Cradles of Civilization
2
Where did the earliest civilizations develop?
  • River valleys

3
Why did ancient civilizations develop in river
valleys?
  • They had rich soil for agriculture because
    periodic flooding left silt which made the soil
    rich in nutrients

4
They were protected by geographic barriers
(mountains, deserts, seas, jungles, etc.)
5
Where were the earliest civilizations located and
when did they exist?
C
M
I
E
6
River Valley Civilizations
(3500 BC to 500 BC)
  • Mesopotamia in Southwest Asia
  • Egypt in Northeast Africa
  • India in South Asia
  • China in East Asia
  • From west to east EMIC

7
Evidence of Early Civilizations
8
  • What were some characteristics of the Ancient
    River Valley civilizations?

9
Mesopotamia SumerGeography
Mesopotamia
  • Mesopotamia was a region located in the part of
    the Fertile Crescent that lies between the
    Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

10
Mesopotamia
  • Present-day Iraq (Middle East).

11
  • Protected on three sides by mountains, deserts
    and the Persian Gulf (but vulnerable to invaders
    from the north)

12

Sumerian Government
  • Sumer was the first known civilization
  • It arose in southern Mesopotamia

13
Sumer
  • Sumer was made up of 12 independent city- states
    each ruled by its own king.
  • City-state A city and the surrounding land

14
Cuneiform
  • the first written language (wedge writing)

15
Irrigation
  • brought water from the rivers to the fields
    during the dry summer months

16
Controlling the Rivers
17
Bronze
  • Smelted from copper and tin

18
Other Sumerian Accomplishments
  • Plow
  • Ziggurats
  • Wheeled vehicles
  • Number system based on 60

19
Sumerian Inventions
20
Babylonian Empire
  • The first empire to arise in Mesopotamia
  • Empire several peoples, nations, or previously
    independent states under the control of one ruler.

21
Code of Hammurabi
  • First set of published laws
  • Based on the principle of an eye for an eye
  • Laws differed based on class

22
Sumer
23
EgyptGeography
  • Nile Delta and Nile River Valley (Northeast
    Africa)

24
Nile Delta
  • The delta was located in Lower Egypt (northern
    Egypt - lower in elevation)
  • Delta broad, marshy, triangular area of land
    formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of a
    river.

25
  • Protected by deserts and seas

View from space shuttle
26
Egyptian Government
  • Pharoahs were rulers thought to be gods. They
    had absolute power (complete control) over the
    Egyptian Empire.
  • They were thought to be responsible for making
    the sun rise, the Nile flood, and crops grow.

27
  • Egypt, had a rigid class system and slavery was
    accepted.

28
Egyptian Religion
  • Like other River Valley peoples, Egyptians were
    polytheistic (believed in many gods).

29
Egyptian Writing
  • Hieroglyphics Pictures stood for sounds as well
    as ideas

30
Egypt
31
India Indus Valley Civilization
32
Geography
  • Located on the Indus River in present-day
    Pakistan (Indian subcontinent).


33
Indus River Flood Plain
34
Natural Barriers
  • The Himalayan and the Hindu Kush Mountains as
    well as the Indian Ocean protected the Indian
    subcontinent from invasion.

35
Indus Valley Government
  • Made up of independent city-states including
    Harappa, and Mohenjo-Daro (and 2500 other sites)

36
Indus Valley Achievements
  • Plumbing

The great bath at Mohenjo-Daro
37
Cotton Cloth
  • first to cultivate cotton and weave its fibers
    into cloth (textiles)

38
Writing
  • has not been deciphered

39
Indus Valley
40
ChinaGeography
  • Huang He River

41
  • Also called the Yellow River and the River of
    Sorrows (yellow silt caused flooding)

42
Flooding of the Huang He
  • Satellite images

before
after
43
  • Protected by the Gobi desert, Himalayan
    Mountains, Pacific Ocean, dense jungles


44
Chinese Government
  • China was ruled by a succession of ruling
    families called dynasties (Early dynasties
    Shang and Zhou)

45
China
46
  • Chinese rulers were considered divine (god-like).

47
  • They served under a mandate of heaven (approval
    of the gods) only as long as their rule was just

48
Dynastic Cycle
  • Explains the rise and fall of families of rulers

49
Ancestor Worship
  • The Chinese believed that the spirits of family
    ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster
  • They paid respect to family ancestors and made
    sacrifices in their honor

50
Early Chinese Achievements
  • Silk cloth (made from the cocoons of silkworms).

51
Writing
  • Characters stood for ideas, not sounds.
  • The earliest evidence of Chinese writing is found
    on oracle bones.

52
Irrigation
  • Water wheels were used to bring river water to
    the fields

53
  • Bronze

Bronze vessel used for sacrificial food
54
Shang Dynasty
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