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The Eastern Roman Empire

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The Eastern Roman Empire After the Roman empire collapsed in the West, the Eastern Roman Empire became the center of civilization. - The capital of the Eastern Roman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Eastern Roman Empire


1
The Eastern Roman Empire
2
Western Rome
SPLITS
EASTERN ROME
3
Western Rome
EASTERN ROME
Byzantine
4
After the Roman empire collapsed in the West, the
Eastern Roman Empire became the center of
civilization.
  • - The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was
    Byzantium or Constantinople as it came to be
    known.

5
Due to its location, it controlled trade between
Asia and Europe.
6
Politics in Constantinople
  • Senate still met as in Rome but the emperor had
    absolute power.
  • Emperors were the head of both the church and the
    state. Religion was closely linked to politics.
  • Justinian was a strong and important emperor.

7
Justinian
  • Justinian became emperor in 527 and ruled until
    565.
  • He launched 3 ambitious projects during his
    reign
  • 1. He tried to re-conquer Roman lands to the
    west.
  • 2. He ordered a team of Greek and Latin
    scholars to compile and simplify the laws.

8
Justinian
  • He undertook a massive building program in
    Constantinople.
  • - His works on the city and the laws were of
    lasting value to civilization. His wars,
    however, proved to be a waste of men and .
    After his death, all the conquered territory
    quickly passed back to the barbarians.

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12
Justinians most important contribution was his
Code.
  • The Code of Justinian summarized the laws of many
    of the provinces of the Roman Empire from the
    last 400 years.
  • Using these summaries, Justinian created new laws.

13
Some important principles of Roman Law
  • All persons had the right to equal treatment
    under the law.
  • A person was considered innocent until proven
    guilty.
  • The burden of proof rested with the accuser
    rather than the accused.
  • A person should be punished only for actions, not
    for thoughts.
  • Any law that seemed unreasonable or unfair could
    be set aside.

14
Code of Justinian
  • Law students were taught how to use the code.
    And it was the basis for Byzantine law for the
    next 900 years!

15
  • Does our legal code need some Spring cleaning??
  • Listen to these . . .

16
Georgias Crazy Laws
  • It is illegal to use profanity in front of a dead
    body which lies in a funeral home or in a
    coroners office.
  • Donkeys may not be kept in bathtubs.
  • Persons under the age of 16 may not play pinball
    after 1100 PM. (Athens-Clarke County)
  • The fine for waving a gun in public is higher
    than actually shooting it. (Columbus)

17
Theodora, Justinians Wife
  • Answer questions, using p. 303

18
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19
Theodora
  • - Theodora recognized the right of women and
    made sure others did too.
  • - Through her influence, laws were made
    protecting women and granting women greater
    benefits in divorce cases.

20
Religion was important to the Byzantine Empire.
  • People debated issues such as the nature of God
    and Jesus.
  • The church was connected to the government.
  • Conflicts over icons weakened the empire. Icons
    were pictures of Mary, Jesus, and holy figures
    that were sold in markets.

21
Icons
22
Religion
  • Many objected to the use of icons because
    they felt people prayed to them as
    if they were idols.
  • Those that objected to these figures were called
    iconoclasts.
  • Remember the 10 Commandments . . . .

23
Deuteronomy 58-9 (King James Version)  8Thou
shalt not make thee any graven image, or any
likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or
that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the
waters beneath the earth   9Thou shalt not bow
down thyself unto them, nor serve them for I the
LORD thy God am a jealous God,  
24
Iconoclasts were one of the reasons the Christian
church split in 1054 A.D.
  • Other reasons
  • 1. Pope in Rome supported the use of icons, the
    Byzantine emperor didnt.

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East v. West
  • 2. The pope led the church in Rome, the patriarch
    led the Eastern Church.
  • - The bishop of Constantinople
  • was known
    as the
  • patriarch.

27
East v. West
  • 3. The pope in Rome claimed to be the leader of
    all Christians. However, the patriarch refused
    to accept the popes authority.

28
Religious Split
  • 4. Priest of the eastern empire conducted
    services in the local language of their member.
    Priests in western Europe conducted services only
    in Latin.
  • 5. Roman priests could not
  • marry, while Eastern priests did.

29
Religious Split
  • The break between Rome and Constantinople
    became final in 1054.
  • That year the pope and patriarch excommunicated
    each other.
  • Excommunicate they were declared outside the
    church, cut off from all Christians.

30
Religious Split
  • The western branch of the Christian Church became
    known as the Roman Catholic Church. (Catholic
    comes from a Latin word meaning universal.)
  • The eastern branch became known as the Eastern
    Orthodox Church. (Orthodox comes from 2 Greek
    words means correct belief.)

31
Christian Church Spilt p.305
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33
  • ISLAM

34
Rise of a New Faith
  • After Justinian's death, much of his empire was
    reconquered
  • by barbarian groups.
  • Then armies of Arabs, inspired by the prophet
    Muhammad, burst forth from the Arabian desert and
    threatened the Byzantine empires very survival.

35
The Spread of Islam
  • In the 600s Arab victories claimed the lands in
    Syria, Palestine, Egypt, northern Africa and
    Spain.
  • Bedouins were the Arabs from the desert who were
    nomads and worshipped
  • many gods
  • and spirits.

36
The Spread of Islam
  • The Bedouins believed spirits called jinn were
    thought to reside in rocks and other natural
    objects.
  • Mecca was home to the most sacred rock.
  • The Black Stone of Mecca was embedded within the
    wall of a shrine called the Kaaba, which in
    Arabic means cube.

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Kaaba
  • The Kaaba contains idols representing 360 gods.
  • Pilgrims traveled to this
  • shrine in the holy months, making Mecca an
    important religious center.
  • In this busy town, around the year 570, Muhammad
    was born.

39
Muhammad's Life
  • Orphaned at six
  • Was not literate
  • Was a successful merchant
  • Came to believe in one god, Allah (the same god
    worshipped by the Jews and Christians)

40
Mohammed created Islam
  • Islam means surrender to God.
  • The Koran contains the teachings of Mohammed.

41
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Faith
  • Prayer
  • Alms
  • Fasting
  • Pilgrimage

42
Islam spread through jihads or holy wars.
  • Muslims conquered Spain, Portugal, North Africa,
    Palestine, and the Fertile Crescent.
  • The Koran written in
  • Arabic was considered
  • the only true word so
  • it spread easily through Arab lands.

43
Muslim Empire
44
Arabs were tolerant rulers who treated the Jews
and Christians with respect.
45
Islam split into two sects.
  • Shiites are the minority group who believe that
    Mohammeds grandson, Husayn, was the rightful
    caliph.
  • Caliph a political and religious leader who
    followed Muhammad.
  • The Sunni are the orthodox Muslims and are in the
    majority in the Muslim world.

46
Accomplishments of Islam
  • Translated Greek books into Arabic
  • First chemical laboratories
  • Treatment of disease (diagnosed smallpox and
    wrote an encyclopedia of medicine)

47
Accomplishments of Islam
  • Created algebra
  • Arabic numerals
  • Wrote the Arabian Nights folktales about
  • Alladins magic lamp
  • and stories of Sinbad
  • the Sailor.
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