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Support and Sponsors

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Title: Support and Sponsors


1
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2
Support and Sponsors
  • Bella Vista Farm, Baulkham Hills
  • Boddington Family
  • Clubs etc.
  • Castle Hill RSL Club,
  • Castle Hill RSL sub-Branch,
  • C2K Aquatic Centre,
  • Castle Hill Bowling Club,
  • Castle Hill Country Club,
  • Castle Hill RSL Swimming Club, and
  • Muirfield Golf Course, Diggers Day Committee
  • Cemeteries
  • Castlebrook Memorial Park, and
  • Castle Hill Cemetery
  • Department of Defence
  • RAAF Richmond
  • Bands etc.
  • Light Horse Troop, military,
  • 1st/15th RNSWL Band, and
  • Castle Hill RSL Pipe Band and Bugler
  • NAMBUS
  • Powerhouse Discovery Centre in Castle Hill
  • Schools
  • High Schools,
  • Primary Schools, and
  • The Kings School
  • State Government
  • Governor NSW
  • Premier of NSW
  • The Hills Shire Council

3
  • Proudly presented by
  • Centenary of ANZAC Hills Community Committee
  • Major Supporters
  • Castle Hill RSL sub-Branch Castle Hill RSL Club
    Ltd. The Hills Shire Council
  • Major Sponsors
  • M2 Motorway Castle Hill Shopping Centre Good
    Guys Castle Hill
  • Others.
  • Supporters
  • Donors
  • Media Partners
  • Hills Shire Times Hills News FM 90.5
  • Participants

4
Hills Community Centenary of ANZAC Committee
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
5
Contents
  • Program for Centenary of ANZAC
  • Preface and Introduction from Chair
  • 1. The Centenary of ANZAC COMMITTEE
  • - Committee Members
  • - Aims and Objectives of Committee
  • 2. Why We Commemorate ANZAC Day
  • 3. Events Leading to WWI
  • 4. Australias Position at the Outbreak of WAR
  • 5. The Australian Offer of Support
  • On 6th August 1914 -- A somewhat forgotten
    event Nauru Rabaul
  • 6. The Forming of the A.I.F.
  • 7. The First Contingent Get Ready to Sail

6
Program for centenary of anzac
  • The following Commemorative Events have been
    specifically designed for various sections of the
    Community and sub-Branch involvement.
  • Other events are designed for sub-Branch and
    invited dignitaries and guests.
  • The following depicts all of these
    Commemorative Events for 2014 and 2015

7
Program for centenary of anzac2014
Feb 2014 Launch of Centenary of ANZAC Program
12 Jun 2014 Primary Secondary Schools Story of ANZAC Competition
Late Oct/ early Nov 2014 Fleet Re-enactment at Albany
Notes The Castle Hill RSL sub-Branch will be
sending a film crew to ALBANY WA for the above
Re-Enactment. This will be made available from
this site when completed. Persons attending
Commemoration Events in both 2014 and 2015 may be
photographed or filmed for the purposes of
putting together a historical account of the
Centenary of ANZAC Commemorations.
8
Program for centenary of anzac2015
18-26 Apr 2015 Powerhouse Centre Display for the Centenary of ANZAC Week
18 Apr 2015 The Launch of the Centenary of ANZAC Week for Hills
19 Apr 2015 Centenary of ANZAC Sunday Commemoration Service
19 Apr 2015 The Centenary of ANZAC Commemoration Lunch
19 to 26 Apr 2015 The Centenary of ANZAC Stage Play
20 to 23 Apr 2015 Primary Schools Disabled and Students Tours
20 Apr 2015 Carillon WW1 Music Rendition and Tchaikovskys 1812 Overture
20 to 24 Apr 2015 NAMBUS Tours
20 to 24 Apr 2015 Lone Piper will play the Lament nightly following the Ode on the balcony above the entrance to the Castle Hill RSL Club.
21 Apr 2015 Primary/High Schools and Citizen Competitions Awards Civic Lunch
9
Program for centenary of anzac2015
21 and 22 Apr 2015 The Old Canteen Stage Show
22 Apr 2015 Film(s) with WW1 and ANZAC at the Events Cinemas at Castle Hill.
23 Apr 2015 This Centenary of ANZAC Golf Day
23 Apr 2015 Commemoration Swimming Carnival
24 April 2015 Centenary of ANZAC Schools Commemoration Services
25 Apr 2015 Centenary of ANZAC Dawn Service is to be conducted at the War Memorial at the Centenary of ANZAC Reserve, Castle Hill.
26 Apr 2015 Centenary of ANZAC Participants BBQ
10
1. Centenary of anzac committee
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
11
preface
  • The Centenary of ANZAC (COA) is the most
    important Hills District Community, and
    Australian, occasion for this century. The
    sacrifices that were made by so many young
    Australians in WWI and in particular the birth of
    the ANZAC Spirit at Gallipoli, will be remembered
    by all Australians, and arguably was the birth of
    Australia as a Nation.
  • LEST WE FORGET
  • For this reason the Hills District Centenary of
    ANZAC Committee in conjunction with the members
    of the Community of the Castle Hill RSL
    sub-Branch have put in place a number of
    Commemorative, educational, events and
    activities, befitting this occasion.
  • A Committee has been setup, which is headed by
    Don Tait OAM the current President
  • of the Castle Hill RSL sub-Branch, and the main
    driving force behind these Commemorations for the
    Hills District. This Committee is made up of
    sub-Branch members and the Community at large.
  • This document is an attempt to bring together
    information about the events, from a variety of
    sources, which are mainly historical, in order to
    appropriately cover these Commemorations to
    Remember the sacrifices made by these young
    Australians.

12
Introduction from the chair
  • Nearly one hundred years ago young Australians
    landed at Gallipoli on the 25th April 1915 with
    many of them paying the ultimate sacrifice during
    the landing and subsequent battles. Through their
    bravery and mateship they arguable were
    responsible for the birth of our nation in the
    modern era, they influenced events that shaped
    our history and they left us with the ANZAC
    Spirit that today still provides us with the
    characteristics that are uniquely Australian.
  • In 2015 in every town and city across Australia
    these young men will be thanked and honoured for
    what they did for generations of Australians
    past and present. The Centenary of ANZAC will be
    the largest national event ever held in this
    country, and our community in the Hills will play
    a major part in this commemoration.
  • The Hills Community, Centenary of ANZAC
    Committee has designed a program of activities
    and events for the Centenary of ANZAC in 2015
    that caters for all ages and backgrounds in our
    community. Everyone in The Hills will have the
    opportunity to attend this once in a life time
    anniversary and, by doing so, will thank the
    young men for what they did for us and Australia
    100 years ago.
  • Don Tait OAM
  • Chair, Hills Community, Centenary of ANZAC
    Committee

13
Aims and objectives of the committee
  • The Hills Community, Centenary of ANZAC
    Committee has developed a comprehensive program
    of activities and events for the Centenary of
    ANZAC in the Hills. In developing this program
    the objectives of the Committee were
  • The program should be appropriate to thanking
    and honouring the veterans of Gallipoli,
  • It should be for the entire community
    irrespective of age or background,
  • The community should be involved in the programs
    planning and conduct,
  • It should be available to the maximum number of
    the Hills community to attend,
  • The resources and people needed to conduct the
    program should, as far as possible, come from the
    Hills, and
  • The cost of conducting the program should come
    from government grants and through sponsorships.

14
Hills District Centenary of ANZAC Committee
members
  • Chair Don Tait OAM.
  • Deputy Chair Adjunct Professor Jim Taggart.
    OAM.
  • Secretary Councillor Doctor Jeff Lowe.
  • Treasurer Craig Colbert.
  • Legal Advisor Steven Brown.
  • Centenary Advisor Gareth McCray.
  • Grants Coordinator David Hand.
  • Sponsorship Coordinators Tony Eades, and Bill
    Dokter.
  • Promotions/Public Relations Coordinator Melanie
    Morson.
  • Media Coordinator Bev Jordan.
  • Schools Coordinator Bryan Mullan.
  • Military/Pipe Bands Coordinator David Wood.
  • Stage Play Coordinator George Cartledge.
  • Mayor, The Hills Shire Council Councillor
    Doctor Michelle Byrne.
  • State Member for Castle Hill Dominic Perrottet
    MP.
  • State Member for Baulkham Hills David Elliott.
    MP
  • Events Overall Coordinator Don Tait OAM
  • Member Mike Yeo.
  • Website Graham Handley, and Robbie Duncan

15
2. Why we commemorate anzac day
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
With some minor modification from http//www.awm
.gov.au/commemoration/anzac/anzac-tradition
16
  • When war broke out in 1914, Australia had been
    a Federal Commonwealth for only 13 years. The new
    National Government was eager to establish its
    reputation among the nations of the world. In
    1915 Australian and New Zealand soldiers formed
    part of the allied expedition that set out to
    capture the Gallipoli peninsula in order to open
    the Dardanelles to the allied navies. The
    ultimate objective was to capture Constantinople
    (now Istanbul in Turkey), the capital of the
    Ottoman Empire, an ally of Germany.
  • The Australian and New Zealand forces landed on
    the Gallipoli Peninsular at ANZAC Cove
  • on 25 April 1915, where they met fierce
    resistance from the Ottoman Turkish defenders.
    What had been planned as a bold stroke to knock
    Turkey out of the war quickly became a stalemate,
    and the campaign dragged on for eight months. At
    the end of 1915 the allied forces were , after
    both sides had suffered heavy casualties and
    endured great hardships. Over 8,000 Australian
    soldiers had been killed. News of the landing on
    Gallipoli had made a profound impact on
    Australians at home, and 25 April soon became the
    day on which Australians remembered the sacrifice
    of those who had fallen in the war.
  • Although the Gallipoli campaign failed in its
    military objectives, the Australian and New
    Zealand actions during the campaign left us all a
    powerful legacy. The creation of what became
    known as the ANZAC legend became an important
    part of the identity of both nations, shaping the
    ways they viewed both their past and their
    future.
  • With some minor modification from
  • http//www.awm.gov.au/commemoration/anzac/anzac-t
    radition/

17
3. Events Leading to WWI
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
Extracts from various sources (acknowledged by
links to sites) with some minor
changes/adjustments on occasions
18
Jul 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on
Serbia
  • On July 28, 1914, one month to the day after
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife
    were killed by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo,
    Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia,
    effectively beginning the First World War.
  • http//www.history.com/this-day-in-history/austri
    a-hungary-declares-war-on-serbia
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand Wife Serbian
    Nationalist being arrested.
  • https//www.google.com.au/search?qarchdukefranz
    ferdinandtbmischtbousourceunivsaXeiPpCeU
    v2eFMavkAXM8oDoAQsqi2ved0CJcBEIkebiw1366bih
    676

19
Jul 29, 1914 Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and Czar
Nicholas of Russia exchange telegrams
  • In the early hours of July 29, 1914, Czar
    Nicholas II of Russia and his first cousin,
    Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, begin a frantic
    exchange of telegrams regarding the newly erupted
    war in the Balkan region and the possibility of
    its escalation into a general European war.
  • Czar Nicholas II Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_II_of_Russia
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_II,
    _German_Emperor

20
Aug 01, 1914 First World War erupts in Europe
  • On August 1, 1914, four days after
    Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, two more
    great European powers Russia and
    Germanydeclare war on each other the same day,
    France orders a general mobilization.
  • http//www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-w
    orld-war-erupts-in-europe

21
Aug 03, 1914 Germany and France declare war on
each other
  • On the afternoon of August 3 in 1914, two days
    after declaring war on Russia, Germany declares
    war on France, moving ahead with a long-held
    strategy, conceived by the former chief of staff
    of the German army, Alfred von Schlieffen, for a
    two-front war against France and Russia
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_von_Schlieffen
  • http//www.history.com/this-day-in-history/germany
    -and-france-declare-war-on-each-other

22
EUROPE 2014
http//www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstw
orldwar/maps/europe1914.htm
23
4. Australias position at the outbreak of war
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
Extracts from The Story of ANZAC from the
outbreak of war to the end of the first phase of
the Gallipoli Campaign, May 4, 1915 (11th
edition, 1941) Author Bean, Charles Edwin
Woodrow (C E W). Chapter I Australias Position
at the Outbreak Mainly quotes from the above
text with some possible changes. -- Acknowledged
by the above Link.
24
On 30th July 1914
  • A cablegram in secret cipher from the British
    Government to the Government of Australia
    informed it that there was imminent danger of
    war
  • Every Australian knew that a quarrel between
  • Austria and Serbia had occasioned the
    intervention of Germany. Few then realised that
    the Emperor and Government of Germany were
    therein deliberately employing the characteristic
    methods which aroused danger of war with Great
    Britain

25
  • If Great Britain were involved, what was the
    position of those younger British communities
    which inhabited lands remote from the old world,
    and which were loosely bound together under the
    name of the British Empire? http//en.wikipedia.o
    rg/wiki/British_Empire

26
  • Of those peoples of the world which had sprung
    from the British stock, only one, that of the
    United States, had
  • left the Empire and grown to maturity as an
    independent nation. The other offshoots, in
    Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and
    Newfoundland, were still but adolescent.
  • The world regarded them and their motherland as
    one community. Foreign nations had begun to know
    something of the several British colonies as
    producers of raw materials and of new ideas but
    their population, still in its infancy, was not
    yet reckoned as a factor in international
    politics.

27
5. The Australian Offer of support
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
Extracts from The Story of ANZAC from the
outbreak of war to the end of the first phase of
the Gallipoli Campaign, May 4, 1915 (11th
edition, 1941) Author Bean, Charles Edwin
Woodrow (C E W). Chapter IIThe Australian
Offer Mainly quotes from the above text with some
possible changes. -- Acknowledged by the above
Link.
28
On 30th July 1914
  • In the days of intense anxiety immediately
    before the declaration of war, when the entrance
    of Britain into it, and the steps which she would
    take if she did enter, were equally uncertain
    there was a feeling in the British dominions that
    a declaration of their support would strengthen
    her position in the eyes of the world. New
    Zealand on July 30th offered to send a force of
    New Zealand troops if need arose.

29
On 3rd august 1914
  • Colonel Sam Hughes, the talkative Minister of
    Militia and Defence in
  • biography http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_H
    ughes
  • Canada. He had said that an offer of 30,000 men
    had been
  • practically decided upon, and that 20,000
    Canadians would be
  • ready to sail within a fortnight if required.
  • This news appeared in the Australian journals
    on Monday, August 3rd. under large headlines
    Canada offers 30,000. As a matter of fact
    Canada had offered to send 20,000 men, and more
    if required, but the actual terms passed
    unnoticed in Australia. Within two months in
    Canada, as in Australia, the men in training were
    far more than were originally contemplated.

30
Australia New Governor-General / parliament
dissolved /new poll
  • The Ministry, in order to rid itself of this
    obstacle, had introduced a Bill specially
    designed to bring the deadlock to an acute
    stage, so that it might apply the remedy laid
    down in the Australian Constitution for such a
    situation, to wit, a dissolution of both
    Houses of Parliament. The newly- arrived
    Governor-General, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro
    Ferguson,
  • had given his assent. Feelings ran high and
    bitter. Parliament had been dissolved on June
    27th, and polling was to take place on
    September 5th.
  • biography http//adb.anu.edu.au/biography/munro-f
    erguson-sir-ronald-craufurd-7688

31
On 30th July 1914
  • .the British Government despatched the first
    of the two warning telegrams.
  • This was received by the Governor-General of
    Australia on July 30th . It informed the
    Government that the time had arrived for bringing
    into force the precautionary stage of the
    Defence Scheme.
  • This was immediately followed by a second
    telegram, instructing the Australian Government
    that the measures for the examination of ships
    entering Australia ports were not at the moment
    required, but that arrangements should be made to
    enforce them when necessary.

32
On 1st August 1914
  • On Saturday, August 1st, the word came that
    this precaution also should be taken. On
    Thursday, July 30th, when the first critical news
    arrived, the Governor-General was in Sydney, as
    was also Senator Millen, the Minister for
    Defence. Joseph Cook, the Prime Minister, alone
    was at the seat of Government in Melbourne he
    had arranged to follow Andrew Fisher, the
    leader of the Opposition, in an important
    election speech at Colac on Saturday.
  • Joseph Cook Edward Millen
    Andrew Fisher
  • biography http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Coo
    k http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward
    _Millen http//en.wikipedia
    .org/wiki/Andrew_Fisher

33
  • It will appear to future generations of
    Australians a strange token of the manner in
    which Australia stood on the brink of the
    precipice without suspecting the tremendous
    plunge ahead of her that, even on the receipt of
    this warning, the Prime Minister (whose
    whole-hearted unswerving devotion to the British
    Empire was and is one of the main principles of
    his life) did not instantly call the members of
    his Cabinet to meet him the next day or the day
    after in Melbourne
  • ..that the Minister for Defence did not
    immediately return to the Navy and Defence
    Departments at the seat of Government
  • ..and that the Governor-General did not
    forthwith move to Melbourne and ask the Prime
    Minister to confer with him.

34
On 31st July 1914
  • On the night of Friday, July 31st , Senator
    Millen, by his statement in Sydney that Australia
    was no fair-weather partner in the Empire
  • .. and Andrew Fisher at Colac. By pledging to
    the support of Great Britain, if necessary,
    Australias last man and last shilling, placed
    the position of Australia beyond doubt before the
    world.
  • Last Man Last Shilling Monument
  • http//monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/w
    w1/display/30861-60last-man60-and-60last-shilli
    ng60-monument/photo/3

35
On 2nd august 1914
  • On Sunday, August 2nd. a further telegram came
    from the British Government asking that
    precautionary measures should be taken at
    defended ports.
  • At 1.50 PM. On Sunday, August 2nd Senator
    Millen telegraphed to the Prime Minister that
    this action was proposed.

36
On 1st through 5th august 1914 --- German
shipping in Australian waters
  • On August 1st a wireless message in the secret
    German code was received by many German merchant
    ships which were loading or unloading in
    Australian ports. On Sunday, August 2nd. two of
    the German steamers which were taking in coal at
    Newcastle in New South Wales suddenly left.
  • The steamer Westfalen did the same next day.
    Another fine German ship, the Elsass, which was
    lying in Sydney Harbour at the wharves in
    Woolloomooloo Bay, with papers for a voyage to
    Antwerp, pushed off as early as she could on the
    morning of Tuesday, August 4th , and in the hurry
    of swinging round made a large hole in the
    Woolloomooloo Baths. There were no instructions
    to stop her, and she cleared at 8.05 a.m. through
    Sydney Heads.

37
SMS Westfalen
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Westfalen
SMS Elsass
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Elsass
38
On 5th august 1914
  • On August 5th the steamer Pfalz tried to get
    away shortly after noon through the heads of Port
    Phillip Melbourne), but was stopped by a shot
    from the forts, which had just heard of the
    outbreak of war.
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Pfalz_(1913)

SS Pfalz
39
On 3rd august 1914
  • The Governor-General and Major White returned
    with the two Ministers to Melbourne. The special
    Cabinet meeting, held immediately on Monday
    afternoon (August 3rd), decided to offer to the
    mother country the assistance both of the navy
    and of a force of Australian troops. G. L.
    Macandie, Secretary of the Board of Naval
    Administration, and Major White, acting-Chief
  • of the General Staff of the army, were
    instructed to be in attendance, and the latter
    was asked to furnish any plans that might exist
    for the sending of an expeditionary force from
    Australia overseas.
  • George Lionel Macandie Major White
    who became
  • General Cyril Brudenell Bingham White,
    KCB, KCMG, KCVO, DSO
  • biography http//adb.anu.edu.au/biography/macandi
    e-george-lionel-7284 http//www.awm.gov.au/peop
    le/339.asp

40
Australias preparedness
  • On the receipt of the first message the
    Government of the dominion would, if it thought
    fit, order the precautionary stage of
    mobilisation. On receiving the second it would
    take whatever steps it had decided upon for a
    time of war. Australia, fortunately, had her
    Defence Scheme almost ready. It so happened
    that in 1908-the year following the Imperial
    Conference which originated the plan-the Chief of
    Staff of the Australian Forces was Colonel
    William Throsby Bridges, an able soldier and a
    man whose grim driving force at all times
    strongly influenced whatever Minister he might be
    working with Bridges
  • Sir William Throsby Bridges
  • biography http//adb.anu.edu.au/biography/bridge
    s-sir-william-throsby-5355
  • (whose title was Chief of Intelligence),
    inasmuch as the General Staff had only been
    established since the South African War and was a
    new thing at the date in question) started upon a
    Defence Scheme of his own. . The steps to be
    taken by the States had been completely drawn up.
    Bridges himself, who drafted them with a stern
    rigidity. He laid down the conditions to be
    imposed upon the press.

41
On 6th august 1914 -- A somewhat forgotten
event Nauru Rabaul
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Naval_and
    _Military_Expeditionary_Force
  • The ANMEF began forming following a request by
    the British government on 6 August 1914. The
    force was assembled under the guidance of Colonel
    James Legge, and was separate from the Australian
    Imperial Force forming under Major-General
    William Bridges. The ANMEF comprised one
    battalion of infantry of 1,000 men enlisted in
    Sydneyknown as the 1st Battalion, ANMEFplus
    500 naval reservists and ex-sailors who would
    serve as infantry. Another battalion of militia
    from the Queensland-based Kennedy Regiment, which
    had been hurriedly dispatched to garrison
    Thursday Island, also contributed 500 volunteers
    to the force. The objectives of the force were
    the German stations at Yap in the Caroline
    Islands, Nauru and at Rabaul, New Britain.
  • James Gordon Legge William Throsby Bridges
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Gordon_Legge

    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Throsby_Bridg
    es
  • Under the command of Colonel William Holmes,
    the ANMEF departed Sydney aboard HMAS Berrima
    and halted at Palm Island off Townsville until
    the New Zealand force, escorted by the
    battlecruiser HMAS Australia, cruiser
    HMAS Melbourne, and the French cruiser Montcalm,
    occupied Samoa on 30 August. The ANMEF then
    moved to Port Moresby where it met the Queensland
    contingent aboard the transport TSS Kanowna. The
    force then sailed for German New Guinea on 7
    September but the Kanowna was left behind when
    her stokers refused to work. The soldiers from
    the Kennedy Regiment were also left in Port
    Moresby as Holmes felt that they were not trained
    or equipped well enough to be committed to the
    fighting that was expected.
  • Colonel William Holmes

42
  • A scheme was proposed by which Australia and
    New Zealand should each provide contingents based
    upon the number of troops which they had
    respectively sent to the South African War, but
    so organised as to compose, not a series of
    unconnected contingents, but a single
    fully-organised division.
  • A division at that time was 18.000 strong.
    Australia was to provide 12,000 men, and New
    Zealand about 6,000, organised in the appropriate
    units - two infantry brigades coming from
    Australia and one from New Zealand, each with its
    proportion of ambulances and other troops.

43
  • Major White could guarantee that it was
    possible to raise and organise for service abroad
    a volunteer force of 12,000 men of all arms, and
    to have them ready for sailing within six weeks. 
  • The Prime Minister was determined that
    Australias contribution should be on a greater
    scale than this. If Canada had offered (as was
    believed) 30,000 men, Australia could not offer
    fewer than 20,000. White agreed that 20,000
    Australians could be raised, and that there was
    a fair prospect that they would be ready to
    sail within six weeks.
  •  
  • The cable, which was immediately sent, ran as
    follows
  •  
  • In the event of war the Government (of
    Australia) is prepared to place the vessels of
    the Australian Navy under the control of the
    British Admiralty when desired. It is further
    prepared to despatch an expeditionary force of
    20,000 men of any suggested composition to any
    destination desired by the Home Government, the
    force to be at the complete disposal of the Home
    Government. The cost of despatch and maintenance
    will be borne by this (i.e., the Australian)
    Government.

44
On 6th august 1914
  • Two days later, on August 6th, the Secretary of
    State for the Colonies telegraphed that the
    British Government
  •  
  • gratefully accepted the offer . . . to send a
    force of 20,000 men. and would be glad if it
    could be despatched as soon as possible.
  •  
  • But already before that date men had begun to
    appear from all directions at the headquarters in
    Sydney and Melbourne begging to enlist, and on
    August 5th a small staff had been established in
    the Victoria Barracks, Melbourne, for registering
    their names.

45
  • Colonel William Throsby Bridges,
    Inspector-General of the Australian Military
    Forces, had been in Queensland when the war broke
    out, but had been recalled to Melbourne.
  • .From August 5th, when he reached Melbourne
    and was entrusted with the organising of the
    expeditionary force, he was determined that
    Australia should send to this war an Australian
    division- a compact unit, to be kept and fought
    as an Australian unit wherever it might go.

46
  • He appointed Major White as the chief of his
    staff in the new force and he drafted a reply to
    the Army Councils proposal. It stated that
    Australia fully expected 20,000 to go and had
    begun organising a division of infantry,
    including -in accordance with the regular Home
    Army organisation three brigades of 3-gun
    batteries of artillery, but without the howitzer
    brigade and heavy battery prescribed for a
    British division.
  • (A full British division at that time would
    amount to 18,000 men). The telegram added that,
    in addition, a light horse brigade was being
    constituted, consisting of 2,226 men and 2,315
    horses.
  • http//www.lancers.org.au/site/l
    ight_horse.asp

47
  • In the stand which he had made General Bridges
    was actuated by pure Australian nationalism.
  • ..He had no expectation of personally
    commanding either the force or the division.
    Indeed he himself suggested that the command
    should be given to Lieutenant-General Sir
    Edward Hutton.
  • biography http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Hu
    tton_(British_Army_officer)
  • Had it fought through the war in the form
    favoured by the Army Council, there would have
    been no ANZAC Corps.

48
6. The Forming of the a.i.f.
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
Extracts from The Story of ANZAC from the
outbreak of war to the end of the first phase of
the Gallipoli Campaign, May 4, 1915 (11th
edition, 1941) Author Bean, Charles Edwin
Woodrow (C E W). Chapter III The A.I.F.
Mainly quotes from the above text with some
possible changes. -- Acknowledged by the above
Link.
49
The forming of the a.i.f.
  • The scheme for the Australian Imperial Force
    (A.I.F.) was completed by General Bridges and
    Major White on August 8th.
  • The force was to be drawn, as far as possible,
    from men who had undergone some training
  • half of them were to be men then serving in the
    citizen army of Australia-mainly youngsters in
    their twentieth year and upwards
  • the other half were to be men not then in the
    forces, but who had once been in the militia
    or had served in the South African or other wars.
  • The units were to be connected with the
    different States in Australia they were to be
    definitely local and territorial.
  • This principle, laid down from the first, was of
    necessity afterwards abandoned in the case of
    special arms, such as the artillery, the army
    medical corps, and the engineers, but the
    infantry battalions and light horse regiments
    continued to be recruited from their own States
    throughout the war..

50
  • This chapter also discusses how the AIF was
    being formed from the various states, the
    populations of these states, and how it was
    intended to break these down into Divisions,
    Brigades, Battalions, Regiments, their training
    locations etc. It also, discussed the breakdown
    of the type of people enlisting and the rates of
    pay that these volunteers would be paid.
  •  
  • .The great driving force of Bridges created
    all this new army within a month, mainly upon the
    lines of the scheme which White had drawn before
    the war..

51
  • A section discusses the types of people who were
    clambering to join up.
  •  
  • .hundreds of those newly-arrived younger men
    who knew the old country as the land of their
    childhood, English and Scottish immigrants to
    whom their home was calling Irishmen with a
    generous semi-religious hatred of the German
    horrors in Belgium.

52
  • In only two or three cases do the records
    preserve details of these early enlistments.
  • The newspapers stated that by April, 1915, there
    had been enrolled 12,000 shearers and station
    hands, members of the Australian Workers' Union,
    and 1,000 bank clerks.
  • In New South Wales alone 164 students of the
    State Agricultural College and 140 policemen had
    joined.
  • More than one clergyman, not accepted as
    chaplain, enlisted in the ranks. One was a
    well-known priest of the Church of England,
    Digges La Touche.
  • http//webjournals.ac.edu.au/journals/adeb/l_/la-t
    ouche-everard-digges-1883-1915/
  • http//www.anzacs.org/pages/AOdigges.html

53
  • A very poignant quote from the book follows..
  •  
  • The men who would not wait for commissions as
    officers, which were to be had almost for the
    asking by any educated Australian if he chose to
    go to Great Britain..................
  • the men whose greatest fear was that they would
    not be in whatever was going .

54
  • The lengths to which some young men went to was
    also discussed
  •  
  • Many men, rejected in the Capital of one State,
    made the long journey to another to enlist. One
    youngster, four times refused in Melbourne, was
    accepted in Sydney. Another man rode 460 miles,
    and travelled still further by railway, in order
    to join the Light Horse in Adelaide. Finding the
    ranks full he sailed to Hobart, and was finally
    enlisted in Sydney.
  • Those who during the first few days crowded the
    recruiting offices came mostly from the great
    cities. But within the first year many farming
    districts had been deserted by almost all their
    young men.
  •  
  • Some who had been officers in the militia
    entered the force as privates. Many a youngster,
    who could have had a commission, enlisted in the
    ranks and remained there in order to serve beside
    a friend.

55
  • But for the most part the wealthy, the
    educated, the rough and the case-hardened, poor
    Australians, rich Australians, went into the
    ranks together unconscious of any distinction.
    When they came into an atmosphere of class
    difference later in the war, they stoutly and
    rebelliously resented it.
  •  
  • Early in the history of the A.I.F. it became
    clear that the right selection and training of
    officers was the problem vital beyond any other
    in the creation of the Australian Army. Given
    officers and non-commissioned officers of the
    right type and of sufficient training, the rank
    and file of an Australian force could be
    trained in a few months.

56
  • This section discusses the various ways used
    for the selection of officers
  •  
  • The manner in which the regimental officers for
    the original 1st Division were selected may be
    illustrated by the case of the 1st Australian
    Infantry Brigade, whose records for this period
    are, for some reason, much more complete than
    those of the other troops.
  • The Brigadier, MacLaurin, was a man of lofty
    ideals, direct, determined, with a certain
    inherited Scottish dourness rather unusual in a
    young Australian, but an educated man of action
    of the finest type that the Australian
    Universities produce.
  • Henry Normand MacLaurin
  • biography http//en.wikipedia.org/wik
    i/Henry_Normand_MacLaurin
  •  

57
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Military_Coll
ege,_Duntroon
  • One class of officers must be specially
    mentioned-the cadets of the Australian Military
    College at Duntroon.
  • General Bridges. who had founded the college
    less than four years before, decided to take with
    him the whole of the first years cadets.
  • By a flash of rare statesmanship, the college
    was thrown open to New Zealanders should the New
    Zealand Government care to train its staff there
    also. This offer was accepted, and an average of
    eight New
  • Zealand cadets entered yearly.
  • Hundreds of lives and the fate of battles might
    depend upon an Australian staff and a New Zealand
    staff possessing an intimate understanding of
    each other..
  •  
  • .It may be said here that every cadet who
    passed through the college in time served at the
    front 181 fought in the A.I.F. 42 died 58 were
    wounded.

58
7. The first contingent get ready to sail
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
Extracts from The Story of ANZAC from the
outbreak of war to the end of the first phase of
the Gallipoli Campaign, May 4, 1915 (11th
edition, 1941) Author Bean, Charles Edwin
Woodrow (C E W). Chapter V The First Contingent
Sails Mainly quotes from the above text with some
possible changes. -- Acknowledged by the above
Link.
59
The first contingent get ready to sail
  • At each Australian Capital, about the middle of
    August, the infantry regiments began to take
    shape. In most cases the officer chosen to
    command one of them received between the 13th and
    17th of August a telegram informing him of the
    fact, and instructing him to organise his unit
    and choose its officers.
  •  
  • On August 13th Major A. J. Bennett,' who had
    fought in South Africa, was ordered by Colonel
    MacLaurin. The brigadier, to organise the 3rd
    battalion of the 1st Infantry Brigade. The next
    day Major Bennett conferred with the brigadier,
    and selected from eight of the training areas of
    New South Wales most of the officers of the
    battalion. At 800AM. on August 17th the chosen
    officers presented themselves. clothed in their
    militia uniforms, at the Victoria Barracks,
    Sydney...
  •  
  • Such was the actual birth of one of those
    splendid regiments, which may go down to history
    known by their mere numbers, but of which those
    who knew them will never be able to think except
    as living breathing things, each full to
    overflowing with its own peculiar motive and
    pride and character.
  •  
  • This section talks at length on the building of
    the forces that would eventually be transported
    to Africa for further training and then would
    eventually be part of the Gallipoli Campaign.
    This was a task which was carried out without
    haste and taking into consideration the troops,
    supplies and horses for the Mounted sections..
  •  

60
On 21st September
  • The units of the first contingent all over
    Australia were complete and ready to sail by
    September 21st.
  •   There already lay in various ports a large
    fleet of troopships, numbered A1 to A28 (a system
    of numbering which the Australian transports
    retained throughout the war).
  • Transport Ships of WWI
  • http//alh-research.tripod.com/ships_lh.htm
  • Photos and numbers

61
  • But things were happening upon the sea which
    had caused the Government suddenly to postpone
    the date of sailing. The original intention of
    the Australian staff had been to begin shipping
    the horses away in the slower vessels, from about
    August 26th. the other transports following as
    they were ready. .
  •  
  • ..the Admiralty warned the Australian
    Government A convoy is not at present
    practicable. the telegram continued, as the
    greater part of the Australian and New Zealand
    squadrons are engaged in offensive operations in
    the Pacific. When the force does start it should
    go preferably in one convoy. A later telegram
    stated that the route would probably be by way of
    Fremantle, Colombo, Aden, and Suez...
  •  
  • The Admiralty had undertaken to provide an
    escort for the transports. What the escort was to
    be, and when it could arrive, would depend upon
    the position of the German squadron in the
    Pacific-and the German squadron had vanished.
    (Scharnhorst and Gneisenau)
  • SMS Scharnhorst SMS Gneisenau
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_battleship_S
    charnhorst http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ger
    man_battleship_Gneisenau

62
  • There was only one British ship in the Pacific
    which was beyond question capable of defeating
    vessels of their class-the Australian
    battle-cruiser Australia (which Winston Churchill
    had desired to see transferred to the
  • Atlantic).
  •  http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAS_Australi
    a_(1911)

63
  • The first move of troops would be made when the
    New Zealand force started on its six days voyage
    across the Tasman Sea to Australia. It would then
    sail for a week along the south coast of the
    Continent and find the Australian transports
    assembled in the far west. at Albany or
    Fremantle, the last Australian ports on the
    voyage to England. From that place the two forces
    would move together in one large convoy across
    the Indian Ocean.
  •  
  • The Admiralty intended to let an escort of small
    cruisers bring the New Zealanders to Australia.
    and to increase the escort with the modern light
    cruisers Sydney and Melbourne of the Australian
    Navy when the whole force moved from Australia to
    Aden.
  •  
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAS_Sydney_(1912)
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAS_Melbourne
    _(1912)

64
  • It was arranged that the Australian transports
    should be concentrated on the Western Australian
    coast before October 3rd, and the Admiralty
    therefore asked New Zealand to have its
    contingent assembled at Wellington ready to sail
    by September 20th, by which date the small escort
    would be ready.
  •  
  • The Admiralty .. telegraphed, on September
    8th, to the Commander-in-Chief on the China
    Station that, if the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau
    were not accounted for by the end of the month,
    he must send the two armoured cruisers Minotaur
    and Hampshire to escort the Australasian
    Expeditionary Force across that part of the
    Indian Ocean..
  •  
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Minotaur_(1906)
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Hampshire_(1
    903)
  •  
  •  

65
  • It also looks at New Zealand concerns on this
    situation..
  •  
  • ..The New Zealand Cabinet, however, was most
    uneasy as to the diminutive escorts - the Psyche
    and Philomel - which were to take the New Zealand
    ships as far as Australia. Yet it accepted the
    risk, informing the Admiralty that its force
    would leave Wellington (N.Z.) on September 25th
    and reach Fremantle on October 7th.
  •  
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAS_Psyche
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Philomel_(1890)
  •  
  • The Admiralty responded to these concerns

66
  • Sighting of Emden
  •  
  • ..On the day on which these cruisers were at
    Samoa information reached the Admiralty from
    Ceylon that the German light cruiser Emden, of
    the same squadron, was in the Bay of Bengal,
    apparently by herself, raiding the traffic off
    the Indian coast between Calcutta and Madras.
  •  

SMS Emden
67
  • ..Thus the whereabouts of the more important
    German warships in the Pacific became known at
    the same moment. The Admiralty changed its
    arrangements to meet the new situation. The
    battle-cruiser Australia and the French cruiser
    Montcalm were ordered to cover the force in New
    Guinea from attack, and then to search for the
    Gneisenau and Scharnhorst. The Hampshire was
    diverted from her prospective duty on the
    Australian escort, and instructed to find and
    sink the Emden. A far more powerful ship was to
    take her place on the escort-the Japanese
    Government lent the Ibuki, then lying at
    Singapore, for this purpose, and she started at
    once (September 18th). The Minotaur had left the
    day before. She and the Ibuki were to reach
    Fremantle about October 1st, in order to pick up
    at that port the combined Australian and New
    Zealand convoy. The transports were already
    beginning to move. Those from the furthest
    Australian port, Brisbane, had embarked their
    troops, and on September 24th started down the
    coast without escort towards the point of
    concentration in the west. On the same day the
    embarkation of units at the next most distant
    Sydney, was begun.

68
  • Change of Government in Australia
  • Andrew Fisher, the Prime Minister of Australia -
    who, with Senator G. F. Pearce as Minister for
    Defence and William Morris Hughes as
    Attorney-General, was now directing the
    Government of Australia
  • George Foster Pearce William Morris
    (Billy) Hughes
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Pearce
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Hughes
  • (Joseph Cook and the Liberals having been
    defeated by the Labour Party at the elections) -
    was exceedingly restive at the notion of
    transports coming unescorted round the Australian
    coast. As the date of sailing approached, this
    anxiety more and more obsessed him.

69
  • Troops begin to move
  • .On the day on which the 9th Battalion
    (Queensland) had actually left Brisbane in the
    Orient liner Omrah the
  • http//de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omrah
  •  
  •   Australian Government inquired by cable of the
    Admiralty whether it deemed it was safe for
    this independent movement of transports down the
    coast, as nothing definite had been heard of the
    Scharnhorst and Gneisenau since September 14th.
  •  
  •   The Admiralty replied that it still considered
    that the sailing of the transports round the
    Australian coast was free from undue risk but
    that, in view of the anxiety felt by the
    Governments of both Australia and New Zealand, it
    had decided

70
  • The Admiralty replied that it still considered
    that the sailing of the transports round the
    Australian coast was free from undue risk but
    that, in view of the anxiety felt by the
    Governments of both Australia and New Zealand, it
    had decided that, when the two cruisers (Minotaur
    and Ibuki) reached Fremantle, they should
    continue round the southern coast of Australia to
    New Zealand, pick up the New Zealand convoy, and
    bring it to Western Australia.
  •  
  • http//es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibuki_(1909)
  • This entailed three weeks delay, and was the
    cause of that countermanding of orders of
    embarkation mentioned above. He pointed out
    that it would harass the troops and those who had
    to provide for them. It meant deferring the time
    when they would be ready for service. The German
    cruisers would without firing a shot achieve
    their object of cutting communications between
    Australia and England. Even when the escort came,
    it would not be one which would prevent a
    vigorous enemy from damaging the convoy before
    being himself destroyed.
  • The Admiralty had ordered the delay not because
    it believed it necessary, but in deference to the
    anxiety of Australia and New Zealand.
  •  

71
  • Suddenly Cancelled
  •   The Melbourne was ordered from Sydney to escort
    into harbour in Melbourne such transports as had
    already sailed from Queensland. All arrangements
    for embarkation were suddenly cancelled.
  •  
  • This section further discusses the morale of the
    troops who had already said goodbye to their
    families and friends, and also the perception and
    feelings of the public seeing that our troops
    hanging around in the streets in uniform and not
    being sent into the foray to help out
  •  
  • On the night of September 30th arrived news that
    eight days previously the two German cruisers had
    suddenly visited and bombarded the town of
    Papeete, in the French island of Tahiti near the
    middle of the Pacific, 2000 miles from New
    Zealand.
  •  
  • The one risk now remaining was that of meeting
    the German cruiser which had appeared in the
    Indian Ocean and had raided the traffic there
    with extraordinary boldness the Emden. Another
    light German cruiser, the Konigsberg was also in
    that ocean. but she was understood to be near the
    African coast.
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KC3B6nigsberg-
    class_cruiser_(1905)
  •  

72
  • Admiralty on October 4th gave an assurance that
    the movement of the transports was now safe, and
    on the strength of this Andrew Fisher agreed that
    it should be undertaken.
  •  
  •  Troop Movements resumed
  •  
  • On October 16th the New Zealand transports, ten
    in number, escorted by the Ibuki, Minotaur,
    Psyche, and Philomel, left Wellington, and the
    movement of the Australian troopships towards the
    port of concentration was at last resumed.
  •  
  • For the concentration of the transport fleet the
    Australian Government had chosen the deep and
    wide harbour immediately inside the southern bend
    of the south-western corner of the Australian
    continent, King Georges Sound, better known to
    travellers in the years before it was supplanted
    by Fremantle as their regular port of call.
  •  
  • See Fleet Re-enactment in 2014. (link to
    sub-Branch video from Albany..)
  •  
  • It consists of a large outer bay, sheltered from
    almost every wind and leading into a smaller
    inner harbour almost entirely landlocked. The
    rolling heath covered hills shut in even the
    outer bay, except for the narrow
  • entrances on either side of Breaksea Island at
    its south-eastern end. The small town of .4lbany
    and the pier, where the largest ships can lie,
    are in a corner of the inner bay.
  •  
  • At this lonely sound there began to arrive, on
    October 24th. troopships from the ports of
    eastern Australia.

73
  • The Miltiades carrying reservists of the British
    Army who were to join their regiments in England,
    had left Sydney on October 17th
  • http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons
    /3/3a/StateLibQld_1_114464_Miltiades_(ship).jpg
  • the - Argyllshire with artillery,
  • http//www.thekivellfamily.co.nz/family_pages
    /ralphs_diaries/images/ss_argyllshire.jpg

74
  • the Afric, with the 1st Battalion, the 1st Field
    Company of Engineers,
  • http//alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/Af
    ric_1qaa1.jpg
  • and part of the Train, and the Suffolk, with the
    2nd Battalion, left Sydney the next day
  • http//www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/images/h
    mssuffolk5.jpg
  • the Clan Maccorquodale, with horses,
  • http//www.awm.gov.au/collection/P01122.003
  •  

75
  • the Star of Victoria, with the 1st Light Horse
    Regiment,
  • http//alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/PC23000
    6_star-of-victoria.jpg
  •  
  • and the Euripides, with the Headquarters of the
    1st Infantry Brigade,
  • http//www.awm.gov.au/collection/P03987.001
  •  
  • the 3rd and 4th Battalions, and the 1st Field
    Ambulance, followed on October 20th.
  • http//alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/wm2
    0111914p25_A7_medic.jpg

76
  • Melbourne being 600 miles nearer to the
    rendezvous, the Victorian transports started one
    day later, on the average, than those from
    Sydney. The Queensland ships, which had been
    waiting in Melbourne nearly a month since their
    voyage was stopped, sailed also. Sixteen ships
    left Melbourne between the 17th and 21st of
    October five left Adelaide between the 20th and
    2and two left Hobart (Tasmania) on October 20th.
    The Western Australian troops, in two ships, were
    to join the convoy later, on its way to the
    Indian Ocean. On October 21st the Orient liner
    Orvieto,
  • http//alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Hors
    e/ta21111914ps01_ovieto_1qaa1.jpg
  • carrying General Bridges and the staff of the
    1st Australian Division, the 5th Battalion, and
    the 2nd Field Company of Engineers, pulled out
    from Port Melbourne pier, where the crowd had
    broken through the sentries and was waving from
    the wharf. The Australian Imperial Force was
    launched upon its separate career.

77
8. The voyage Begins
Centenary of ANZAC 1914 -1915
Extracts from The Story of ANZAC from the
outbreak of war to the end of the first phase of
the Gallipoli Campaign, May 4, 1915 (11th
edition, 1941) Author Bean, Charles Edwin
Woodrow (C E W). Chapter VI The Voyage and the
Emden Mainly quotes from the above text with some
possible changes. -- Acknowledged by the above
Link.
78
THE VOYAGE BEGINS
  • On October 26th the Orvieto reached Albany.
    Ahead of her coming in from the high seas through
    a heavy
  • rainstorm, was a black-funnelled ship the
    Geelong from Tasmania. Astern was the Star of
    Victoria, with light horse from Sydney. Eighteen
    ships were already in the outer harbour,
    anchored in three lines. All day others were
    arriving from every part of Australia. About noon
    entered the Euripides from Sydney. In this vessel
    were Colonel MacLaurin, his staff, and half of
    his brigade. As she moved slowly past the
    flagship, her decks lined with troops standing
    rigidly to attention, her band playing, there was
    impressed upon some onlookers for the first time
    the truth which was proved on every battlefield
    later, that the Australian soldier is exactly
    what his commanding officer makes him. The
    difference between any two ships in that convoy,
    as between any two regiments later, was simply
    the difference between the officers commanding in
    them.
  •  
  • On the morning of October 28th fourteen ships
    were seen on the horizon. The first was a low
    thick-set warship with three funnels smoking
    heavily. She moved in close under the hills to
    the west. This was the Japanese cruiser Ibuki.
    She was followed by the large four-funnelled
    British cruiser Minotaur, with the small Philomel
    and Pyramus like terriers at her heels. After
    them came the ten New Zealand troopships, each
    painted an even grey and bearing on the side in
    small white letters H.M.N.Z.T., together with a
    number from 3 to 12.
  •  
  • The Melbourne, which had arrived the day before,
    kept continuous watch outside the harbour, slowly
    cruising to and fro.
  •  
  • This section also discussed some of the
    problems occurring in South Africa, and there was
    some discussion on a change of route

79
  • On October 25th the British cabinet decided that
    the Australian and New Zealand convoy must come
    to Europe by way of the Cape instead of by Egypt.
    A revolt had broken out among some of the Dutch
    in South Africa, and the only troops by whom
    General Botha could be quickly reinforced were
    the Australasian contingents.
  •  
  • However,
  •  
  • October 30th Botha had defeated the rebels, and
    on the very eve of the starting of the convoy the
    Suez route was again adopted.
  •  
  • http//www.awm.gov.au/collection/G0154
    7/

80
  • By the night of October 31st the coaling and
    watering of transports were completed. The last
    sick man had been sent ashore. No leave had been
    given to the men in Albany, and General Bridges
    had therefore on principle refused it to
    officers. At 6.25AM on the morning of November
    1st. in bright sunlight, with the harbour
    glassily smooth, the Minotaur and Sydney
    up-anchored and moved out between the sun-bathed
    hills to sea.
  •  
  • At 6.45AM the central line of ships (known as
    the first division of the convoy) started, the
    inshore ship (Orvieto)
  • leading, and each of the others turning to
    follow as the line passed them. Half an hour
    later the second division of transports followed
    then the third finally the New Zealanders in two
    divisions.
  •  
  • Outside the harbour the first division had
    stopped and was waiting on the motionless sea.
    The second, with the Wiltshire leading, came up
    until it lay parallel about a mile away on the
    port beam the third division moved up
  • similarly on the starboard side. The New Zealand
    ships swung in astern of the three Australian
    divisions. In each
  • line there were 800 yards between each ship and
    her next astern, so that the convoy was about
    seven and a half miles in length. The Minotaur
    took station five miles ahead, and the Sydney and
    Melbourne about four miles away on either beam.
  •  

81
  • At 8.55AM the whole fleet moved ahead-thirty-six
    transports and three escorting cruisers. Two days
    later the Ibuki, with the great liners Ascanius
    and Medic carrying troops from South and Western
    Australia, was found waiting beside the route on
    the high seas, half-obscured by a rain-squall.
    The two transports took up their places in the
    line.
  • A11 -- Ascanius A7 Medic
  • http//www.awm.gov.au/collection/H16157/
    http//alh-research.tripod.com/Ligh
    t_Horse/wm20111914p25_A7_medic.jpg
  • So through the Indian Ocean moved this convoy on
    a voyage such as was never undertaken before or
    since. Every morning found the lines of the fleet
    holding on their appointed course. The pace was
    set by the slowest ship in the first division,
    the Southern which was supposed to make 10 knots.

82
  • Avoiding detection by the German Fleet
  •  
  • Many precautions were taken to prevent the
    convoy from being sighted, especially at night,
    when a hostile cruiser might have approached
    unseen. At the beginning of the voyage the
    thirty-eight ships were allowed to carry after
    dark their red and green side-lights and
    stern-lights only the leading ship in each
    division carried a masthead light. All other
    lights aboard were supposed to be screened.
  •  
  • when passing the Cocos Islands, all other
    lights should be extinguished, leaving only on
    the water astern of each ship this faint glow, by
    which the following ship was to steer. The
    officers of the merchant service who were masters
    of the ships were at this stage very nervous in
    steaming without lights, and there was a marked
    anxiety to defer as long as possible the date
    when the rule should be completely enforced. On
    the night of November 7th, when the Cocos Islands
    were thirty-six hours distant, all lights in the
    fleet were extinguished for half an hour.
  •  
  • Even cigarettes and pipes were put out by order
    from the bridge. The only light upon the sea was
    the dim reflected glow from each hooded
    stern-light, invisible at a few hundred yards,
    and the occasional winking of a signal-light.
  •  
  • In order to avoid betraying the convoy, no
    high-power wireless telegraphy had been allowed
    since the ships left , Australia only the
    cruisers and the leading ships in each line were
    permitted to use their wireless, an
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