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The Road to World War I

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Title: The Road to World War I


1
AP World History World War I Chapter 34
2
Differing Viewpoints
  • Family Feud
  • Fall of the Eagles
  • The War to End All Wars
  • The War to Make the World Safe for
    Democracy

3
ColonialRivalriesAfricain1914
4
Colonial Rivalries Asia in 1914
5
The British Empire in 1914
6
The Balkans in 1878
7
The Balkan Wars 1912-1913
8
Europe in 1914
9
The Balkans in 1914
10
Cause 1 Militarism
  • Belief that ones country needs a strong and
    large military
  • Includes belief in build-up of navies
  • Britain had best navy in the world in 1900
  • Germany began building up their navy to compete
    with Britain
  • Britain responds with even greater production

11
Cause 2 Alliances
  • Europes major powers entered into many alliances
    with one-another.
  • Designed to keep the peace and fulfill
    obligations
  • In reality the network of alliances meant an
    attack on one nation could bring all of its
    allies to its aid
  • Small conflicts could escalate quickly

12
Cause 3 Imperialism
  • European countries competed with one another for
    colonies around the world
  • Rivalry between Germany-France Germany-Britain
    was the most intense
  • Germany felt left-out esp. in Africa Asia
  • These rivalries help shape future alliances led
    to conflicts before WWI ever started
  • French/German Moroccan conflict 1905
  • Balkan Wars of 1912-13

13
Cause 4 Nationalism
  • The belief that people with similar ethnic
    origins, language, and political ideals had the
    right to form their own country
  • Some Euro. areas (Germany, Italy, Belgium) had
    gained independence others (esp. the Balkan
    region) hadnt yet
  • Austria-Hungary was an empire with many people
    esp. Slavs wanting independence (using
    nationalism as primary reason)
  • Intensified by Russias Pan-Slavism policy
  • Nationalism also included strong pride in ones
    country (belief it should outshine others)
    esp. colonies

14
ColonialRivalriesAfricain1914
15
Alliance System Major players before the war
  • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers)
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Bulgaria
  • The Triple Entente (The Allied Powers)
  • Britain
  • France
  • Russia

16
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17
The Spark that starts the war
  • Serbian Nationalist group called the Black Hand
    wanted Serbian unity less power for
    Austria-Hungary in Balkan region

18
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19
Spark, Cont Assassination of the Archduke
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austria-Hungary
    throne) assassinated by Gavrilo Princip while
    visiting Sarajevo (in Bosnia-Herzegovina)
  • Austria-Hungary issues ultimatum to Serbia then
    declares war on Serbia

20
The Assassin
GavriloPrincip
21
Movement Toward War
  • June 28, 1914 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand is
    assassinated
  • July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  • July 30 Russia (Serbias ally) mobilizes armed
    forces
  • August 1 Germany (Austria-Hungarys ally)
    declares war on Russia
  • August 3 Germany declares war on France
    (Russias ally) prepares for invasion of Belgium
    (Schlieffen Plan)
  • August 4 Britain, pledging to protect Belgium,
    declares war on Germany
  • August 6 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia
  • August 12 France and Britain declare war on
    Austria-Hungary

22
Whos To Blame?
23
1. The Alliance System
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
24
Two Armed Camps!
Allied Powers
Central Powers
25
The War Begins
  • Speedy war expected (Well be home by
    Christmas)
  • War of glory expected
  • All had belief in victory God is on our side

26
German Poster
27
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28
Schlieffen Plan
  • Germany would attack fast by going through
    neutral Belgium along the coast and defeat France
    quickly, and then take on Russia in the East.
    Germany did NOT want to fight a war on two
    fronts!

29
The reality of War The Western Front
  • Hopes of quick war gives way to stalemate along
    Western Front Trench Warfare
  • Soldiers fought each other from dug out trenches
  • Would storm each others trenches
  • Very bloody and each side would gain very little
    land
  • advanced about one mile per month

30
Trench Conditions
  • Trenches were infested by rats and disease
  • dead bodies littered the ground
  • Food was scarce and sleep was almost impossible
    due to constant artillery blasts

31
  • The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud,
    and dreamed mud

32
Trench Warfare
33
New Weapons
  • Machine Guns
  • Tanks
  • Barbed Wire
  • Poison Gases
  • Large Artillery
  • Airplanes
  • Submarines
  • What were the point of these new weapons? What
    were the effects of introducing these new
    weapons?
  • It has been said that WWI was the first
    industrialized war. What does that mean? What
    are the effects when war is industrialized?

34
Krupps Big Bertha Gun
35
French Renault Tank
36
British Tank at Ypres
37
U-Boats
38
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
39
The Airplane
Squadron Over the BrentaMax Edler von Poosch,
1917
40
The Flying Aces of World War I
FrancescoBarraco, It.
Eddie MickMannoch, Br.
Eddie Rickenbacher, US
Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.The Red Baron
Rene PaukFonck, Fr.
Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.
41
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
42
The Zeppelin
43
FlameThrowers
GrenadeLaunchers
44
Poison Gas
Machine Gun
45
Brutality of New Warfare
  • Unprecedented casualties
  • Verdun - 1916
  • 315,000 French killed
  • 280,000 German casualties
  • Less than 160,000 bodies recovered
  • The Somme - British gain few thousand yards
  • 420,000 casualties
  • No significant strategic advantage

46
The Somme July, 1916
  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

47
War Is HELL !!
48
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49
The Eastern Front
  • Much more fluid than the West
  • Many early losses by Allied Powers (esp. Russia
    creating a lack of popularity for the war and for
    the Czar in Russia)

50
War around the World Colonies at War
  • Not just a European war but a global conflict
    (colonies were expected to help often with men
    resources)
  • Japan entered the war on the side of the Allies
    (wanted to rid Germany from East Asia esp.
    China Pacific) ? Plus, Japan could gain
    colonies
  • Conquered many German possessions in Asia
  • Japan issues 21 Demands on China
  • Germany fought Britain and France in Africa
  • The Allied failure of the Gallipoli Campaign

51
Sikh British Soldiers in India
52
Fighting in Africa
Black Soldiers in the German SchutztruppenGerman
E. Africa
British Sikh Mountain Gunners
53
Fighting in Africa
3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
54
Fighting in Salonika, Greece
French colonial marine infantry fromCochin,
China - 1916
55
Total War
  • WWI was fought by entire societies not just
    armies (includes the military front the home
    front both equally important)
  • The Home Front included each nations ability to
    mobilize its economy non-combat citizens for
    the war effort

56
WWI The Home Front
  • Big Home Front Themes
  • Industrialized wars required new levels of
    government oversight and propaganda, damaging the
    19th century ideal of laissez-faire economics.
  • The necessity of using women in European
    factories damaged the traditional middle-class
    ideas of a patriarchal society with separate
    spheres for women men
  • New Rules of Engagement with Civilians as
    targets
  • Bombing of cities / destroying passenger ships
  • Blockading countries

57
The Home Front Changes in the Economy
  • Governments abandoned laissez-faire approach in
    favor of tight-controls over economy (production
    quotas, price controls, restrictions on workers)
    Why?
  • Huge demand for workers at home (why?)

58
Women in WWI
  • At home Women took male jobs took new roles
    (factory work esp. munitions, often dangerous)
  • At war Women worked mainly as nurses and
    clerical workers
  • Impact of the war for women
  • Very liberating for upper-class women / less so
    for lower classes
  • Women still earned less than men for equal work
  • War served as liberating force for women (voting
    rights granted in several countries after war)

59
Financing the War
60
Munitions Workers
61
French Women Factory Workers
62
German Women Factory Workers
63
Working in the Fields
64
A Woman Ambulance Driver
65
Red Cross Nurses
66
Women in the Army Auxiliary
67
Russian Women Soldiers
68
WWI Propaganda / Civil Liberties
  • Propaganda included all of the following
  • Promoted national unity
  • Censored bad war news
  • Vilified the enemy (sub-human savages)
  • Restriction of civil liberties (often illegal to
    criticize the govt)
  • Joseph Callaux in France
  • Charles Schenck in the U.S.

69
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70
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71
German atrocities in Belgium
72
Russian Revolution
  • Russia was performing very poorly in the war
    (massive casualties vs. Germans on Eastern Front)
  • Armies began to disintegrate
  • Food shortages protests common
  • Czar Nicholas II forced to step down in March
    1917 (Romanov Dynasty 300 yr. old ends)
  • Revolutionary movement led by soviets began to
    take shape
  • Soviet Revolutionary councils organized by
    Socialists in Russia

73
Russian Revolution (Cont)
  • Russia broke down into two camps (The Provisional
    Government the Petrograd Soviet)
  • Provisional Government had the power and did
    accomplish a number of reforms
  • BUTthe major goals for the masses of people were
    to 1.) End the War, and 2.) Land Reform
  • The Provisional Govt claimed it couldnt do
    either
  • The Petrograd soviet felt it COULD do these

74
Vladimir Lenin
  • Radical Marxist who believed in quickly ending
    the War
  • Wanted to impose Marxist socialism in Russia
    but believed in the need for a disciplined
    workers party that would bring about change
  • Headed new group of Russian Socialists called the
    Bolsheviks

75
Bolsheviks seize power
  • Gained control of the Petrograd soviet
  • Won respect of peasants after Provisional Govt
    wouldnt end the war, feed the people, or put
    forth land reforms
  • Bolsheviks promised people Peace, Land, and
    Bread.
  • Popular support allowed Lenin the Bolsheviks to
    seize power fully in Nov. 1917

76
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • After departing the war the Bolshevik rulers
    negotiated a treaty with Germany - ending
    Russias participation in the war
  • Germany got possession of a large segment of
    Russian territory ¼ of its population
  • Russia was out of the war and free to address
    problems at home.

77
U.S. Enters the War
  • America had been officially neutral from
    1914-1917
  • Some believed an Allied victory made good
    financial sense in America (U.S. banks loaned
    lots of to Allies)
  • America finally enters the war (reasons why)
  • Germany resumed Unrestricted Sub Warfare on
    merchant ships (sinking of the Lusitania
    others)
  • Zimmerman Telegram leaked
  • U.S.s official policy the world must be made
    safe for democracy

78
The Sinking of the Lusitania
79
The end of the War
  • Surge by American troops in late 1917 and 1918
    was too much for the Germans
  • Allies push through the Western Front lines in
    1918
  • Germany was exhausted after 4 years of Total
    War (running low on materials, people tired)
  • Armistice to end the war signed on Nov. 11, 1918

80
1918 Flu Pandemic Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 100,000,000 died
81
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82
World War I Casualties
83
Post-War Agreements
  • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proposed his
    Fourteen Points which called for
  • End to secret treaties
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Freedom of trade
  • Reduction in the size of armies/navies
  • Fix to the colonialism issue (give equal
    interests to owner of colony natives)
  • Promote Self-Determination
  • Form an international peacemaking organization
    (League of Nations)

84
Post-War Agreements (Cont)
  • Leaders of France, Britain, U.S. dominated talks
    at the Paris Peace Conference 1919 to pass a
    series of treaties.
  • Representatives from Germany Russia were not
    invited

85
Treaty of Versailles
  • Passed the Treaty of Versailles - which said
  • Germany must accept sole responsibility for war
  • Germany must have a limited army/navy
  • Germany forced to give up overseas empire (all
    colonies possessions)
  • Germany must pay war reparation payments of over
    30 billion
  • (Territory, Military, Reparations, and GUILT)
  • Germany complained the treaty was overly harsh
    and embarrassing

86
Self Determination
  • The ability for people to rule themselves
    choose their own government and not be ruled by
    others
  • Had its limitations / rules
  • World said no to a united Germany/Austria
  • Often difficult to redraw boundaries fairly
  • Didnt always work well (Yugoslavia land of the
    south Slavs actually made up of Serbs, Croats,
    Slovenes)

87
Turkey with Mustafa Kemal
  • Turkish Nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal was
    upset that the Ottoman Sultan was negotiating
    with the Allies after the war
  • Kemal started a nationalist movement, defied the
    Allies, drove them out, abolished the old
    sultanate and formed the Republic of Turkey

88
Republic of Turkey
  • Kemal rules Turkey as its first president
  • Put forth a program of modernization
  • Economic development with industrialization
  • Move toward secular government
  • Women can vote
  • European-derived law
  • Western Alphabet
  • Western clothing

89
The Mandate System
  • A mixture or transition between colonialism
    and self-determination
  • After the war the old colonies of the Central
    Powers had to be divided up
  • America didnt want a return to old fashion
    colonial system
  • As a compromise set up the Mandate System
    Allies would administer these areas until they
    could stand on their own
  • French ruled Mandates in former Ottoman
    territories of Syria and Lebanon
  • British established Mandates in Iraq and
    Palestine
  • Some hated the idea Allies saw it as an
    unpleasant reality for places that werent
    ready for self rule yet

90
Effects of the war things to consider
  • Europe is now weaker U.S. takes a new position
    as a world power
  • Global depression is looming because of war
  • Revolutionary ideas spread to areas around the
    world

91
Effects of WWI on East Asia Middle East South
Asia)- Essay
  • Main Points
  • Strong desire for self-rule in post WWI climate
  • Move toward economic independence
  • The Worldwide Economic Depression

92
Post WWI Effects on East Asia (China and Japan)
  • China
  • Economic / Political breakdown (examples)
  • Nationalism on the rise (examples)
  • Desire for self-rule / end imperialism unequal
    treaties
  • Some turn to Marxism (rise of Communist movement
    - Mao Zedong)
  • Japan
  • -Winning side of WWI
  • -Economic / political chaos caused by Depression
  • -React to econ problems by invading Chinese
    Manchuria in 1931

93
South Asia - India
  • Political effects post WWI
  • Indian National Congress (INC) formed pre-WWI
    but pushed hard for self-rule after war
  • Motivated by Wilsons message of
    self-determination and Lenins message of
    anti-colonialism / revolution of proletariat,
    etc.
  • Turmoil leads to movement by Mohandas Gandhi
  • Shifts INC from elitist body to one of the common
    man

94
Mohandas Gandhi
  • Fought segregation, mistreatment of Indians
  • -Passive non-violence, tolerance, simple living,
    non materialism, abstention from worldly
    pleasures
  • -Fought for lowest castes through civil
    disobedience and boycott of British goods
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