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Old Testament: History and Structure

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Title: Old Testament: History and Structure


1
Old Testament History and Structure
2
The Holy Bible
  • The word Bible comes from the Greek word
    biblia, which means books. The Bible is really
    a collection or library of many books.
  • These books are divided into two main parts, the
    Old Testament and the New Testament.
  • Testament means covenant or agreement.
  • The Old Covenant is an agreement that God made
    with the nation of Israel.

3
The Holy Bible
  • It contains 73 books, 46 (39 main books plus 7
    Second Canonical books removed by Protestants) in
    the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament
  • More than 40 writers over more than 1,500 years.
  • It is one book as God inspires it.
  • A variety of writings, stories, tales,
    biographies, poems, and proverbs, but one focus
    the message of salvation, carried out by our Lord
    Jesus Christ.
  • We find the crimson line clear in all its books
    and we notice clearly how the wonderful Divine
    plan in the Old Testament prepared humanity for
    salvation and how the events and topics were
    symbols of the Lord and His work of expiation.

4
The Old Testament
  • The Old Testament tells the history of the people
    of Israel.
  • This history is based on their faith in the God
    of Israel and on their religious life as the
    people of God.
  • The authors of these books wrote about what God
    had done for them as a people and how they were
    to worship and obey God in return.

5
Languages of the Old Testament
  • The Old Testament language was Hebrew. Some of
    the chapters were written in Aramaic.
  • Scripture was translated into Aramaic which was
    spoken by Jews people after the exile.
  • Hebrew was known as the sacred language. The
    books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew
    and gradually after the exile the Scripture was
    written in Hebrew using the Aramaic alphabet.
  • The Hebrew language is written from right to
    left. They used to write without leaving space
    between the words, so it depends on the reader
    who knows how to read. Even if there is not
    enough space to finish the word on the line, the
    rest of it will be written in the next line.

6
Why do I love the Old Testament?
  • It is a shadow of the New Testament. The New
    Testament was hidden in the Old Testament.
  • It shows me how to live with God. What does God
    want from me.
  • The characters are awesome!

7
Why do I struggle with the Old Testament?
  • Understanding the
  • Structure
  • History
  • of the Old Testament is Key to understanding and
    spiritual benefit.

8
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
I Samuel
II Samuel
I Kings
Nehemiah
II Kings
Esther
Ezra
I Chronicles
II Chronicles
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Song of Songs
The Pentateuch (Judaism Torah)
Old Testament History
Wisdom and Poetry
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Lamentations
Acts of the Apostles
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
The Major and Minor Prophets
The Gospels and Acts
Romans
I Corinthians
II Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
I Timothy
II Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
I Peter
II Peter
I John
II John
III John
Jude
Revelation
I Thessalonians
II Thessalonians
Writings of the Apostles
9
The Old Testament
The following chart shows the different groups of
books that make up the Old Testament.
Books are not placed in chronological order.
Many of prophetical and wisdom books take place
during periods of historical books
10
THE BIBLE IS NOT ONE BOOK
But a library of 66 books Over a period of more
than 1,500 years Written by more than 40 men
11
Moses
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1500-1400 B.C.
Of the 66 books, 39 were written before the birth
of Jesus
These 39 are called the Old
TESTAMENT
12
Moses
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1500-1400 B.C.
Moses wrote the first five books of the
Bible Pentateuch (5 books) Torah (law) Books of
Moses GENESIS EXODUS LEVITICUS NUMBERS DEUTERONOMY
13
The Pentateuch
  • The first five books -- look back from the death
    of Moses -- all the way to the beginning of the
    world.
  • GENESIS Chapters 1-11
  • Creation of the world
  • First human family
  • Spread of evil
  • World wide flood
  • Division of mankind into nations and languages
  • GENESIS chapters 12-50
  • God chooses the FATHERS of the future nation of
    Israel
  • Four Generations grow from 1 couple to 70
    people

14
Timeline of the Old Testament
  • (I) Primeval Period (Genesis 1-11)
  • Creation, Adam 5500 B.C.
  • Fall
  • Enoch
  • Methuselah, 969 years
  • Flood, Noah 2500 B.C.
  • The Tower of Babel, many languages
  • 400 years of scattering

15
Timeline of the Old Testament
  • (II) Patriarchal Period (Genesis 12-50)
  • Abraham 2000 B.C.
  • Isaac
  • Jacob
  • The 12 tribes
  • Joseph
  • Exile (bondage) in Egypt (400 years)

16
The Pentateuch
  • Books 2-5
  • EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS, DEUTERONOMY
  • Exodus deliverance from Egypt and receiving the
    Covenant
  • Leviticus obligations of the Covenant
  • Numbers increases laws and time in desert
  • Deuteronomy Moses gives meaning of Covenant

17
Timeline of the Old Testament
  • (III) Exodus (Exodus to Deuteromony)
  • Moses 1500 B.C.
  • Exodus from Egypt, Passover 1446 B.C.
  • The Law, the
  • Tabernacle 1445 B.C.
  • Lost in the wilderness
  • of Sinai (40 years)

18
Moses
Creation of world
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1400 B.C.
2500 B.C.
400 B.C.
  • Books 6-17
  • ARE BOOKS OF HISTORY WRITTEN BY VARIOUS AUTHORS
  • 1400 400 B.C.
  • Possession of their land, the establishment of
    the kingdom, the captivity and return to their
    land

19
Moses
Creation of world
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1400 B.C.
2500 B.C.
400 B.C.
  • Historical Books (617)
  • Joshua conquest of the Promised land
  • Judges settlement and survival in the land
  • 1st 2nd Samuel Israelites need for King and
    coming of Saul and David
  • 1st 2nd Kings history and fidelity of Kings
    who followed David down to the end of Jewish
    Monarchy in 586 BC.

20
Moses
Creation of world
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1400 B.C.
2500 B.C.
400 B.C.
  • Historical Books (617)
  • 1st 2nd Chronicles period from Saul to return
    from Exile
  • Ezra Emphasizes Jewish piety and the Torah in
    the face of Hellenism-closes Israels openness to
    mixed marriages-race
  • Nehemiah Rebuilding, Practicality, census, feast
    of Booths (tents)

21
Timeline of the Old Testament
  • (IV) Conquest of Canaan (Joshua)
  • Joshua becomes the leader of Israel
  • Crossing the Jordan
  • Jericho
  • Entering and dwelling in Canaan 1406
    B.C.

22
Timeline of the Old Testament
  • (V) Judges Period (Judges)
  • Judges rule over Israel 1375 B.C. for 400
    years
  • Dark era
  • Debora, Gideon, Samson, Samuel
  • Theocratic system

23
Timeline of the Old Testament
  • (VI) Early Monarchy, United Kingdom
    (1,2Samuel, 1Kings, 1,2Chronicles)
  • Samuel
  • Start King Saul 1029
  • Establishment King David 1000
  • Start of decline King Solomon 961-922
  • Building the temple 959

24
Moses
Creation of world
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1400 B.C.
2500 B.C.
400 B.C.
  • Books 18-22
  • ARE BOOKS OF POETRY AND WISDOM
  • Job is about mans question about suffering
  • Psalms is a collection of poems put to music
  • Proverbs is a collection of short wise sayings
  • Ecclesiastes tells how to live life in a world
    where all is vanity
  • Song of Solomon is a poem about true romantic love

25
Moses
Creation of world
30 A.D.
2000 A.D.
1400 B.C.
2500 B.C.
400 B.C.
Books 23-39 MAJOR AND MINOR PROHETS Throughout
the history of Israel, various prophets predicted
that SOMEONE from Israel will one day be a SAVIOR
KING of the world
26
Timeline of the Old Testament
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