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Strategic Management

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Title: Strategic Management


1
Strategic Management
  • ????????????????????

2
??????? (Strategy)
  • ???????? ???? ???????
  • ?????? (System)
  • ????????? (Procedure)
  • ??????? (Method)

?????????
??????
????????????
3
?????????? ???????????????????????
  • ??????????
  • ????? strategy ????? strategos
    ????????????????????????? stratos ???????????
    army ???? ?????? ??????????? agein
    ??????????? lead ???? ??????
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    leading the total organization ????
    ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????
    ????????? ????? ???????
  • ???????
  • ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????
  • ????? ??????? strategic Planning ??.??.
    ????? ????????????????

4
????????????????????
(Strategic Management)
... ???????????????????????? ?????? ???????????
??????????????? ???????????????????/ ??????
?????????????????????????????????????? ????????

5
??????????????????????????
  • 1. ???????????????????????
  • ( Environmental Analysis )
  • 2 . ????????????????????????
  • ( Establishing Organizational Direction
    )
  • 3. ????????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Formulation )
  • 4. ???????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Implementation )
  • 5. ????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Control )

6
??????????????????????????
7
  • ?????????? 1
  • ???????????????????????

8
??????????????????????????????
  • 1.1 ????????????????????????????????
  • 1.2 ?????????????????????????????????
  • 1.3 ?????????????????????????????????????????????
  • 1.4 ??????????????????????

9
??????????????????????????
????????????????
??????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????

10
1.1 ???????????????????????????????????
  • STEP
  • SSocial ?????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????
    ???????
  • TTechnology ????????? ???????? ?????????
  • EEconomic ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????
  • PPolitical/Legal ???????? ?????? ??????

11
???????????????????????????????
-
Social Social -
Technology Technology -
Economy Economy -
Political Political -
Legal Legal -
Ecological Ecological -
12
1.2 ??????????????????????????????????
  • 4M
  • Man ?????????????
  • Money ????????
  • Material???????????????????? ????????????
  • Management/Method???????????????

13
??????????????????????????????
??????? ???????
Man Man -
Money Money -
Matherials Matherials -
Management Management -
14
?????????????????????????????????? (???)
  • 7S
  • Strategy???????? ?????????????
  • Structure ???????????????
  • System?????????????????????????
  • Staff ???????
  • Style??????????????? ??????????????
  • Skill???????????????
  • Share Value????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ???????????

15
7-S Framework
Structure
Strategy
Systems
Shared Values
Style
Skills
Staff
16
1.3 ??????????????????????
  • ?????????????? ???????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????
  • ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? 1.00 ????
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????

17
?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
???????????????????????
??????? - ??????? ????????
Man 0.25 ????????????????? 25
Money 0.25 ??????????????????? 25
Matherials 0.25 ??????????????????????????? 25
Management 0.25 ???????????????????????? 25
??? 1.00
18
?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
???????????????????????
??????? - ??????? ????????
Man 0.50 ????????????????? 50
Money 0.20 ??????????????????? 20
Matherials 0.10 ??????????????????????????? 10
Management 0.20 ???????????????????????? 20
??? 1.00
19
???????????????????????????????
??????????? ??????? ????????
Social 0.20 ??????????????????????????????????? 20
Technology 0.20 ??????????????????????????????????????? 20
Economy 0.20 ?????????????????????????????????????? 20
Political 0.20 ?????????????????????????????????????? 20
Ecological 0.20 ???????????????????????????????????????? 20
??? 1.00
20
???????????????????????????????
??????????? ??????? ????????
Social 0.30 ??????????????????????????????????? 30
Technology 0.10 ??????????????????????????????????????? 10
Economy 0.20 ?????????????????????????????????????? 20
Political 0.10 ?????????????????????????????????????? 10
Ecological 0.30 ???????????????????????????????????????? 30
??? 1.00
21
??????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????
  • ????????????????????????????????? ???????? ??????
    ?????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????? ?????
    ??????????? ???????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????
  • ????????? 10 ?????

22
?????????????????????????
23
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????
????? ??????? ????? ????????????
Social
Technology
Economy
Political
Ecological
???
24
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
Social
Technology
Economy
Political
Ecological
???
25
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
Man
Money
Matherials
Management
???
26
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
Man
Money
Matherials
Management
???
27
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????
????? ??????? ????? ????????????
S???????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.30 6 1.8
T???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.20 6 1.2
E???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? 0.30 7 2.1
P ?????????????????????????????????????? 0.20 6 1.2
??? 1.00 6.3
28
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
S- ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.3 -6 -1.8
T-?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 -7 -1.4
E-?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.3 -8 -2.4
P-??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 -8 -1.6
??? 1.0 -7.2
29
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.1 6 0.6
???????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 8 1.6
??????? ???????????????????????? ?.??? ???????????????????? 0.2 7 1.4
????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 7 1.4
??????????????????????? 250 ???????????????????????????? 0.1 6 0.6
?????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 7 1.4
??? 1.0 7.0
30
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????
??????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? 0.1 -7 -.07
?????????- ?????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? 0.2 -6 -1.2
???????- ?????????????????????????? Software ????? 0.2 -7 -1.4
???????- ????? 0.2 0 0.0
?????- ????? 0.1 0 0.0
?????????- ????????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 -8 -1.6
??? 1.0 -4.9
31
???????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????? Strength S 7.0
  • ?????????????????????????????? Weakness W -4.9
  • ????????????????????????????? Opportunity O6.3
  • ??????????????????????????????? Treat T -7.2

32
1.4 ?????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ?? Plot ?????? Scale ?????
    ?????????????????????????????????

33
??????????????????????????
S
W
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
34
???????????????????????????
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
o
T
35
??????????????????????????????
o
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
S
W
T
36
??????????????????????????????
o
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
S
W
T
37
??????????????????????????????
o
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
S
W
T
38
??????????????????????????????
o
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
S
W
T
39
  • ?????????? 2
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ( Establishing Organizational Direction )

40
(No Transcript)
41
??????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????? (Organizational Vision)
  • ??????????????? (Organizational Mission)
  • ????????????????? (Organizational Goals)
  • ????????????????????? (Organizational Objective?)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????

42
?????????? (Vision) ???
  • ?????????? (Vision)
  • ????????? ? ????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ??????????????? 2
    ??????????????????????????? ???
    ?????????????????? (Ideology) ????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????? ?????????????????

43
??????????????????? (Organizational Vision)
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
    ??????????????????????????

44
????????????????????????
  • ?????? ???? ??????? (Mission)
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ???????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????? ? ????????
    ?????????? ??????? ???????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????
    ???????? ? ?????????????????????????????

45
??????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????? ?????????????????????????????????????
    ???
  • ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
    ????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????
  • ?????? ?????????? ????????????????????????????????
    ?

46
????????????????????? (Organizational Objective)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ?????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????
    (Organizational Key Performance Indicator
    KPIs) ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ?

47
?????????? 3???????????????????????? (
Strategy Formulation )
48
????????????????? 3 ????? ??????
  • 1. ?????????????????????????????????? (Corporate
    Strategy ???? Companywide Strategy)
    ???????????????????????????????
  • 2. ???????????????????????/???????
    ?????????????????????????? (Business Strategy
    ???? Competitive Strategy)
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????
  • 3. ?????????????????????? (Functional Strategy)
  • ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????

49
???????????????????????????????????? (Grand
Strategy)
1. ?????????????? (Stability Strategy ???
Status Quo)
2. ?????????????????? (Growth Strategy ????
Expansion Strategy )
3. ??????????????????????????????
(Retrenchment Strategy)
50
?????????????????????
  1. ???? ???? ??? ????? ????????????????????????????
    ?????? ????????????????????????????????? ( Growth
    Strategy )
  2. ???? ??????????????? ??????????????????????????
    ???????? ??? ?????????( Retrenchment Strategy )
  3. ???? ??????????????? ??? ????? ??????????
    ?????????????????????????????????? ???
    ????????????????? ( Stability Strategy )

51
??????????????????????????????? ( Strategy
Formulation )
  • ???????????? SWOT
  • ???????????????????????????? ??????????????
    ??????? ???????
  • S Strength ??????? ??????? ??????????????????????
    ???????????????????????
  • W Weakness ??????? ??????? ??????????????????????
    ????????????????????????

52
??????????????????????????????? ( Strategy
Formulation )
  • ???????????? SWOT
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????? ?????
    ??????????
  • O Opportunity ????? ?????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????
  • T Treats ??????? ???????????????????????????????
    ???????????????

53
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????
  • ??????? STAR ???????????????? ?? ????????
    ????????????????????????
  • ??????? Question Mark ????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????
  • ??????? Cash Cow ???????????????? ?? ????????
    ??????????????????????????
  • ??????? Dog ???????????????? ?????????
    ??????????????????????????

54
??????????????????????????????? ( Strategy
Formulation )
  • ???????????? SWOT

T
55
????????????????????????????? BCG Matrix
O
??????? (Star)
????? (Question Marks)
W
S
??????? (Cash Cow)
????? (Dog)
T
56
??????????????????????????????
o
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10
S
W
T
57
??????????????????????????
  • 1. ???????????????????????
  • ( Environmental Analysis )
  • 2 . ????????????????????????
  • ( Establishing Organizational Direction
    )
  • 3. ????????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Formulation )
  • 4. ???????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Implementation )
  • 5. ????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Control )

58
4. ??????????????????????? ( Strategy
Implementation )
59
Balance Scorecard (BSC)?????????????????????????
????????????????????
60
Dr. David Norton Prof. Robert Kaplan
61
???????????????????????? Balanced Scorecard
  • ?????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????????? Balance
    d Scorecard ?????????????????????? 1990 ??? Drs.
    Robert Kaplan ??? Harvard Business School ???
    David Norton ??? Balanced Scorecard Collaborative
    ????????????????????? Balanced Scorecard ?????
    balanced scorecard ????? ?????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????
    ???? balanced scorecard ??????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
    ??????????? ???????????????????????? ? ????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????

62
??????????????????????????????????????(Financial
Indicators)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????? (Intangible Resources and
    Capabilities)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????
  • ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????? (Lagging
    Indicators) ??????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? (Leading Indicators)

63
????????????????????????????? 8
?????????????????????????????
  • 1. ????????????????????????????? (Execution
    of Corporate Strategy)
  • 2. ???????????????? (Quality Strategy)
  • 3. ???????????????????????? (Ability to
    Innovate)
  • 4. ????????????????????????????????? ??????????
    (Ability to Attract Talented People)
  • 5. ??????????????? (Market Share)
  • 6. ?????????????????????????????? (Quality of
    Executive Compen sation)
  • 7. ??????????????????????????????? (Quality of
    Management Processes)
  • 8. ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????? (Research Leadership)

64
?????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ?????????????

65
?????????
  • ??????????????????????? (Juran, 1964)
  • ??????????????????????? ???????????????????????
    (Crosby, 1979)
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????????
    (Deming, 1940)
  • ???????????????? ???????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????
    (Ishikawa, 1985)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????
    ???????????(???????,2547)

66
  • BSC ??????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? (Strategic Implementation)
    ????????????????????????? (Measurement)
    ????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    (Alignment and Focused)

67
???????????? Balance Scorecard
  • Kaplan ??? Norton ???????????????? Balanced
    Scorecard ????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? (financial measures) ??????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????? ???????????????????????? (customer
    relationships) ??????????

68
???????????????????? ?? Balanced Scorecard
????????????????
????????????????????????????????????? (Strategy
Implementation
??????????????????/??????/????????? (Measurement
Systems)
??????????????? (Management Systems)
69
????????????????????????????????????????????
  • Norton ??? Kaplan ????????????????? ?????????
    (Balance) ???????????????????? ?????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????? 4 ???????? ???
  • ????????????????? (Financial Perspective F)
  • ???????????????? (Customer Perspective C)
  • ??????????????????????????? (Internal
    Perspective I)
  • ???????????????????????????????? (Learning and
    Growth L)

70
?????????????????
  • 1. ????????????????? (Financial Perspective
    F) ?????????????????????????????? 2 ????
    ?????? ????????????????????????? (Revenue
    Growth) ??????????????????????? (Goat
    Reduction) ???????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? ???????????????
    ????????????????? ???????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????

71
????????????????
  • 2. ???????????????? (Customer Perspective C)
    ?????????????? 5 ??????
  • ?????????????????? (Market Share)
    ???????????? ??????????????????
    ???????????????
  • ????????????????????????? (Customer
    Acquisition) ????????????????????????????????????
    ????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????????
  • ???????????????????? (Customer Satisfaction)
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????
  • ????????????? (Customer Profitability)
    ?????????????????????????????????? 1 ???
  • ?????????????? (Customer Retention)
    ????????????????????????????

72
????????????????????????
  • 3. ??????????????????????????? (Internal
    Perspective I) ?????????????????????????????????
    ????
  • ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????
    ???????? ????????? ?????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? ??????? ??????
    ????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????
    ?? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????
    ????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????

73
?????????????????????????????
  • 4. Learning and Growth L) ??????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????
    ?????? ??????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ? ??????????? ??? ????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ???????????????????
    ???????? ??????????????????? ???????????????????
    ??????????????????? ????????????
    ?????????????????????????????

74
Translating with the Balanced Scorecard
75
Strategy Map
Financial
Customer
Internal Process
Learning growth
76
BSC ??????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????? ?.?. ????? BSC ??????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? 4 ?????? ???
  • ???????????????????????????????????????? C
  • ??????????????????????????????? I
  • ???????????????????????????????????????? L
  • ????????????????? F

77
??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????, ??????????, ????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????????????????, ?????????????, ??????????????, ??????????????. ??????????????
???????? ????????????????????????????????, ???????????????, ?????????????????, ????????????????????, ????????????????????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????????????, ????????????????????????????, ???????????????????????????????????, ???????????????????????????, ??????????????????????????????????
78
??????????????????????????
  • 1. ???????????????????????
  • ( Environmental Analysis )
  • 2 . ????????????????????????
  • ( Establishing Organizational Direction
    )
  • 3. ????????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Formulation )
  • 4. ???????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Implementation )
  • 5. ????????????????????
  • ( Strategy Control )

79
????? BSC ???????????????????????????????????????
???
  • Norton ??? Kaplan ????????????????? ?????????
    (Balance) ???????????????????? ?????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????? 4 ???????? ???
  • ????????????????? (Financial Perspective F)
  • ???????????????? (Customer Perspective C)
  • ??????????????????????????? (Internal
    Perspective I)
  • ???????????????????????????????? (Learning and
    Growth L)

80
????????????????????????????? 4 ??????????
  • 1.????????????(Objective)
  • 2. ????????? (Measures ???? Key Performance
    Indicators)
  • 3. ???????? (Target)
  • 4. ?????? ??????? ??????????? (Initiatives)
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????

81
Objectives
Measures
Targets
Initiatives
Finance
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
Customer
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
Internal Process
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
Learning Growth
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
82
????????????
?????????
????????
??????????
Finance
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
Customer
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
Internal Process
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
Learning Growth
Outcome Indicators
XX
Strategic Output
83
BSC
To succeed financially,how should we appear to
our shareholders?
Initiatives
Financial
Objectives
Measures
Targets
Customer
To satisfy our shareholders and
customers, what business processes must we excel
at?
To achieve our vision,how should we appear
to our customers?
Internal Business Process
Initiatives
Targets
Initiatives
Targets
Vision and Strategy
Objectives
Objectives
Measures
Measures
Learning and Growth
To achieve our vision,how will we sustain
our ability to change and improve?
Initiatives
Targets
Objectives
Measures
84
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
?????????
85
Strategy Map
Financial
Customer
Internal Process
Learning growth
86
(No Transcript)
87
????????????????? Balanced Scorecard
  • 1.??????????????????? ??????? ???????????????
    (SWOT Analysis) ????????? ????????????????????
    ????????????????
  • 2. ?????????????????? (Vision) ?????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??? ?????????? ?????????????????????????
  • 3. ?????????????? (Perspective) ???????? ?
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ??????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????

88
????????????????? Balanced Scorecard (???)
  • 4. ??????????????? (Strategy) ??? ????????????
    (Objective) ???????????????? ? ???????????????????
    ??? ????????????????????????????????
    ????????????? ? ?????????????????????????????
    (Financial Perspective) ????????????????
    (Customer Perspective) ????????????????????????
    (Internal Process Perspective) ???????????????????
    ???????????????? (Learning and Growth
    Perspective)
  • 5. ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ?
    ???????????????????? (Cause and Effect
    Relationship) ??????????????????????????????
    (Strategy Map)

89
????????????????? Balanced Scorecard (???)
  • 6. ????????????????? (Key Performance Indicators
    KPIs) ??????????? (Target) ?????????????????????
    ????????????????????????
  • 7. ????????????????????? (Action Plan)

90
????????????????????? (Performance Measurement)
  • ??????????? (Economy)
  • ????????????????? (Efficiency)
  • ???????????????? (Effectiveness)
  • ???????????????? (Service Quality)

91
???????????????????????????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ???? / ???????
  • ?????? / ??????????

92
???????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????????

93
?????????????????????????
????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????
?????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? 80
???? ???????????????????????????? ????????????????????? 5 ???? ??????
??????(??????????) ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????
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