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Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Food = source of energy A Calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cellular Respiration


1
Cellular Respiration
  • Chapter 9

2
Food source of energy
  • A Calorie is the amount of energy needed to
    raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree
    Celsius.
  • Cells dont burn glucose or other foods.
    Instead, they gradually release the energy.
  • The Calorie used on food labels is a kilocalorie,
    or 1000 calories

3
Feel the Burn
  • Do you like to run, bike, or swim? These all are
    good ways to exercise. When you exercise, your
    body uses oxygen to get energy from glucose,a
    six-carbon sugar.
  • 1.How does your body feel at the start of
    exercise, such as a long, slow run? How do you
    feel 1 minute into the run 10 minutes into the
    run?
  • 2.What do you think is happening in your cells
    to cause the changes in how you feel?
  • 3.Think about running as fast as you can for 100
    meters. Could you keep up this pace for a much
    longer distance? Explain your answer.

4
Cellular Respiration
  • The process that releases energy by breaking down
    glucose other food molecules in the presence of
    oxygen.
  • 6O2 C6H12O6 ? 6CO2 6H2O Energy
  • oxygen glucose ? carbon dioxide water
    energy

5
Aerobic Respiration
6
3 Stages make up Cellular Respiration
  • Gycolysis
  • Kreb Cycle
  • Electron Transport

7
Chemical Pathways
Section 9-1
Glucose
Krebs cycle
Electrontransport
Glycolysis
Alcohol or lactic acid
Fermentation (without oxygen)
8
Figure 92 Cellular Respiration An Overview
Section 9-1
Mitochondrion
Electrons carried in NADH
Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2
Pyruvic acid
Glucose
Electron Transport Chain
Krebs Cycle
Glycolysis
Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
9
3 Stages make up Cellular Respiration
  • Glycolysis process in which 1 molecule of
    glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules
    of pyruvic acid gains 2 ATP molecules.
  • O2 present - it is followed by the Kreb Cycle
    the electron transport chain.
  • O2 not present (anaerobic) - it is followed by
    fermentation.
  • Fermentation releases energy in food converts
    NADH back into NAD keeping the supply of ATP
    constant.

10
Figure 9-3 Glycolysis
Section 9-1
Glucose
2 Pyruvic acid
To the electron transport chain
11
Glycolysis
12
Fermentation
  • Alcoholic fermentation yeasts a few other
    microorganisms causes bread dough to rise.
  • Lactic Acid fermentation in muscles during
    rapid exercise when the body cant supply enough
    O2 to the tissues without oxygen, the body isnt
    able to produce the ATP required. Buildup causes
    pain soreness.

13
Figure 94 Lactic Acid Fermentation
Lactic acid
Glucose
Pyruvic acid
14
Section 9-2
  • Rolling and Folding
  • Some of the steps in cellular respiration take
    place in the membrane inside the cell structure
    called the mitochondrion, which has a folded
    inner membrane. What purpose do these folds serve?

15
Flowchart
Section 9-2
Cellular Respiration
Glucose(C6H1206) Oxygen(02)
Glycolysis
KrebsCycle
ElectronTransportChain
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O)
16
3 Stages make up Cellular Respiration
  • Kreb Cycle requires O2 (aerobic)
  • In eukaryotes.
  • Takes place in the mitochondria.
  • Aka. Citric acid cycle b/c its one of the first
    products.
  • Pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 which is
    released into the air.
  • NAD is changed to NADH FAD is changed to FADH2
    which carry high-energy electrons to the electron
    transport chain.

17
The Krebs Cycle
18
The Krebs Cycle
19
Figure 96 The Krebs Cycle
Citric Acid Production
Mitochondrion
20
3 Stages make up Cellular Respiration
  • Electron Transport uses high-energy electrons
    from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
  • In eukaryotes its composed of carrier proteins
    located in the mitochondria.
  • In prokaryotes the same chain is in the cell
    membrane where energy is used to move H ions
    through ATP synthase.
  • ATP synthase protein sphere that spins, adding
    a phosphate to ADP creating ATP.
  • No O2 product is glycolysis.
  • Yes O2 more ATP is extracted.

21
The Electron Transport Chain
22
The Electron Transport Chain
23
Figure 97 Electron Transport Chain
Electron Transport
Hydrogen Ion Movement
Channel
Mitochondrion
Intermembrane Space
ATP synthase
Inner Membrane
Matrix
ATP Production
24
Cellular Respiration
  • Glycolysis Krebs Electron Transport 36 ATP
    / glucose molecules.

25
The Human Body
  • Contains small amounts of ATP.
  • When the body needs energy fast, muscle cells
    produce ATP by Lactic Acid Fermentation.
  • For long-term needs, the body must use cellular
    respiration.

26
Comparing Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration
  • Energy flows in Photosynthesis
  • Cellular Respiration takes place in the opposite
    direction.
  • Photosynthesis removes CO2 puts O2 back into
    air.
  • Cellular Respiration removes O2 puts CO2 back
    into air.

27
Comparing Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration
  • Cellular Respiration
  • 6O2 C6H12O6 ? 6CO2 6H2O Energy
  • Photosynthesis
  • 6CO2 6H2O light?C6H12O6 6O2
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