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Cloning

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Title: Cloning


1
Cloning
2
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3
Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning
  • An extinct animal has been brought back to life
    for the first time after being cloned from frozen
    tissue.

4
What is Cloning?
  • Cloning artificially creating a cell, cell
    product, or organism that is genetically
    identical to the unit or individual from which it
    was derived

5
Therapeutic Cloning
Reproductive Cloning
http//www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v4/n11/images/nr
g1205-i1.jpg
6
Reproductive Cloning
"somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT)
nucleus is removed from donors egg
somatic cell and donor egg are fused
developing embryo implanted into surrogate mother
birth of clone
7
  • Somatic Cells- any cells making up the body of an
    organism
  • Germ-line Cells- Reproductive cells (egg and
    sperm)

8
Cloning by Nuclear Transfer
  • The introduction of a nucleus from a body cell,
    into an egg cell to generate an organism
    identical to the nucleus donor
  • Like Dolly the Sheep!

9
Other Models
10
Gene Therapy
  • When a disorder is treated by introducing a gene
    into a patients cell
  • Commonly used to treat Cystic fibrosis- a disease
    characterized by sticky mucus building up in the
    lungs and blocking airways
  • Can be cured by adding a functional CFTR Gene
    is added

11
Vaccine
Homework Read pg. 266-270 Do 1-5 on pg 270
  • A vaccine is a substance containing all or part
    of a harmless version of a pathogen that
    physcians introduce into the body to produce
    immunity to disease
  • A DNA vaccine is a vaccine made from the DNA of a
    pathogen, but does not have disease-causing
    capability

12
Why might we genetically engineer crops?
  • Agricultural Applications-
  • Increasing Yields
  • Improving Nutrition
  • Disease-Resistance
  • Herbicides
  • Insecticides
  • Growing Vaccines?

13
Why do we make GM plants?
  • better crops disease and pest resistant, better
    storage.
  • new crops FASTER plant breeding
  • more food, better food
  • plants as pharmaceutical factories
  • edible vaccines

14
Banana or hypodermic?
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  • By 2009, Dow AgroSciences hopes to have vaccines
    for equine West Nile Virus and avian flu, with
    other vaccines likely to follow.
  • Vaccine production in genetically engineered
    plants, or "molecular farming", could become the
    next trend in vaccine manufacturing. It is
    perceived to be safe, low-cost and more
    efficient.

17
GMO crops
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Increase of GM crops globally
20
Concerns
  • Safety
  • Potential human health impact allergens,
    transfer of antibiotic resistance markers,
    unknown effects Potential environmental impact
    unintended transfer of transgenes through
    cross-pollination, unknown effects on other
    organisms (e.g., soil microbes), and loss of
    flora and fauna biodiversity
  • Access and Intellectual Property
  • Domination of world food production by a few
    companies
  • Increasing dependence on Industralized nations by
    developing countries
  • Biopiracyforeign exploitation of natural
    resources
  • Ethics
  • Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values
  • Tampering with nature by mixing genes among
    species
  • Objections to consuming animal genes in plants
    and vice versa
  • Stress for animal
  • Labeling
  • Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., United
    States)
  • Mixing GM crops with non-GM confounds labeling
    attempts
  • Society
  • New advances may be skewed to interests of rich
    countries
  • http//www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome
    /elsi/gmfood.shtml

21
Bioethics
  • The study of ethical issues related to DNA
    technology
  • Can GM food hurt the environment?
  • Should we try to clone humans?
  • Will reproductive gene therapy adversely effect
    future generations?

22
What is a stem cell?
  • Three general properties.
  • Capable of dividing and renewing themselves for
    an extended amount of time
  • They are unspecialized
  • They can give rise to specialized cells
  • Stem cells are in a category all of there own,
    apart from somatic and sex
  • In order to get a stem cell to differentiate
    conditions need to be altered and adjusted.

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"Designer Babies"
  • Offspring's genes purposefully selected
    ("designed") to be the optimal recombination of
    their parents' genetic material

25
What CAN currently be done
  • Only 2 techniques are legally done to advance
    reproductive technology in humans
  •  
  • Determine sex and genes of child - Choosing the
    sperm to fertilize the egg
  • Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) -
    Genetic screening of embryos in vitro for genetic
    disorders/diseases

26
Are Clones Identical?
Rainbow, the donor
CC, the clone
CC with her Surrogate Mom, Allie
27
Activity!
Activity!
28
What Makes a Good Scientific Argument?
29
What Makes a GoodScientific Argument?
  • Empirical Data (Objective, Quantitative)
  • Reliable
  • Reproducible

30
Where is the Cut-Off?
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