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Andrew Jackson

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Essential Question: Champion of the Common Man ? King Andrew? OR – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Andrew Jackson


1
Essential Question
Champion of the Common Man?
King Andrew?
OR
2
Political Trends
  • Increasing democracy
  • Election of 1824
  • Election of 1828

3
Why Increased Democratization?
  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating committees.
  • Voters chose their states slate of Presidential
    electors.
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps ? Natl. Reps.(1828) ? Whigs
    (1832) ? Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

4
Jackson's First Presidential Run
5
The Common Mans Presidential Candidate
6
Jacksons Opponents in 1824
Henry Clay KY
John Quincy Adams MA
John C. Calhoun SC
William H. Crawford GA
7
Results of the 1824 Election
A Corrupt Bargain?
8
John Quincy Adams Administration (1825-1829)
9
Opposition to John Quincy Adams
  • Some believed he allowed too much political
    control to be held by elites.
  • Some objected to his support of national economic
    development on constitutional grounds.
  • Adams believed a strong, active central
    government was necessary.
  • A national university.
  • An astronomical observatory.
  • A naval academy.
  • Many Americans saw Adams vision of a might
    nation led by a strong president as a threat to
    individual liberties.

10
What were the key issues in 1828?
11
The Tariff of Abomination
12
Tariff Battles
  • Tariff of 1816 ? on imports of cheap textiles.
  • Tariff of 1824 ? on iron goods and more expensive
    woolen and cotton imports.
  • Tariff of 1828 ? higher tariffs on imported raw
    materials like wool hemp.
  • Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from
    farmers in NY, OH, KY.
  • The South alone was adamantly against it.
  • As producers of the worlds cheapest cotton, it
    did not need a protective tariff.
  • They were negatively impacted ? American textiles
    and iron goods or the taxed English goods were
    more expensive!

13
The 1828 Election
  • Jacksons campaign was engineered by Senator
    Martin Van Buren of NY
  • He wanted to recreate the old Jeffersonian
    coalition of
  • Northern farmers and artisans.
  • Southern slave owners.
  • Farmers with small land holdings.
  • He created the Democratic Party from the remains
    of Jeffersons old party
  • Created a national committee that oversaw local
    and state party units.
  • Mass meetings, parades, picnics.
  • A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.

14
1828 Election Results
15
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
16
The New Jackson Coalition
  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier
  • Artisans competition from factory labor.
  • State Politicians ? spoils system
  • To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy!
    William Marcy of NY
  • Immigrants in the cities.

17
Jackson as Satan Dangles the Spoils of Victory
over his Supporters
18
The Nullification Issue
19
The Webster-Hayne Debate
Sen. Daniel Webster MA
Sen. Robert Hayne SC
20
1830
Webster Liberty and Union, now and
forever, one and inseparable.
Jackson Our Federal Unionit must be
preserved.
Calhoun The Union, next to our liberty,
most dear.
21
Calhoun Ascends the Platform that Leads to
Despotism
22
1832 Tariff Conflict
  • 1832 --gt new tariff
  • South Carolinas reaction?
  • Jacksons response?
  • Clays Compromise Tariff?

23
Clays Sews Up Jacksons Mouth (1834)
24
Jacksons Social Policy
  • N. American Removal
  • The Rise of the Common Man

25
Jackson's Native-American Policy
26
Land Indian Policies
  • John Quincy Adams
  • His land policies gave westerners anothr reason
    to dislike him.
  • He attempted to curb speculation for public lands
    ? his opponent accused him of denying their
    individual rights and freedoms to expand
    westward!
  • He supported the land rights of Native Americans
    against white settlers.
  • 1825 ? govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a
    group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights
    to GA.
  • The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce
    the treaty.
  • Congress sided with the governor of GA.

27
Indian Removal
  • Jacksons Goal?
  • 1830 ? Indian Removal Act
  • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) domestic
    dependent nation
  • Worcester v. GA (1832)
  • Jackson John Marshall has made his
    decision, now let him enforce it!

28
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
29
Indian Removal
30
The Grand National Caravan Moving West
31
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
32
Jacksons Professed Love for Native Americans
33
Jacksons Faith in the Common Man
  • Intense distrust of Eastern establishment,
    monopolies, special privilege.
  • His heart soul was with the plain folk.
  • Belief that the common man was capable of
    uncommon achievements.

34
ECONOMIC CONCERNS
  • Renewing the 2nd National Bank
  • 1830s presidency marked with domestic concerns
    and bettering the economy

35
Jacksons Use of Federal Power
VETO
1830 ? Maysville Road project in KY
state of his political rival, Henry
Clay
36
The National Bank Debate
President Jackson
Nicholas Biddle an arrogant aristocrat from
Philadelphia
37
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.
Soft (paper)
Hard (specie)
  • state bankers felt it restrained their banks from
    issuing bank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safe currency.
  • didnt like any bank that issued bank notes.
  • suspicious of expansion speculation.

38
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Pet Banks
  • 1832 ? Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd
    National Bank of the United States.
  • 1836 ? the charter expired.
  • 1841 ? the bank went bankrupt!

39
The Downfall of Mother Bank
40
The Bank the 1832 Election
  • Jackson saw Biddles pushing forward a bill to
    renew the Banks charter earlier as an attempt to
    block his re-election!
  • Biddle his associates preferred Clay.
  • Jackson refused to sign the bill to re-charter.
  • The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will
    destroy it!
  • Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van
    Buren.
  • BUT, both parties Democrats Whigs had
    contradictory positions regarding their party
    principles, to many of the issues of the day!

41
An 1832 Cartoon King Andrew?
42
Positions on the Key Issues of 1832
WHIGS
DEMOCRATS
  • Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was
    alarming.
  • Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators
    were non-producers who used their govt.
    connections to line their own pockets.
  • Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the
    economy to allow the little guy a chance to
    prosper.
  • For Indian removal.
  • Oppose tariffs.
  • States rights.
  • Oppose federal support for internal improvements.
  • Opposed the National Bank.
  • Less concerned about the widening gap between
    rich and poor.
  • Opposed liberal capitalism because they
    believed it would lead to economic chaos.
  • Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding
    economy was critical.
  • Opposes Indian removal.
  • Favored tariffs.
  • Supported a National Bank.

43
1832 Election Results
44
The 1836 Election Results
Martin Van Buren Old Kinderhook O. K.
45
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • Speculators created wildcat banks that fueled
    the runaway inflation.
  • So, buy future federal land only with gold or
    silver.
  • This move shocked the system.
  • Jacksons goal ? to curb the land speculation.

46
Results of the Specie Circular
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!
47
The Panic of 1837 Hits Everyone!
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