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Other renewable energy sources

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Other renewable energy sources Hydropower Wind energy Ocean Thermal Biomass Geothermal Tidal Hydropower Well established electrical generation technology, about 100 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Other renewable energy sources


1
Other renewable energy sources
  • Hydropower
  • Wind energy
  • Ocean Thermal
  • Biomass
  • Geothermal
  • Tidal

2
Hydropower
  • Well established electrical generation
    technology, about 100 years old
  • Known for over 2000 years that the force of
    moving water on a water wheel could save human
    labor
  • 13th century-hammers in iron works in Europe were
    operated with waterwheels.
  • 16th century primary source of industrial power
    in Europe
  • In the US, mills were established at sites with
    reliable water flow and dams were constructed to
    regulate water flow.
  • Cave mill here in BG. Several hydro powered mills
    for corn, flour and sawing in the 19th century
    existed on this site at different times.
  • With the advent of electricity, water wheels were
    used to drive electricity generation.
  • About 7 of US energy generation is from
    hydroelectric plants

3
The physics of Hydropower
  • Gravitational potential energy in the water at a
    height h above the wheel is converted to kinetic
    energy of the wheel which drives a turbine and
    generates electricity.
  • So each mass element of water, m, falls a
    distance h and attain a velocity v. So its
    initial potential energy is mgh, where g is the
    acceleration due to gravity (9.8m/s2) and the
    kinetic energy is 1/2mv2.
  • This tells us the amount of potential energy
    available to be converted to kinetic energy is
    9.8 joules per kilogram of water per meter of
    height above the wheel.
  • h is often called the head.
  • Efficiencies of 80-90 can be achieved.
  • Power (Height of Dam (distance the water
    falls)) x (River Flow) x (Efficiency) / 11.8
  • where the height is in feet, river flow is
    in cubic feet per second , efficiency is what
    you expect and 11.8 converts from feet and
    seconds to killowatts

4
Plant operation
5
Hydro Turbine
6
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7
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8
Net exploitable hydropower resources
9
Advantages
  • No Pollution
  • No waste heat
  • High efficiency
  • Plants have decades long lifetimes and low
    maintenance costs
  • Good response to changing electricity demands
  • Damming of rivers can serve other purposes flood
    control, irrigation, drinking water supply

10
Limitations
  • About 50 of the US capacity for Hydro is
    developed
  • Limited lifetimes for certain reservoirs-as the
    fill with silt, they become less useful for water
    storage. But the dam must be maintained long
    term, if it fails, communities downstream are in
    danger from the tremendous volume of silt that
    would be released.
  • Loss of free flowing streams due to damming and
    the loss of the lands flooded by damming a
    river-environmental impacts
  • Salmon population in the Nothwest has been
    impacted
  • Flood risk due to dam failures
  • Currently hundreds thousands of people in danger
    if dam failures occur

11
Fish Ladders
  • Solution to the salmon problem - have not been
    very effective
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