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AP European History


AP European History Demographic Trends in European History Late Medieval Family Trends (1250-1300) Married young due to short average life span of 35 years. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP European History

AP European History
  • Demographic Trends in European History

Late Medieval Family Trends (1250-1300)
  • Married young due to short average life span of
    35 years.
  • Lived in extended families in which the old were
    cared for by younger relatives.
  • Large families were needed to work in the fields.

Late Medieval Population Trends
  • Population growth was small due to a high birth
    rate and a high death rate.
  • Population trends depended upon crops and disease.

Late Medieval Class Trends
  • Western Europe the four existing classes were
    clergy, nobility, peasants/serfs,
    merchants/skilled artisans.
  • Eastern Europe the three existing classes were
    clergy, nobility, peasants/serfs.

Late Medieval Production Trends
  • Agricultural economy dominated Europe.
  • Some small artisans existed, as needed.
  • A growing merchant class began to emerge by the
    end of this period.

Late Medieval Gender Trends
  • Men dominated society and family life.
  • Only men royal women went to school.
  • A womans only outlet for educational social
    growth was to become a nun.
  • Women of the nobility were expected to coordinate
    activities on the estate.
  • Poor women were expected to work in the fields
    and take care of their households.

Renaissance Family Trends (1350-1550)
  • Similar to the Medieval Period.
  • Married young due to short average life span of
    35-40 years.
  • Still lived in extended families in which the old
    were cared for by younger relatives.
  • Large families still were needed to work in the

Renaissance Population Trends
  • Population growth was still small due to a high
    birth rate and a high death rate.
  • Population trends depended upon crops, disease,
    and war.

Renaissance Class Trends
  • Eastern Europe existing three classes were the
    clergy, nobility, peasants/serfs.
  • Western Europe clergy, nobility, merchants (beg.
    of the modern middle class), peasants, serfs, and
    artisans (who become the urban working class).

Renaissance Production Trends
  • Agricultural Economy
  • Beginning of International Trade
  • Skilled artisans start to become important in

Renaissance Gender Trends
  • Womens roles in Catholic areas remained the same
    as in the medieval period.
  • In Protestant areas, women could not become nuns,
    so higher education was almost completely
    eliminated for women.

Early Modern Family Trends (1500-1700)
  • Age of marriage rose due to the need to establish
    a trade to support a family.
  • Families still lived in extended groups either on
    farms or in cottage industries.

Early Modern Population Trends
  • Steady but slow growth of the population, except
    during the Thirty Years War.
  • High birth death rates still existed.

Early Modern Class Trends
  • Class structures remained essentially the same,
    but the middle class was growing much more
    powerful in both size and economic clout.

Early Modern Production Trends
  • Agricultural Economy
  • Cottage Industries began to dominate production
    in W. Europe by about 1600.
  • Merchant trade and shipping was very important in
    nations on the Atlantic seaboard.

Early Modern Gender Trends
  • More educational opportunities for women in
    merchant class or upper class homes.
  • Even upper class women were rarely allowed to go
    to the universities.
  • Those families who could afford higher education
    for their daughters sent them to finishing school.

18th Century Family Trends
  • Europe outside of England remained the same as
    the early modern period.
  • England was different by the end of the century
    due to the Industrial Revolution.
  • In England, families who moved to the city became
    fragmented due to the factory system.
  • No longer did they all work at the same place
    see each other all day long.
  • In England, many elderly persons died with no one
    to care for them.

18th Century Population Trends
  • High population growth all over Europe, because
    more family members meant more income, both on
    the farm and at the factory.

18th Century Class Trends
  • Eastern Central Europe Same as previous
  • France Still 3 estates, but the middle class
    brought an end to this in the revolution.
  • England the landed aristocracy controlled it
    politically, the middle class controlled it
    economically, the urban workers were exploited.
    England was a squirarchy.

18th Century Production Trends
  • Agricultural economy with many cottage industries
    in the west.
  • In England, the growth of the factory system
    after 1750 revolutionized production and

18th Century Gender Trends
  • Eastern Central Europe remained the same.
  • England more education for all children, upper
    class women can go to college to study liberal
  • England lower class women exploited in factories
    some became wet nurses or prostitutes to make a
  • England Women became more independent and could
    inherit property without remarriage.

19th Century Family Trends
  • Continued family fragmentation in urban areas,
    while rural families remained the same.
  • Age of marriage dropped in urban areas.

19th Century Population Trends
  • Fast population growth as the death rate began to
    fall due to better medicine, sanitation, etc.
  • The birth rate began to fall by the end of the
    century, but not the overall population growth

19th Century Class Trends
  • Western Europe began to resemble England, due to
  • Western Europe began to have a split between the
    upper and lower middle class.
  • Eastern Europe remained feudal in character.

19th Century Production Trends
  • Factory system all over Western Europe
  • Cottage industries began in Central Europe
  • Eastern Europe Russia remained agricultural.

19th Century Production Trends
  • Industrial diversification all over Europe.
  • Tremendous growth in technology, transportation,
    and communications, especially in Western Europe.

19th Century Gender Trends
  • Women still working to achieve equal rights, but
    much progress has been made.

19th Century Gender Trends
  • Women still dominated legally by their husbands,
    even in Western Europe.
  • Women in Western nations actively attempted to
    achieve womens suffrage.
  • Women held many pink-collar jobs.

1900-1960 Family Trends
  • Nuclear Families
  • Smaller Families
  • Women gained more power in families, but working
    mothers were still frowned upon.

1900-1960 Population Trends
  • Birth Rate dropped.
  • Population growth slowed in Western Europe, but
    not in Eastern Europe.

1900-1960 Class Trends
  • Legal differences between classes disappeared
    after WWI and the Russian Revolution, but
    inequality existed economically politically.
  • Communist party elites became the new nobility
    of Eastern Europe the USSR.

1900-1960 Production Trends
  • Industrialization of the USSR parts of Eastern
    Europe occurred.
  • Strong industrial base existed in Western Europe.
  • Production was disrupted by two world wars.
  • Eastern Europe remained predominantly

1900-1960 Gender Trends
  • Women gained voting rights as a result of WWI in
    most nations of Europe.
  • Women began to work for equal rights in society
    the workplace.

1960-Present Family Trends
  • More women working, otherwise the same as
  • Birth control pills gave women more control over
    reproductive issues.
  • Smaller families resulted.

1960-Present Population Trends
  • Very slow, almost zero population growth rate in

1960-Present Class Trends
  • Class inequalities are based on wealth and
    political power.

1960-Present Production Trends
1960-Present Gender Trends
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