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Animal Science

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Unit Animal Science – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Science


1
Unit
  • Animal Science

2
Problem Area
  • Animal Genetics and Biotechnology

3
Lesson
  • Biotechnology

4
Student Learning Objectives
  • 1. Identify the major areas of biotechnology in
    animal science.
  • 2. Explain various molecular biotechnology
    methods.
  • 3. Discuss applications of molecular
    biotechnology.
  • 4. Discuss applications of organismic
    biotechnology.

5
Terms
  • Animal biotechnology
  • Biotechnology
  • Embryo transfer
  • Genetic engineering
  • Gene transfer
  • Microinjection
  • Molecular biotechnology
  • Organismic biotechnology
  • Particle injection
  • Plasmids
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Superovulation
  • Transgene
  • Transgenic animal

6
What are the major areas of biotechnology in
animal science?
  • Biotechnology is the management of biological
    systems for the benefit of people and their
    environment. It is also viewed as the application
    of science in food and fiber production.
    Biotechnology has been used for hundreds of
    years. Using yeast to make bread and bacteria to
    make cheese are everyday examples of
    biotechnology.
  • Animal biotechnology is the application of
    biotechnology methods to improve animals. There
    are two major areas of bio-technology in animal
    science.

7
  • A. Molecular biotechnologyMolecular
    biotechnology is changing the structure and parts
    of cells to change the organism. It begins with
    the atom. Molecular biotechnology often changes
    the physical appearance of an organism. In some
    cases, undesirable traits may develop along with
    those that are desired.
  • B. Organismic biotechnologyOrganismic
    biotechnology deals with intact or complete
    organisms. The genetic makeup of the organism is
    not artificially changed. This is the most widely
    used type of biotechnology.

8
What are some of the various molecular
biotechnology methods?
  • A. Genetic EngineeringGenetic Engineering is a
    form of biotechnology in which genetic
    information is changed to make a new product.
    Through this process, sections of the DNA strand
    are cut out and new sections are inserted.
  • Gene transfer is the moving of a gene from one
    organism to another. Genetic engineering is a
    means of complementing traditional breeding
    programs.

9
  • B. Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA is gene
    slicing. Genes are cut out of a DNA strand with a
    restriction enzyme that works like a scalpel.
    They are then inserted into circular DNA
    molecules in bacteria plasmids.
  • Plasmids are circular pieces of DNA found outside
    the nucleus in bacteria. The plasmid is inserted
    into the cell that is to be altered. This allows
    the DNA of two different organisms to be
    combined. This is a very complicated and complex
    procedure. Most cells die in the process. Many
    surviving cells do not have the new DNA present
    in the nucleus.

10
  • C. Transgenic AnimalsA transgenic animal is an
    animal that has incorporated a foreign gene into
    its cells. This animal can pass to its offspring
    this transgene, or altered gene. All of the cells
    within the transgenic animal contain this
    transgene. Some common transgenic methods are
  • 1. MicroinjectionThis is the most common method
    used. Injecting DNA into a cell using a fine
    diameter glass needle and a microscope
    constitutes microinjection.
  • 2. Particle injectionParticle injection is using
    a microprojectile unit to shoot tiny particles
    coated with DNA into cells. Microprojectile units
    are sometimes called particle guns. Both methods
    have relatively low success rates.

11
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13
What are some of the applications of molecular
biotechnology?
  • A. Human healthAnimals are being used to study
    several different types of diseases found in
    humans. Insulin was once extracted from the
    pancreas of slaughtered cattle and hogs. This
    extraction process was very expensive. Sometime
    the insulin from the animals caused allergic
    reactions to the diabetics who used it.
  • Through molecular biotechnology, insulin is now
    produced artificially in laboratories. This
    artificial insulin is of higher quality and less
    expensive to produce. This is just one example of
    a product being developed through biotechnology
    that will benefit human health. Many more are on
    the horizon.

14
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15
  • B. Food productionIncreasing the levels of beta
    casein in milk decreases the time required for
    rennet coagulation and whey expulsion in making
    cheese. This lowers total processing time and
    cost. Also through biotechnology, the fat content
    in milk can be reduced to make fat-free cheese
    and ice cream. If a substance known as kappa
    casein is increased 5 percent in milk, it makes
    it more stable and easier to ship. These are only
    a few examples of food products that have been
    developed through biotechnology. Soon, many new
    foods will be introduced on the market that are
    high in quality.
  • C. Livestock productionThe use of biotechnology
    has increased growth rate, efficiency, and
    disease resistance in livestock. This has made
    livestock production cost decline and aids in the
    supply of a low cost food supply.

16
What are some applications of organismic
biotechnology?
  • A. Greater fertilityIncreasing the reproductive
    capacity of top animals is important to
    producers. Two methods to increase the
    reproductive capacity of animals are
  • 1. SuperovulationSuperovulation is getting a
    female to release more than the usual number of
    eggs during a single estrous cycle. Hormones are
    injected to assure more eggs.
  • 2. Embryo transferEmbryo transfer is taking an
    embryo from its mother and implanting it in
    another female. The embryo completes development
    in the recipient.

17
  • B. Increased productionThree methods used to
    increase production are
  • 1. Milk hormonesInjections of milk hormones
    cause the cows mammary system to become more
    productive. The most common milk hormone is
    bovine somatotropin (bST). Since bST is a
    naturally occurring hormone, it has been widely
    accepted in the dairy industry.
  • 2. Meat hormonesInjections of meat hormones
    causes the animal to produce more muscle cells
    resulting in larger and leaner cuts of valuable
    meat.
  • 3. Growth implantsGrowth implants are small
    pellets placed under the skin. They promote
    growth by making the animal more feed efficient.

18
  • C. Enhancing animal nutritionThe greatest
    results of biotechnology have been seen in animal
    nutrition. Some of the enhancements are
  • 1. Digestibility testingTests are made by
    getting samples from the digestive systems of
    animals after they have eaten. This information
    is used to improve feed use and animal growth.
  • 2. Controlled feedingComputer chips can be put
    in a monitor around the animals neck, ear tag or
    under the skin. A computerized feeding station
    will read the chip and regulate the amount of
    feed the animal receives. Daily feed intake by
    the animal is used to aid in the detection of
    health problems.

19
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20
Review/Summary
  • What are the major areas of biotechnology in
    animal science?
  • What are some of the various molecular
    biotechnology methods?
  • What are some of the applications of molecular
    biotechnology?
  • What are some applications of organismic
    biotechnology?
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