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Title: Unit%202:%20Chapter%207%20India%20and%20China


1
Unit 2 Chapter 7 India and China
2
India A Tale of 2 Empires
  • Mauryan Empire 321- 232 BC
  • Chandragupta 321-301BCE
  • Created the 1st empire
  • Raised huge army, huge taxes
  • Created bureaucracy
  • Kautilya
  • Rulers handbook
  • Asoka 269 BC 232 BCE
  • Grandson
  • Why Buddhism? Battle at Kalinga
  • Nonviolence, issued edicts, religious toleration,
    fairness
  • Built roads
  • Did what for travelers?
  • 500 years of chaos after Mauryan Empire

Chandragupta
Kautilya
Asoka
3
India A Tale of 2 Empires
  • Gupta Empire 320 535 AD
  • 2nd empire
  • First empire with good information about life in
    India
  • Farmers, merchants.
  • Taxes, irrigation
  • Patriarchal in North, Matriarchal in South
  • Expansion created trade routes

4
Using the map, what are the key differences
between the Mauryan Empires and the Gupta
Empires? Why did neither empire spread north
east?
5
Achievements of Indian Culture
Many of the foundations of Indian and western
culture are created during the Mauryan and Gupta
Empires
6
Achievements
  • Astronomy
  • Knowledge increased on trading ships
  • Used stars
  • Kept time Greeks
  • Calendar based on sun
  • 7-day week divided into hours
  • 1st to prove earth round lunar eclipse
  • Mathematics
  • Most advanced
  • Created modern numbers
  • Zero
  • Decimal system
  • Value of pi
  • Length of solar year (365)
  • Medicine
  • 2 medical guides 1,000 diseases, 500 medicinal
    plants
  • Surgery plastic surgery

7
Gupta Art
Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art
architecture.
8
The Spread of Indian Trade
What did Indians realize once they heard about
the Silk Roads?
9
Extensive Trade
That they could become the middlemen make a
lot of money Set up trading stations
spices
silks
cotton goods
spices
rice wheat
horses
gold ivory
gold ivory
cotton goods
10
Money, Money, Money, and Influence
  • Overland Trade
  • Access to the Silk Road
  • Ideal placement between Rome and China
  • Middlemen Big Profits
  • Effect of trade
  • Banking system Loans
  • Indian culture spread
  • Religion spread
  • Increased wealth for Indian empires
  • Sea Trade
  • Traded between China, Arabia, Africa, and SE Asia
  • Spices, ivory, silk, gold, horses, rice, wheat

11
How did Silk Road impact peoples lives?
  1. Economic Impact created jobs
  2. Religious Impact spread Buddhism other
    religions
  3. Disease some communities wiped out by diseases,
    plague

12
Hinduism and Buddhism Change
  • As Buddhism spreads, it mixes with other
    religions and begins to split
  • Becomes popular as people believe they can become
    Buddhas achieve nirvana, or salvation, through
    good works, sacrifice
  • Hinduism began to unite its many gods into one
    main universal force, with several forces (gods)
  • Brahma Creator
  • Vishnu Preserver
  • Shiva Destroyer

13
The Decline of the Guptas
  • Invasion of the Huns in the 4 AD signaled the
    end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at
    first, the Guptas defeated them
  • After the decline of the Gupta empire, north
    India broke into a number of separate Hindu
    kingdoms and was not really unified again until
    the coming of the Muslims in 7 AD

14
Han Dynasty in China
15
  • Han Dynasty is formed (200 BC-220 AD)
  • Formed after years of civil war
  • Winner was Liu Bang
  • Formed a centralized government where the emperor
    ran the whole country
  • Brought peace stability for awhile
  • Lower taxes, lighter punishments
  • Later Emperors expanded the empire through
    warfare, both north to Korea, and South to Vietnam

16
Han Dynasty Structure
  • Mandate of Heaven Emperor semi-divine
  • The idea that if the gods favored the ruler, life
    in China would be good. Displease the gods, the
    dynasty would fall earthquakes, floods
  • People followed emperors rule because they
    believed emperor was link between heaven and
    earth semi-divine

17
Bureaucracy Civil Service
  • Bureaucracy
  • The most developed of its time
  • Run the empire, army, collect taxes
  • Peasants gave labor roads, canals, irrigation
  • Civil Service 130,000 people
  • Had to take a test, and score well, merit
  • Confucian ideals at heart of government
  • Respect, Generosity, Truthfulness, Diligence,
    Kindness
  • Very stable stayed in place until 1912!

18
Technology, Commerce, Culture
  • Paper books spread education
  • Harness - pull heavier loads
  • Farming two bladed plow. wheelbarrow
  • Water mills grain
  • Government controlled industries (monopoly)
  • Salt mines, Iron forging, Coins, Silk
  • Assimilated people into Chinese culture
  • Books, education, intermarriage,

19
End of the Han Dynasty
  • Dynasty falls when the gap between the rich and
    poor becomes too great
  • Flooding causes starvation
  • Riots and revolutions
  • Invasions and civil war
  • Later Han Dynasty experiences same
  • Dynasty ends around 220 AD

20
Chapter 15 Africa
21
Just how big is Africa?
Africa is HUGE!
22
Geography
  • Africa is diverse
  • Sahara and Kalahari Deserts
  • Sahel southern edge of the Sahara
  • Savanna - grassland
  • Rainforest
  • Glacier!

23
West African Kingdoms
  • Ghana
  • Started because of the salt/gold trade
  • By 800 AD, Ghana is an empire
  • Large army, taxes, bureaucracy
  • King controlled the salt and gold supply
  • Islam spread to Ghana through trade
  • First to traders and upper class
  • Conquered in 1076 by invaders from the north, and
    never recovered

24
Mali
  • Started in 1275, east of Ghana
  • First emperor was Sundiata
  • Military leader, popular for overthrowing a
    tyrant
  • Bureaucracy was efficient, supported agriculture
    and fixed the salt/gold trade
  • Took the title Mansa meaning emperor

25
  • Mansa Musa came to power in 1312
  • Skilled military leader
  • Huge army, expanded territory (bigger than Ghana)
  • Dedicated Muslim, took a trip to Mecca
  • Built Mosques, (churches) hospitals, and schools
  • Later rulers not as skilled, and empire fell
    apart

26
Songhai 1464-1591
  • Started by controlling trade routes, and then
    expanding
  • Sunni Ali
  • Military general, big army and navy
  • Seized Timbuktu for 7 years!
  • Askia Muhammad
  • Tax system developed, bureaucracy, dedicated
    Muslim
  • Empire ended when invaded by attackers from the
    north with better technology.

27
Ghana Mali Songhai
How did it start? Developed because of the salt/gold trade Military conquest Control of trade and conquest
How did it maintain control? Large Army, Bureaucracy, Taxes Large Army, Bureaucracy, Taxes Large Army, Bureaucracy, Taxes
What was the primary religion? Traditional, changed to Islam Islam Islam
Notable people Sundiata Mansa Musa Sunni Ali Asika Muhammad
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