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Sexual Health Unit Introduction

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Title: The Reproductive Systems Author: lease.corina Last modified by: Raquelle Domenici Created Date: 1/28/2005 5:33:30 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sexual Health Unit Introduction


1
Sexual Health Unit Introduction
  • This unit focuses on sexual health information
    for high school health/fitness classes.

2
Overview of Presentations
  • 1. Male Female Reproductive Systems
  • 2. Responsible Relationships (DVD When Dating
    Turns Dangerous)
  • 3. Abstinence
  • 4. STDs
  • 5. HIV/AIDS
  • Contraceptives
  • DVD Don't Take Love Lying Down with Brad
    Henning

3
Rules of Play
  • Be respectful of peoples thoughts feelings.
  • Assume there is diversity (race, gender, sexual
    orientation, life experiences)
  • If its personal, keep it personal. Refrain from
    comments that would make others think youre
    sexually active (no bragging).
  • Act mature about the subject matter.
  • Remember When sharing, use the phrase Someone I
    know
  • Opportunities for personal and confidential
    questions will be provided during the unit.

4
A little joke . . .
  • Little Billy was playing with some friends and
    then ran home to ask his mother where he came
    from. The mother realized it was kind of early
    to give the birds and the bees speech, but Billy
    deserved to know the truth.
  • So she explained about sperm and eggs and the
    reproduction process.
  • Billy was quietly listening with big eyes and
    then finally exclaimed, My friend Randy said he
    was from Boston. I just wanted to know where I
    was from.

5
SuperShort Assignment 1
  • After reviewing the six presentation topics of
    the unit (reproductive systems, responsible
    relationships, abstinence, STDs, HIV AIDS, and
    contraception) write down 5 reasons why this
    information is important.
  • Look over the class rules and list the one you
    think is the most important to apply during this
    unit. Explain why in 2-3 sentences.

6
The Reproductive Systems
  • Male and Female
  • Presentation 1

7
Whats Your Health IQ? (14 true or false
questions)
  1. Sperm are made in the vas deferens.
  2. Testicular cancer is most common in men over 50
    years old.
  3. Estrogen is the primary hormone in males.
  4. Eggs are made in the ovaries.
  5. A woman produces several eggs every month.
  6. The scrotums job is temperature control.

8
Whats Your Health IQ? (true or false)
  • 7. The urethra is a final passageway for semen
    and urine.
  • 8. The medical term for a wet dream is night
    projection.
  • 9. A womans menstrual cycle is 3-7 days.
  • 10. The penis does not have to be erect for
    ejaculation.
  • 11. Semen is composed of secretions and sperm.
  • 12. A developing human is called an embryo and
    fetus.
  • 13. Ova is the same thing as an ovary.
  • 14. The uterus transports the egg.

9
Answers
  1. False, sperm are made in the testes.
  2. False, most cases of testicular cancer occur in
    males 15-35 years old.
  3. False, testosterone is the primary hormone in
    males.
  4. True, eggs are made in the ovaries.
  5. False, women typically produce and release only
    one egg per month.

10
Answers
  • 6. True, The scrotums job is temperature
    control.
  • 7. True, The urethra is a final passageway for
    semen and urine.
  • 8. F, The medical term for a wet dream is NOT
    night projection. Its nocturnal emission.
  • 9. F, A womans menstrual cycle is NOT 3-7 days.
    (Average cycle is 28 days.)
  • 10. F, The penis does not have to be erect for
    ejaculation. (It does.)
  • 11. True, Semen is composed of secretions and
    sperm.
  • 12. True, A developing human is called an embryo
    and fetus.
  • 13. F, Ova is the same thing as an ovary. (ova
    eggs)
  • 14. F, The uterus transports the egg. (the
    fallopian tubes do)

11
Male Reproductive System The male reproductive
system works to produce sperm and deliver it to
the female reproductive system.
12
How the Male Reproductive System Works Penis
  • The penis is responsible for removing urine from
    the males body and delivering sperm to the
    female reproductive system.
  • Sperm are sex cells that are produced by the male
    reproductive organs called the testes and that
    are needed to fertilize an egg.
  • The penis is made of soft tissue and blood
    vessels.
  • During sexual activity, the penis becomes erect,
    or firm. This is caused by an increase in blood
    flow to the blood vessels in the penis.
  • The penis must be erect for ejaculation to occur.
  • Semen a fluid made up of sperm and other
    secretions from the male reproductive organs

13
How the Male Reproductive System Works Penis
cont.
  • Ejaculation occurs when sperm are released from
    the penis after sexual excitement.
  • It is normal for males to ejaculate during
    sleep. This is known as nocturnal emissions or
    wet dreams.
  • Both sperm and urine leave the body through an
    opening at the tip of the penis called the
    urethra.
  • The tip of the penis is covered by a sheath of
    skin called a foreskin. When a male baby has this
    removed it is known as circumcision.

14
Path of the Sperm
15
How the Male Reproductive System Works Path of
Sperm
  • Testes (testicles) produce
  • sperm and testosterone. (Testosterone
  • is the major sex hormone of males.)
  • The two testes rest in the scrotum, a
    skin-covered sac that hangs from the body. The
    job of the scrotum muscles is to adjust the
    position of the testes for temperature control.
    Sperm cannot develop properly at the higher
    temperatures of the body.
  • Epididymis is the temporary storage place for the
    sperm. The sperm mature and gain the ability to
    move

16
How the Male Reproductive System Works Path of
Sperm
  • Vas deferens acts as both a passageway for the
    sperm as they exit the body and as another
    storing place as the sperm wait to be ejaculated
  • The seminal vesicles are found near the base of
    the urinary bladder.
  • They produce thick secretions that nourish the
    sperm and help sperm move easier.

17
How the Male Reproductive System Works Path of
Sperm
  • The prostate gland encircles the urethra near the
    bladder.
  • Secretes a thin, milky fluid that protects the
    sperm from acid in the female reproductive system
  • 6. The Bulbourethral (Cowpers) glands are
    found near the urethra below the prostate.
  • Prior to ejaculation, this gland secretes a clear
    fluid the protects the sperm from acid in the
    male urethra.
  • 7. The Urethra is used as the final passageway
    for both semen and urine. The prostate closes off
    the bladder to prevent any urine from joining the
    semen.

18
Path of the Sperm
19
Problems of the Male Reproductive System
Problem What is it? Symptoms
Treatment
fungal infection of groin area exposure to
moisture and heat increases the risk
itchy rash in groin, mostly in creases of upper
thigh
keeping area cool and dry over-the-counter
antifungal creams
  • Jock Itch

difficulty urinating or defecating, burning
during urination, blood in urine, or no symptoms
abnormal division of cells in the prostate may
be hereditary
surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy
Prostate Cancer
lump on testes, enlargement of testes, sense of
heaviness in the scrotum, or no symptoms
abnormal division of cells in the testes may be
hereditary
surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy
Testicular Cancer
20
6 Ways to stay healthy Males
  1. Wear appropriate protective gear during sports (a
    cup)
  2. Avoid wearing tight clothing
  3. Wash the penis and scrotum every day, and dry
    yourself carefully after showering
  4. If you are not circumcised, wash underneath the
    foreskin
  5. Perform a monthly testicular self-exam (ages
    14-35)
  6. Have an annual checkup with a doctor

21
Testicular Self-Exam
  • Look for the following signs
  • an unusual, painless lump
  • a heavy, dragging feeling
  • in the testes
  • a dull ache in the groin
  • a change in the size of one testicle
  • sudden collection of fluid in scrotum
  • blood in urine

22
Female Reproductive System External Organs
  • Labia majora They protect the other external
    reproductive organs. Literally translated as
    "large lips," the labia majora are relatively
    large and fleshy.
  • Labia minora Literally translated as "small
    lips," they can be very small or up to 2 inches
    wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and
    surround the openings to the vagina and urethra).
  • Bartholins glands They are located next to the
    vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus)
    secretion.
  • Clitoris The two labia minora meet at the
    clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion. The
    clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the
    prepuce and is very sensitive to stimulation.

23
Female Reproductive System External Organs
24
What the Female Reproductive System Does
  • The function of the female reproductive system is
    to make eggs and to provide a place to support
    and nourish a developing human.
  • Eggs, or ova, are the sex cells that are produced
    by the female reproductive organs called ovaries.
    The process by which a sperm and an egg and
    their genetic material join to create a new human
    life is called fertilization.

25
Female Reproductive System Internal Organs
26
How the Female Reproductive System Works Ovaries
  • Ovaries are the female reproductive organs that
    produce eggs and the hormones estrogen and
    progesterone.
  • All of the eggs that a female will ever have are
    in her two ovaries when she is born (100,000).
    Approximately 400 will be released between
    puberty menopause.
  • During puberty
  • Estrogen causes the reproductive organs to mature
    into their adult shape and size, as well as body
    hair to grow under the arms and pubic area.
  • Both estrogen and progesterone are responsible
    for the monthly release of an egg to prepare the
    body for pregnancy.

27
How the Female Reproductive System Works
Fallopian Tubes Uterus
  • The fallopian tubes transport an egg from the
    ovary to the uterus.
  • The uterus (womb) provides a place to support a
    developing human
  • It is a muscular cavity (the size of a fist)
    found at the top of the vagina and between the
    bladder and rectum
  • The uterus meets the vagina at its lower end,
    called the cervix.

28
How the Female Reproductive System Works Vagina
  • The vagina connects the outside of the female
    body to the uterus. It receives sperm during
    reproduction.
  • This tubular organ runs from the lower end of the
    uterus to the outside of the body.
  • The vagina also facilitates menstrual flow in
    exiting the body, and a birthing canal when a
    baby is born.
  • Above (toward the front of the body) is the
    urethra. It is separate from the vagina and
    carries urine from the bladder to the outside of
    the body.

29
Path of the Egg (Ova)
30
Basics of the Menstrual Cycle
  • Prior to ovulation (the release of an egg), the
    lining of the uterus thickens to prepare to
    support a growing human during pregnancy.
  • Menstruation is the breakdown and discharge of
    the uterine lining out of the vagina. This occurs
    if a released egg is not fertilized. Menstruation
    lasts on average 3 to 7 days.
  • The average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days.
    Ovulation usually occurs on the 14th day.
    However, this length can vary.
  • Environmental factors, such as stress, diet,
    travel, exercise, weight gain/loss, and illness
    can influence the timing of the female cycle.
  • It is VERY IMPORTANT for a female to check with
    her healthcare professional if she has any
    questions about her reproductive system and/or
    menstrual cycle.

31
The Menstrual Cycle
Most females menstruate during the first 3-7
days of the cycle. The most fertile times are
6-7 days before ovulation and 2-3 days after
ovulation.
32
Problems of the Female Reproductive System
Problem What is it? Symptoms
Treatment
Inflammation of the urinary bladder usually due
to a bacterial infection
Burning during urination, strong-smelling urine,
fever, or blood in urine
Antibiotics prescribed by a doctor
  • Cystitis
  • (Bladder Infection)

mental and physical changes related to menstrual
cycle, not completely understood
irritability, mood swings, depression, abdominal
bloating, and breast tenderness
determined by a doctor
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
vaginal bleeding, discharge, or pelvic pain may
not be any symptoms
abnormal division of cells in the cervix may
also be from an STD
surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy
Cervical Cancer
33
8 Ways to stay healthy Females
  1. Exercise regularly, and maintain a balanced diet.
  2. Gently wash the genital area every day with warm
    water and mild soap. Do not use feminine hygiene
    sprays and powders.
  3. Wipe the vaginal opening from front to back after
    urination
  4. Change sanitary napkins or tampons every 4-8
    hours when menstruating. This helps avoid Toxic
    Shock Syndrome, a rare but dangerous disease.
    (1-17 cases per 100,000 women, symptoms may
    include vomiting, diarrhea, fainting, dizziness,
    or a rash that looks like a sunburn)
  5. Avoid wearing tight clothing that can cause
    discomfort.
  6. Have an annual pelvic exam with a health care
    professional after the age of 18 or earlier if
    sexually active.

34
Stay Healthy Females
  • 7. Do a breast self-exam each month after your
    period (for those that have them.) 1 out of 8
    women in the U.S. has a risk of developing breast
    cancer during her lifetime.)
  • Breast Self-Exam Procedures
  • Feel each breast with soapy fingers, in the
    shower. It is important to check the entire area,
    even the armpits.
  • Look at the breasts in the mirror ... First with
    hands down at the side, then raising them over
    the head, and finally pressing down on the hips
    (to flex the chest muscles).
  • Lie down, with a pillow under the shoulder, to
    examine each breast. Use the flat parts of the
    fingers ... and press down firmly.

35
Stay Healthy Females What should you look for
with the BSE?
  • an unusual, painless lump
  • changes in the shape of the breast (such as
    swelling or dimples)
  • discharge (liquid) from the nipple
  • change in the direction one nipple is pointing
  • redness or scaliness

36


37
Brain Pop
  • Fetal Development

38
How Life Begins
  • Sexual intercourse is the reproductive process in
    which the penis is inserted into the vagina and
    through which a new human life may begin.
  • From the vagina, sperm travel through the uterus
    and into the fallopian tubes, where fertilization
    normally occurs.
  • After fertilization, the zygote travels to the
    uterus and embeds in the uterine wall.
  • The developing human in the first 8 weeks of
    development is called an embryo.

39
How a Baby Develops
  • The placenta is an organ that
  • develops in the uterus. It
  • provides a developing baby
  • with nutrients and removes
  • waste.
  • The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the
    placenta.

40
How a Baby Develops (1st Trimester)
  • In the 1st trimester, first 3 months, the embryo
    grows rapidly. (Note 25 of all pregnancies end
    in miscarriage and they are most common in the
    1st trimester.)
  • By week 4, the heart starts beating, arm and leg
    buds appear, and the eyes and brain start to
    develop.
  • By the end of the first trimester,
  • all the major body parts and
  • organs have formed.

41
How a Baby Develops (2nd Trimester)
  • Beyond the first trimester, the developing baby
    is called a fetus.
  • In the second trimester, the organs continue to
    develop. By 4 months, the mother can feel the
    fetus move or kick.
  • By the end of the second trimester, facial
    features are apparent,
  • and you can tell if
  • the fetus is male
  • or female.

                     
42
How a Baby Develops (3rd Trimester)
  • In the third trimester, the fetus gains most of
    its weight. At the end of 9 months, the baby is
    born.

43
Development leading up to Birth
4 weeks
8 weeks
14 weeks
28 weeks
40 weeks
44
Conception to Birth
  • http//www.ted.com/talks/alexander_tsiaras_concept
    ion_to_birth_visualized.html
  • Show from 200 to 600 of video

45
BrainPop
  • Twins

46
Presentation Resources
  • This presentation was created using one or more
    of the following curricula
  • Department of Health, online resources
  • Center for Disease Control, online resources
  • F.L.A.S.H. (Family Life and Sexual Health)
  • Glencoe Health, 2007
  • Glencoe Human Sexuality 2007
  • Holt Lifetime Health 2004
  • KNOW (HIV/STD Prevention) 1997
  • Prentice Hall Health, 2007
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