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Title: Ancient%20Rome

Ancient Rome

(No Transcript)
Lesson 1 Vocabulary
  • Sicily
  • peninsula
  • land
  • Alps
  • Apennines
  • basin Po basin

1. Italian Peninsula
  • Boot shaped
  • Europe
  • Sicily near by island
  • Close to Africa and Greece
  • Italy is midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea
  • Mountainous, not as bad as Greece
  • Rich farmland, yet sea people

2. Natural Regions PAAW
  • 1st Alps, in the north, mts. separated Italy
    from the rest of Europe.
  • 2nd Apennines, mts. the length of the peninsula
    to Sicily
  • 3rd Po Basin, south of the Alps, it is between
    the two mt. ranges
  • 4th the Western Coastal Plain, fertile

The Alps
The Apennines
The Po Basin
The Western Coastal Plain
3. The Early Romans LEG
  • 1st were the Latins from Central Europe who
    settled around the Tiber River.
  • Settlers from Greece too
  • Etruscans lived in the north, possibly from
    Gaulmodern day France

4. Growth of Rome
  • Western coastal plain attracted settlers because
    of its fertile land.

  • This is a ______.
  • What does it help us remember?
  • This is a ______.
  • What does it help us remember?

(No Transcript)
Lesson 2 The Roman Republic
The Story of How Rome Was Given its Name
The Story of Romulus and Remus The twin brothers
Romulus and Remus were the sons of the god Mars.
When they were very young they were abandoned by
the banks of the Tiber River and left to fend for
themselves. Luckily for them, they were found by
a she-wolf who took pity on them and fed them
with her milk.  Later, a shepherd found the boys
and took them home to look after them. He ended
up raising the boys as his own children. The boys
grew up to be very strong and clever. They
decided to build a town on the spot where the
shepherd had found them. 
Shortly after building the town, the twins had a
big argument about who should be in charge.
Romulus overpowered his brother Remus, who died
in the fight. Romulus then became the first king
of this town which he named Rome, after
himself.   As you can see, the early days of the
city of Rome are surrounded with mystery. Much of
what historians believe is based upon
circumstance, as there is little evidence
remaining of what Rome was like two and a half
thousand years ago. What we do have, is a Legend,
a story that is partly based on fact, partly
based on fiction. 
Lesson 2 Vocabulary
Year 7
  • Republic
  • voting rights
  • Senate
  • Consuls
  • Plebeians
  • Patricians
  • Tribune
  • Twelve tables
  • Punic Wars

1. Birth of a Republic
  • Rome used to have kings-monarchy
  • 509 BCE set up a Republic government in which
    RICH citizens have a right to choose their ruler.
    How does it differ from an OLIGARCHY??
  • Oligarchy Rich Rule
  • Republic comes from the Latin publicapublic

Birth of Republic- contd
  • Only MALE citizens w/ money and property could
    vote-how does this differ from Greece?
  • More wealth ? more power
  • Senate lawmaking council-in Greece it was what?
  • Senators elect 2 men to serve as consuls share
    power, command army, Veto powers

Arch of Constantine and Where Senate Metin Rome.
2. Patricians and Plebeians made up the population
  • Patricians rich powerful families in senate,
    200 patrician families
  • Plebeians most of the people in Rome farmers,
    merchants. Free citizens, but no say in
  • Years later A walk out! A revolt!
  • Tribunes people elected to protect plebeians
    interests. 10/year

3. The Twelve Tables
  • Roman laws had been based on custom- Its always
    been this way! nothing was written in stone.
  • Creation of the Twelve Tables written on 12
    bronze tablets
  • Code of laws made by plebeians and patricians-

How the Romans Voted
  • Romans voted on tablets using a pointed stick.

DO NOW ON THE COVERrephrase each question into
a statement
  • What are the 4 Natural Regions of the Italian
  • Who were the 3 Early Settlers on the Italian

Next to this picture, describe the African
elephants below with 3 powerful adjectives.
4. Rome Expands
  • 3 BIG POWERS-Med. Area
  • Rome
  • Alexandria,
  • Egypt
  • Carthage
  • north coast of
  • Africa

5. War with Carthage
  • Punic Wars Rome and Carthage fight for Sicily
  • Rome wins and gets Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica
  • Leader of Carthage vows revenge by his son

The Punic Wars
Rome was growing, It was starting to expand
beyond the southern Italian peninsula.   At the
same time as Rome was growing, so was the
city-state of Carthage.  Carthage was in North
Africa and had sent out its ships and soldiers to
many parts of the Mediterranean.  Carthage had
conquered three islands off the coast of modern
day Italy, and Rome felt that these islands
should belong to Rome.  The two governments could
not reach any agreement, so these two powers went
to war.  Carthage had a great navy.  The Romans
had a great army.  This war was going to be
The wars between Rome and Carthage are called the
Punic Wars.  The First Punic war lasted for 20
years.  Neither side won.  Carthage could not
beat Rome's army, but Rome could not beat
Carthage's navy.  The war causes many deaths and
lots of destruction.  The First Punic war ended
when Carthage decided to end the fighting by
giving Rome one of the three islands.   The
Romans still wanted the other two islands, and
Carthage wanted Rome to stop expanding towards
Africa, so everyone knew that there would soon be
a second war.   There soon would be.  
At the end of the First Punic war, Carthage
decided to expand into Iberia (Spain).  They sent
their best army with their best general
Hamilcar.  Hamilcar took along his oldest son,
Hannibal, to help him.  Carthage was doing really
well in Iberia when Hamilcar got sick and died. 
The Carthaginians wondered what to do.  The army
had no such worries.  By popular acclaim, they
made Hannibal their general.  
Hannibal Hannibal was a great general.  He was
very , very tricky.  He won battles by using new
and different ideas.  As an example, once while
fighting at sea, he had his men throw live snakes
on to the enemies ship.  The snakes frightened
the enemy so badly they surrendered. 
Carthage wanted to conquer all of Iberia and
Hannibal set about doing just that. 
Unfortunately, some of the cities in Iberia were
allies of Rome.  When Hannibal attacked one of
these cities, Rome saw the excuse they needed, so
they declared war on Carthage.  But they did not
go after Hannibal in Iberia.  They sent their
main army to attack Carthage.  Hannibal knew he
had to do something to prevent the Romans from
conquering Carthage, but what?  He was in Iberia
with his army. Rome was safe on the other side of
the Alps, which were a very tall and steep set of
mountains. Hannibal didn't let that stop him.  In
a feat for which he is remembered still, Hannibal
decided to invade the Italian peninsula by going
over the Alps.  He decided to bring his war
elephants with him.   No one at the time believed
that it was possible, and it almost wasn't. 
Hannibal lost most of his elephants to the cold
of the mountains, and he lost half of his men as
well.  But he did cross the Alps and brought the
rest of his army into the Italian peninsula to
attack Rome.  
Because of his losses as he crossed the Alps,
Hannibal's army was not strong enough to attack
the city of Rome.  So Hannibal attacked other
cities and towns throughout the Italian
peninsula.  Hannibal and his army spent 15 years
on the Italian peninsula fighting against the
Roman legions.  Rome was worried and afraid. 
They had to keep a large army near Rome to
protect against Hannibal so they could never get
enough troops out to catch him.  Rome settled on
a new strategy.  Once again, they sent their army
to attack Carthage itself.   
The leaders of Carthage panicked and called
Hannibal and his army home.  Before Hannibal
could return, the Roman army had Carthage
surrounded.  The leaders of Carthage
surrendered.  Carthage agreed to limit the size
of its army and navy, to pay tribute to Rome, and
to leave Spain and Italy.  When Hannibal got
back, Carthage reneged went back on the deal. 
Rome sent back its army and finally defeated
Hannibal's forces.  They did not manage to catch
Hannibal himself, but they made Carthage shrink
its army and navy even more, and pay even more
tribute.   The war was over.  But the Romans were
still after Hannibal.  Hannibal led his troops
back to Spain and continued fighting against
Third Punic War.  While Rome was busy at other
tasks and in other parts of the world, the city
of Carthage was growing strong again.  Soon
Carthage felt strong enough to fight Rome.  The
third Punic war started.  The Romans and Carthage
fought for several years but Rome was too
strong.  The Romans defeated Carthage again. But
this time Rome had had enough.  They rounded up
all the people of Carthage and sold them into
slavery. They tore down every building in the
city, then spread salt over all the farms and
fields around where Carthage had been.  Thus the
land was no good for growing food.  There was no
longer a city of Carthage.     
6. Hannibal Crosses the Alps
  • Second Punic War Invades Italy from the north
    the Alps
  • Many battles
  • Scipio Roman general attacks Carthage, Hannibal
    forced to leave Rome

Hannibals path
Lesson 3
  • The Roman Empire

Lesson 3 Vocabulary
  • territory
  • Roman Empire
  • Julius Caesar
  • Dictator
  • soothsayer
  • civil war
  • Octavian Augustus
  • Ides of March
  • Pax Romana

Please give 5 descriptive adjectives for each

1. Building an Empire
  • Roman armies march to add new territories- large
    areas of land
  • Strong Roman govt made this possible
  • Each territory was a Roman state w/ a governor
  • New areas kept their own customs

Julius Caesar
2.Julius Caesar
  • Most powerful leader
  • Was a patrician
  • Conquered many lands
  • Senate made him a dictator someone with
    absolute power- because he was a great general.

The Roman Empirefrom Britain to Mesopotamia
3. Ides of March
  • Senators grew angry b/c Caesar took away their
  • Wears purple a color of royalty
  • Warning from a soothsayer predicts the future
  • March 15th murdered on the Ides of March
  • Ides middle of month

  • Planning the Assassination
  • The conspirators men who meet to plan an evil
    crime never met exactly openly, but they
    assembled a few at a time in each other's homes.
    There were many discussions and proposals, as
    might be expected, while they investigated how
    and where to execute their design to kill Caesar.
  • Some suggested that they should make the attempt
    along the Sacred Way, which was one of his
    favorite walks.
  • Another idea was to do it at the elections,
    during which he had to cross a bridge.
  • Some proposed that they draw sticks for someone
    to push him from the bridge and others to run up
    and kill him.
  • A third plan was to wait for a coming
    gladiatorial show. The advantage of that was,
    because of the show, no suspicion would be
    aroused if arms weapons were seen.

In the days leading up to the assassination,
Caesar was told by doctors, friends, and even his
wife, Calpurnia, not to attend the Senate on the
Ides of March for various reasons, including
medical concerns and troubling dreams Calpurnia
had. The majority opinion, however, favored
killing him while he sat in the Senate. He would
be there by himself, since only Senators were
admitted. Conspirators could hide their daggers
beneath their togas. This plan won the day.
...his friends were alarmed at certain rumors and
tried to stop him from going to the Senate-house,
as did his doctors, for he was suffering from one
of his occasional dizzy spells. His wife,
Calpurnia, especially, who was frightened by some
visions in her dreams, clung to him and said that
she would not let him go out that day. But
Brutus, one of the conspirators and BEST friend,
came up and said, What is this, Caesar? Are
you a man to pay attention to a woman's dreams
and the idle gossip of stupid men, and to insult
the Senate by not going out, although it has
honored you and has been specially summoned by
you? But listen to me cast aside the strong
feelings of all these people, and come. The
Senate has been in session waiting for you since
early this morning. This convinced Caesar and
he left.
Where Julius Caesar was cremated- dispose of a
dead persons body by burning to ashes
  • Adopted by Julius Caesar, Augustus (c.62 BCE 14
  • Reigned (31 BCE 14 CE) had to fight for his
    throne. His long rule saw a huge expansion in the
    Roman Empire and the beginnings of a dynasty
    that, over the next century, would transform
    Rome, for better and worse.  The man who would
    become one of Romes greatest leaders had an
    unpromising start in life. Augustus was a sickly
    child in a family with few connections.  His
    father died when Augustus was four. His future
    looked bleak Rome was dangerous and engulfed
    by civil war. However, Rome was led by his
    great-uncle, Julius Caesar. 

A bit of luck Then Augustus got a lucky break.
In 46 BCE, Caesar won the civil war and was named
dictator of Rome. To secure his position, he
needed an heir. With no son of his own, he
adopted Augustus. This was a fantastic
opportunity for a young man from nowhere. Almost
at once, however, Caesar was dead murdered by
his own advisors. Augustus was just 19, but
immediately threw himself into the backstabbing
world of Roman politics . 
Claiming the throne He formed a strategic
alliance with Marc Antony, a successful and
ambitious general. Over the next few years, they
defeated their enemies in Rome and chased the
survivors to Greece, where they finished them off
in two of the bloodiest battles in Roman
history. The killing over, the empire was
theirs and they divided the spoils. Augustus kept
Rome, while Antony took Egypt. There he fell
under the spell of Cleopatra, Egypts beautiful
Trouble in Egypt Romans feared that Cleopatra
wanted the throne for herself and his
relationship with her made Mark Antony a hated
man in Rome. His alliance with Augustus
disintegrated but, before Antony and Cleopatra
could strike Rome, Augustus attacked. The
Battle of Actium in 31 BCE destroyed
three-quarters of the Egyptian fleet. Cleopatra
and Marc Antony killed themselves and, finally,
the Roman Empire now included the land of the
Local heroBack home, Augustus was a hero. At
the age of 32, he had become Romes first
Emperor, promising to restore peace and
security.Winning the war had been difficult,
but was nothing compared to the challenge of
winning the peace. Many immediately suspected
him of wanting to create a dynasty to rule Rome
for generations to come. 
A charm offensive To avoid Julius Caesars
fate, Augustus charmed the Senate and the people
by pretending to give up power. But a series of
disasters panicked Romans. They became convinced
that only he could save them and begged the
Senate to vote him absolute ruler. Augustus
agreed, but did so cleverly. He convinced Romans
that he was ruling in the best traditions of the
republic, but actually was an absolute ruler
creating a dynasty. The Romans bought it. 
Growing older During his reign, Augustus
achieved a lot. He expanded the empire, adding
Egypt, northern Spain and large parts of central
Europe before invading Germany. But problems
remained.   Augustus was growing older and
weaker. Despite his successes, the plotting
continued. Everything that Augustus had worked so
hard to achieve was in danger of collapsing as he
faced crisis after crisis, both at home and
abroad.  Nevertheless, Augustus clung onto power
for another 10 years. When he died, in 14 CE, the
Senate declared him a god. With his two grandsons
already dead, power passed to his stepson,
So what did he do?  Augustus had ended 100 years
of civil war and achieved over 40 years of
internal peace and prosperity. His vision and
power had expanded the Roman Empire to become far
more than a collection of countries. Instead, it
was a diverse society and enormous marketplace in
which people across Europe, north Africa and the
Middle East could trade and travel under Romes
protection.  He had won over the Senate and
founded a dynasty. But this would feature as many
villains as heroes, and would take Rome on a
roller-coaster ride into assassination, insanity
and terror. 
4. Octavian Augustus
  • Julius Caesars nephew, adopted son
  • Caesars murder causes 13 yr. civil war
  • Great general-ruled for 41 years
  • Augustus honored one
  • God-like emperor
  • Made government fair again

5. Pax Romana
  • Roman Peace
  • Pax peace
  • Began with Octavians rule
  • lasted 200 years
  • Empire was at its greatest

What does this quote mean, said by Octavian
  • I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city
    of marble.

Lesson 4
  • The Legacies of Ancient Rome

Lesson 4 Vocabulary
  • architecture
  • dome
  • arch
  • concrete
  • Coliseum
  • gladiator
  • forum
  • aqueduct
  • Romance Languages

1. Architecture
  • Architecture Science of building
  • Use columns and arches- importance structures
    are more stable
  • Aqueduct
  • Invented the dome- (roof formed by rounded
    arches) importance- today, many arenas are
    covered with domes so that all weather events
    can take place.
  • Introduced concrete (lime and soil)
  • - importance- long-lasting, made connecting
    territories in Romes Empire, possible

2. Coliseum
  • Sports, chariot races
  • 4 stories of arches/columns
  • Marble seats -seating 50,000 spectators
  • Mechanical elevators
  • Shows all day
  • Bloody events- 500,000 people and over a million
    wild animals died
  • Gladiators criminals, Christians, slaves, men
    wishing to pay off their debt to the emperor
    fought animals/men, expected to die

Our Trip to Rome- Summer 2013
Il Colosseo A roof to protect?
What took place inside Il Colosseo
Inside the Il Colosseo
98 Degrees and Humid
  • Outside Il Colosseo

Lets view a video
  • A Gladiators Story- taken from real life events.
  • Pompeii
  • https//

3. Roads and Aqueducts
  • Roads layers of crushed stone/pebbles, linked
    the towns-Importance- to connect all territories
    of Rome for SPEEDY movement of troops and
    communication around the empire.
  • Also leads to the forum central market place-
    Importance today, we have outdoor marketplaces
  • Aqueducts long lasting, stone structures
  • importance- to bring water to places, were to
    carry water from wells or natural springs.

4. Importance of Latin Language
  • Latin based languages Romance Languages-
  • -there is a melody to HOW the words are
  • F
  • I
  • R
  • P
  • S
  • Most European languages are from Latin

5. Gifts of Rome
  • Advanced civilization
  • How were they advanced?
  • Think Architecture

Lesson 5
  • Birth of Christianity

Lesson 5 Vocabulary
  • Jesus
  • New Testament
  • Christianity
  • Apostle
  • Peter
  • Paul
  • Bishop
  • Pope
  • Constantine
  • Fall of Rome

1. Land of Palestine
  • Palestine land of the ancient Hebrews (earlier
    known as Canaan)
  • Mary and Joseph from here go to Bethlehem to be
    counted in the census- Latin censere
    estimate counting of the population- for taxes
    and for men fit for military

  • Suffolk County
  • 2010 census
  • Added 15 people
  • Total 1.5 million

Nassau County 2010 Census Added 3,500 Total 1.38
(No Transcript)
2. Jesus of Nazareth
  • Jesus born to Mary
  • Jesus life in the New Testament of the Bible
  • New Testament tells of the story of Christianity.
  • Jesus grew up in Nazareth- Close friends 12
  • Apostles helped him organize Christian Church

3. Teaching of Jesus
  • One god- new to Romans
  • Follow the Ten Commandments
  • Preached Love for others
  • Worshipped secretly in fear of persecution. They
    would use a secret signal a fish- to show they
    were a Christian.
  • Jesus arrested b/c rulers in Palestine thought he
    wanted to rebelcondemned to death. Being nailed
    to a cross was an example of that.
  • Christians slaves were used to fight gladiators
    until the emperor himself became a Christian.

4. Spread of Christianity
Pope Francis
  • Apostles set up churches
  • Paul traveled to spread Jesus teaching
  • Paul wrote letters- explaining his voyages.
  • Peter helped Paul, went to Rome, won over
    converts. Becomes 1st bishop an official who
    leads a group of Christians.
  • Bishop of Rome is the POPE Pope means father

This picture hangs in the Sistine Chapel in Rome.
One day in year 312 C.E., the emperor
Constantine stood with his troops under the
cloudy sky near a bridge across the Tiber River.
He was filled with doubts. A battle was about to
begin. His enemies were waiting on the other
side of the river. While Constantine was hoping
for victory, the sun broke through the clouds.
The sun had a cross on it. Above the cross was
written in Latin Under this sign you will
conquer. The next morning, Constantine had
artisans put the Christian symbol on his
soldiers shields. In the battle, they won an
overwhelming victory. Constantine believed that
the victory had come from the Christian God.
Constantine vowed to become a Christian.
5. Christian Emperor
  • Christians did not want to worship rulers and..
  • Rome did not tolerate Christianity
  • Christians slaves were killed in the Coliseum-
    under Emperor Nero
  • Constantine general, said to have favored
  • 313CE Freedom to worship any religion,
  • 395CE official religion of Rome

Italian Tutte le strade portano a Roma! The
Roman Empire at its greatest-All the land
surrounding the Med. Sea
6. Fall of Rome
  • Polytheists vs monotheists- the Roman gods vs
    Christianity. The population was divided.
  • Because of Christianity, the empire lost its
  • military problems lead to loss of wealth-
    foreigners- Byzantines-Eastern Empires- were
    conquering them