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Title: Introduction to Shakespeare


1
Introduction to ShakespearesRomeo and Juliet
2
  • Born Stratford-on-Avon
  • Well-to-do, affluent while alive
  • Most quoted, other than the Bible
  • Background Information

3
William Shakespeare
  • Born 1564, died 1616
  • Wrote 37 plays
  • Wrote over 150 sonnets
  • Actor, poet, playwright

4
William Shakespeare Interesting Facts
  • The first of eight children born to John and Mary
    Shakespeare.
  • His birthday is celebrated on April 23, 1564 and
    he died April 23, 1616.
  • He attended the Kings New School where classes
    began at 6 AM (summer) and 7 AM (winter) and
    lasted till 5 PM.
  • In 1964, William Shakespeare became the first
    person other than royalty to appear on a United
    Kingdom stamp.
  • In his will, he left his wife his second best
    bed with its furnishings.

5
Words of Wisdom from Shakespeare
  • To be or not to be that is the question.
    Hamlet
  • Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none. Alls
    Well That Ends Well
  • Be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great,
    some achieve greatness, and some have greatness
    thrust upon 'em. Twelfth Night
  • Its not enough to speak, but to speak true.
    Midsummer Nights Dream

6
The Products of Shakespeare
  • Out of his 37 plays the top 6 most popular are
  • Hamlet
  • Othello
  • Macbeth
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • The Tempest
  • Julius Caesar

7
Types of Plays
  • Shakespeare wrote
  • Comedies - light and amusing, usually with a
    happy ending
  • Tragedies serious dramas with disastrous endings
  • Histories involve events or persons from history

8
The Theatre
  • The Globe Theatre
  • Open ceiling
  • Three stories high
  • No artificial lighting
  • Plays were shown during daylight hours only

9
Spectators
  • Wealthy people got to sit on benches
  • The poor (called groundlings) had to stand and
    watch from the courtyard
  • There was much more audience participation than
    today

10
Actors
  • Only men and boys
  • Young boys whose voices had not changed played
    the womens roles
  • It would have been indecent for a woman to appear
    on stage

11
Romeo and Juliet
  • Considered a tragedy
  • Tells the story of two teenagers who risk
    everything for love
  • Shakespeare is exploring which is stronger love
    or hate

12
Facts
  • Written by William Shakespeare in about 1591
  • Based on Arthur Brooke's The Tragicall History of
    Romeus and Juliet

13
The Montagues
Lord Montague father of Romeo Lady Montague
mother of Romeo Romeo Montague in love with
Juliet Benvolio nephew of Montague and friend
of Romeo Balthasar servant to Romeo Abram
servant to Montague
14
The Capulets
  • Lord Capulet father of Juliet
  • Lady Capulet mother of Juliet
  • Juliet Capulet in love with Romeo
  • Tybalt nephew of Lady Capulet
  • Nurse takes care of Juliet
  • Peter servant to Juliets Nurse

15
Other Characters
  • Prince Escalus ruler of Verona
  • Mercutio kinsman of the Prince and friend of
    Romeo
  • Friar Laurence a Franciscan priest
  • Friar John another Franciscan priest
  • Count Paris a young nobleman

16
Romeo and Juliet
  • Montagues
  • Montague
  • Lady Montague
  • Romeo
  • Mercutio
  • Friar Laurence
  • Benvolio
  • Balthasar
  • Abraham
  • Capulets
  • Capulet
  • Lady Capulet
  • Juliet
  • Tybalt
  • Nurse
  • Paris
  • Samson
  • Gregory
  • Peter
  • Characters
  • Neutral
  • Friar John
  • The Apothecary
  • Escalus, Prince of Verona

17
Montagues
18
Capulets
19
Others
20
Romeo and Juliet Vocabulary
Anon In a minute
Fair Pretty
Hither Here
Methinks I think
Woo To date
Soft Wait
Wherefore Why
21
Setting of Romeo and Juliet
  • The play is set in the thirteenth or fourteenth
    century in Italy in Verona and Mantua.
  • Much of the action takes place in Juliet's house.
  • The Capulets and the Montagues, the main families
    of the play, are from noble lineage and wealth
    they dress well, live in fancy surroundings, and
    are served by many attendants.
  • The play's basic setting, therefore, is rich and
    elegant.

22
Quotes from Romeo and Juliet
  • "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by
    any other name would smell as sweet."
  • "Good night, good night! parting is such sweet
    sorrow, that I shall say good night till it be
    morrow."
  • "For never was a story of more woe than this of
    Juliet and her Romeo."

23
Things to think about
  • What would you do if your parents did not approve
    of someone you were dating?
  • How important is the opinion of your family in
    decisions that you make?
  • Does violence solve problems?

24
Video Clips
  • Intro to Shakespeare
  • The characters in Romeo and Juliet

25
The Prologue
26
Two households
27
Both alike in dignity
28
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene
29
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny
30
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
31
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes,
32
A pair of star-crossd lovers take their life.
33
The Prologue (Partner Analysis)
  • Chorus   1    Two households, both alike in
    dignity,   2    In fair Verona, where we lay our
    scene,   3    From ancient grudge break to new
    mutiny,   4    Where civil blood makes civil
    hands unclean.   5    From forth the fatal loins
    of these two foes   6    A pair of star-cross'd
    lovers take their life   7    Whose
    misadventured piteous overthrows   8    Do with
    their death bury their parents' strife.   9   
    The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love,
     10    And the continuance of their parents'
    rage,  11    Which, but their children's end,
    nought could remove,  12    Is now the two
    hours' traffic of our stage  13    The which if
    you with patient ears attend,  14    What here
    shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend.

34
Romeo JulietLiterary Terms
35
Drama
  • a story written to be performed by actors

36
Soliloquy
  • a long speech expressing the thoughts of a
    character alone on stage

37
Monologue
  • a speech by one character in a play, story, or
    poem

38
Prologue
  • an opening speech that introduces the plays
    main characters, plot, and setting

39
Tragedy
  • a work of literature, especially a play, that
    results in a catastrophe for the main character.

40
Tragic hero
  • a character of noble birth with the potential for
    greatness, but due to a tragic flaw in his
    character makes an error in judgment that leads
    to his death

41
Aside
  • a short speech delivered by an actor in a play
    traditionally directed at the audience.

42
Comic Relief
  • a technique that is used to interrupt a serious
    part of a literary work by introducing a humorous
    character or situation.

43
Dialogue
  • a conversation between characters

44
Blank Verse
  • poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter

45
Dramatic Foil
  • a character that provides a contrast to another
    character
  • opposites

46
Suspense
  • a feeling of uncertainty about the outcome of
    events in a story
  • a way to keep the reader interested

47
Irony
  • when a reader expects one outcome and the
    opposite occurs

48
Sonnet
  • a fourteen line lyric poem traditionally written
    in iambic pentameter

49
Iambic Pentameter
  • A series of five stressed and unstressed
    syllables in a line of poetry

50
Couplet
  • a pair of rhyming lines in poetry

51
Sonnets
  • A fourteen line lyric poem, usually written in
    rhymed iambic pentameter
  • Themes
  • Love
  • Friendship
  • Mortality
  • Immortality of poetry

52
Sonnets
  • A sonnet consists of three quatrains and one
    couplet

53
Sonnets
  • A quatrain is a series of four rhymed lines

54
Sonnets
  • First quatrain the subject is revealed and why
    it is loved is explained
  • Second quatrain describe what is special about
    the subject be descriptive and imaginative
  • Third Quatrain A problem arises with loving the
    subject

55
Sonnets
  • A couplet is a series of two rhymed lines
  • Summarizes and leaves the reader with a new,
    concluding image

56
Sonnets
  • Rhyme Scheme a pattern of rhyme in a poem
  • Sonnet Rhyme Scheme
  • ABAB/CDCD/EFEF/GG

57
Sonnets
  • Iambic Pentameter 
  • five beats of alternating unstressed and stressed
    syllables (da-DUH) ten syllables per line.
  • Meter means rhythm.

58
Sonnets
  • Whos wood / these are / I think / I know /his
    house
  • Is in / the village / though he / will not /
    mind me / stopping

59
Look for
  • Puns
  • Allusions
  • Metaphor
  • Personification
  • Oxymorons
  • Paradoxes
  • Foreshadowing

60
Puns
A pun is a humorous play on words. Mercutio
Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you
dance. Romeo Not I, believe me. You have
dancing shoes / With nimble soles I have a soul
of lead (Act I Sc. 4)
61
Allusions
An allusion is a reference to a well known work
of art, music, literature, or history. At
lovers perjuries, they say Jove laughs. (Act
II, Sc. 2) Jove is another name for Jupiter, the
Roman King of the Gods.
62
Metaphor
A metaphor is a direct comparison between two
unlike things. Romeo But, soft! what light
through yonder window breaks? / It is the east,
and Juliet is the sun. (Act II Sc. 2)
63
Personification
Personification occurs when an inanimate object
or concept is given the qualities of a person or
animal. Juliet For thou wilt lie upon the
wings of night / Whiter than new snow on a
ravens back. / Come, gentle night, come, loving,
black-browd night (Act III Sc. 2)
64
Oxymorons
An oxymoron describes when two juxtaposed words
have opposing or very diverse meanings. Juliet
Beautiful tyrant! fiend angelical! (Act III
Sc.2)
65
Paradoxes
A paradox is statement or situation with
seemingly contradictory or incompatible
components. Juliet O serpent heart, hid with
a flowering face! (Act III Sc. 2)
66
Foreshadowing
Foreshadowing is a reference to something that
will happen later in the story. Juliet Give
me my Romeo and, when he shall die,Take him and
cut him out in little stars,And he will make the
face of heaven so fineThat all the world will be
in love with nightAnd pay no worship to the
garish sun. (Act III Sc. 2)
67
Themes
  • Light and dark
  • Time
  • Fate

68
Light and Dark
  • Look for references to light and dark
  • References to light words, such as torches,
    the sun, adjectives that describe light
    (bright)
  • References to dark words, such as night and
    gloom

69
Time
  • Look for references to time
  • References to time words, such as hours
  • References to the passage of time, especially if
    it seems rushed

70
Fate
  • Look for references to fate
  • Look for instances where events are blamed on
    fate, destiny, or the stars
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