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A Brief History of Psychology

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A Brief History of Psychology Using Alternative approaches and views to get to the heart of psychology Psychology Scientific study of behavior that is tested through ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Brief History of Psychology


1
A Brief History of Psychology
  • Using Alternative approaches and views to get to
    the heart of psychology

2
Psychology
  • Scientific study of behavior that is tested
    through scientific research

3
Goals of Psychology
4
Goals of Psychology
  • Description
  • Explanation
  • Prediction
  • Influence

5
Applied or Basic Science
  • Basic Science is research for the sake of
    research. Includes the first three goals
    (description, explanation, and prediction)
  • Applied Science uses psychological research to
    solve immediate problems in the real world. This
    is the last goal influence!

6
Phrenology
  • The practice of examining bumps on a persons
    skull to determine that persons intellect and
    character traits discredited as non-scientific.

7
Greek thought
  • Believed that the heart was more important than
    the mind. but began the thought that people
    were not dominated by gods but were rational.

8
Dualism
  • Seventeenth century philosophers concept that the
    mind and body are separate and distinct. Rene
    Descartes disagreed said a link existed between
    the mind and the body.

9
Historical Approaches
  • Structuralism
  • Functionalism
  • Inheritable Traits
  • Gestalt Psychology

10
Structuralism
  • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
  • Structuralist study the basic elements that make
    up conscious mental experiences.
  • Attempted to map thought processes from observed
    behavior

11
Structuralism
12
Functionalism
  • William James (1842-1910) father of psychology
    in the U.S.
  • Study the function of consciousness.
  • Believed all we think and do is to help us
    survive.

13
Functionalism
14
Inheritable Traits
  • Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) personality
    tests
  • Studied how heredity affects behavior.
  • Believed the richest were the most intelligent
    what did he forget?

15
Gestalt Psychology
  • Group of German psychologists who felt that
    perception is more than the sum of its parts
  • Studied how sensation is assembled into
    perceptual experiences.

16
Gestalt Psychology
17
Gestalt Psychology
18
Gestalt Psychology
19
Contemporary Approaches
  • Psychoanalytic Psychology
  • Behavioral Psychology
  • Humanistic Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Biological Psychology
  • Sociocultural Psychology

20
Psychoanalytic
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • Unconscious determinants of behavior
  • Used free association, and dream analysis to
    discover unconscious determinants

21
Psychoanalytic theory
22
Behavioral
  • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  • Events in the environment (rewards and
    punishments) influence our behavior.
  • Pavlovs dog

23
Behavioral
24
Behavioral (Continued)
  • John B. Watson (1878-1958)
  • Concerned with observable behavior only
  • Even instincts is result of conditioning by
    environment

25
Behavioral (Continued)
  • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
  • Introduced the concept of reinforcement
  • Wanted to apply lab concepts to the world
  • Wrote Walden Two

26
Behavioral
27
Humanistic
  • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers (1960s)
  • Individual or self-directed choices influence our
    behavior, not outside reinforcement.
    (Self-actualization)

28
Humanistic
29
Cognitive
  • Jean Piaget (1950s)
  • Behavior is more than a response to a stimulus,
    it is influenced by a variety of mental
    processes, including perceptions, memories, and
    expectations.

30
Biological
  • Psychobiologists (1990s)
  • study how the brian, nervous system, hormones,
    and genetics influence our behavior
  • Do genes affect your intelligence and your
    personality?

31
Sociocultural
  • Leonard Doob (1990s)
  • Ethnicity, gender, culture and socioeconomic
    status influence our behavior
  • How do people of different genders and
    ethnicities interact with one another?
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