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Social Psychology

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Social Psychology Chapter 20 & 21 Review Group Behavior When the desire to be part of a group prevents a person from seeing other alternatives. Groupthink Group ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Psychology


1
Social Psychology
  • Chapter 20 21 Review

2
Group Behavior
3
Group Behavior
  • When the desire to be part of a group prevents a
    person from seeing other alternatives.

4
Groupthink
5
Group Behavior
  • When a person performs better in front of a
    group.

6
Social facilitation
7
Group Behavior
  • Not doing your best in a group because you think
    others will do more

8
Social Loafing
9
Group Behavior
  • You believe youll fail the test so you dont
    bother to study and as a result fail the test.
    This is an example of

10
Self-fulfilling prophecy
11
Group Behavior
  • Concern for what others think of you reason you
    perform better in front of a group.

12
Evaluation Apprehension
13
Group Behavior
  • When group attitudes become stronger after they
    discuss and act upon the shared attitudes.

14
Polarization
15
Group Behavior
  • When a person is willing to do things with a
    group they would not do alone.

16
Risky Shift
17
Group Behavior
  • In decision-making, the first to switch to an
    alternate opinion brings several people with
    them.

18
First-shift scheme
19
Group Behavior
  • Feeling you are less responsible when with a
    group

20
Diffusion of responsibility
21
Group Behavior
  • Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint, and
    loss of sense of responsibility when in a group.

22
Deindividuation
23
Helping Moral Behavior
24
Helping Moral Behavior
  • This person developed a three-stage theory on how
    moral reasoning develops.

25
Lawrence Kohlberg
26
Helping Moral Behavior
  • A hypothetical situation where you are given the
    question What would you do? to a situation with
    no easy answers

27
Moral Dilemma
28
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Sacrificing your own welfare to help another
    person.

29
Alturism
30
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Obviously neglecting someone needing help because
    of diffusion of responsibility.

31
Bystander Effect
32
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Any behavior that helps another person.

33
Prosocial Behavior
34
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Morality of individual conscience, not
    necessarily in agreement with others.

35
Universal Ethics
36
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Doing what is necessary to avoid punishment

37
Avoiding Punishment
38
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Behavior is determined by avoiding punishment or
    getting a reward. Typical of children.

39
Preconventional Reasoning
40
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Doing what is necessary to satisfy ones needs

41
Satisfying Needs
42
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Moral judgments based on maintaining social
    order. High regard for authority.

43
Law and Order
44
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Seeking and maintaining the approval of others
    using conventional standards of right and wrong

45
Winning Approval
46
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Obedience to accepted laws. Judgments based on
    personal values

47
Social Order
48
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Based on your own moral standards of goodness.
    Developed in adulthood.

49
Postconventional Reasoning
50
Helping Moral Behavior
  • Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of
    a good citizen. Strong desire to follow rules.

51
Conventional Reasoning
52
Conformity Obedience
53
Conformity Obedience
  • Found people would knowingly give the wrong
    answer to conform to the group.

54
Aschs Line Experiment
55
Conformity Obedience
  • Unspoken or unwritten rules you dont pass gas
    in math class but you might when with friends.

56
Implicit Norms
57
Conformity Obedience
  • Guidelines for what people should or should not
    do in a situation

58
Social Norms
59
Conformity Obedience
  • Spoken or written rules dress codes or traffic
    laws.

60
Explicit Norms
61
Conformity Obedience
  • This is a reason for conformity. People who
    stand out draw negative attention to themselves.

62
Need for acceptance
63
Conformity Obedience
  • Tendency for people to give in to major demands
    after they have already given in to minor ones.

64
Foot-in-the-door Effect
65
Conformity Obedience
  • You are more likely to follow orders, even
    immoral ones, if you cannot see the consequences
    of your actions.

66
Buffers
67
Conformity Obedience
  • Found most people would obey an authority figure
    to do something hurtful to another if authority
    figure accepted responsibility.

68
Milgrams Shock Experiment
69
Conformity Obedience
  • People have been taught to be obedient to
    authority since childhood. To do otherwise
    conflicts deeply with societys rules.

70
Socialization
71
Aggression
72
Aggression
  • Some cultures encourage independence and
    competitiveness, and this fosters aggression.

73
Sociocultural View
74
Aggression
  • Aggression is reinforced because when a person
    gets what they want using aggression they will
    use that technique again.

75
Learning View
76
Aggression
  • Aggressive behavior is a choice made by people.
    It reflects their values and thinking.

77
Cognitive View
78
Aggression
  • People often lose themselves in this causing them
    to become more aggressive and dehumanizing to
    other people than they normally would.

79
Role Playing
80
Aggression
  • Taking your aggression out in a more acceptable
    way, like on a punching bag.

81
Catharsis
82
Aggression
  • Found good people will become aggressive in the
    right environment.

83
Zimbardos Prison Study
84
Aggression
  • Aggression comes from frustration and repressed
    feelings to harm people who dont meet our
    demands.

85
Psychoanalytic View
86
Aggression
  • Aggression seems to help animals reproduce and
    survive

87
Sociobiology View
88
Attraction
89
Attraction
  • Varies greatly from culture to culture.

90
Body shape preference
91
Attraction
  • Ventral striatum predicts reward, and is
    activated when an attractive person makes eye
    contact with us.

92
Brain reward
93
Attraction
  • We choose partners who are similar to ourselves
    in attractiveness.

94
Matching hypothesis
95
Attraction
  • People with round heads, big eyes, and small
    jawbones are believed to be more honest and
    helpless.

96
Baby face bias
97
Attraction
  • Seven types of relationships characterized by
    intimacy, commitment, and passion.

98
Triangular love model
99
Attraction
  • When a person likes us back.

100
Reciprocity
101
Attraction
  • Smiling people, big eyes, high cheekbones even
    infants stare at faces with these qualities.

102
Universal of Beauty
103
Attraction
  • Stereotypically rated higher on intelligence,
    competence, and morality.

104
Attractiveness Bias
105
Social Perception
106
Social Perception
  • People get what they deserve and they deserve
    what they get.

107
Just-World Bias
108
Social Perception
  • Recent interactions with a person cause you to
    change your opinion about them.

109
Recency Effect
110
Social Perception
  • When I get good grades it is because I am smart.
    When I dont it is because the teacher is bad.

111
Self-Serving bias
112
Social Perception
  • The mental processes used in making judgments
    about people.

113
Person perception
114
Social Perception
  • First impressions are lasting impressions dress
    up for a job interview.

115
Primacy Effect
116
Social Perception
  • When you think a person is rude because the only
    time you saw the person was when they were
    impolite to another forming a judgment on one
    behavioral observation.

117
Actor-Observer Bias
118
Social Perception
  • Tendency to give too much weight to personality
    factors and not enough weight to situational
    factors when observing someones behavior.

119
Fundamental Attribution Error
120
Social Perception
  • When something bad happens it is always my
    fault. When something good happens it is luck.

121
Self-Effacing Bias
122
Social Perception
  • This can be used to convey truthfulness,
    eagerness or attention, or to show anger.

123
Eye Contact
124
Social Perception
  • She deserved to be mugged for being in that
    neighborhood after dark. Their misfortune is
    their own fault.

125
Blaming the Victim
126
Social Perception
  • Ignores a persons unique qualities and makes a
    conclusion about a person based on limited
    information.

127
Social Categorization
128
Social Perception
  • We often explain our own behavior differently
    than we explain the behavior of other people can
    lead to errors.

129
Attribution Theory
130
Social Perception
  • Waitresses received higher tips when making
    change with their customers this way.

131
Physical Contact
132
Attitudes Prejudice
133
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Positive or negative evaluation of a person,
    object or idea.

134
Attitudes
135
Attitudes Prejudice
  • When our attitudes are inconsistent with their
    actions sometimes leads to change in attitudes.

136
Cognitive Dissonance
137
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Prejudice was overcome when groups cooperate to
    achieve a common goal.

138
Robbers Cave
139
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Blaming a complex problem on an undeserving
    group.

140
Scapegoat Theory
141
Attitudes Prejudice
  • After being discriminated against, a person may
    put down another group that is worse off in order
    to gain power.

142
Victimization
143
Attitudes Prejudice
  • When you lie about your attitude to make up for
    cognitive dissonance. Group said a boring task
    was fun when only paid 1 to do it.

144
Insufficient-justification Effect
145
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Unfair treatment of a person because they are
    part of a particular group.

146
Discrimination
147
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Children will imitate their parents attitudes
    and parents will reinforce these attitudes in
    their children.

148
Social Learning
149
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Unjustifiable attitude to a group or a member
    usually negative.

150
Prejudice
151
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Belief that people with less money are lazy and
    do not work as hard.

152
Justifying Economic Status
153
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Oversimplified belief about a group that is
    certainly not true about all people in that
    group. Tall people are good basketball players.

154
Stereotype
155
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Tendency to favor ones own group even at the
    expense of others.

156
Ingroup Bias
157
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Tendency to see people who are not part of our
    group as being very similar, when we see people
    of our own group as varied.

158
Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
159
Attitudes Prejudice
  • Stereotypes about African Americans are so
    prevalent that we all hold them we must actively
    push them back to act in a non-prejudice way.

160
Devines Automaticity Theory
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