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Overview of Personality Psychology

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Overview of Personality Psychology. Goals for Today. Broadly understand what personality psychology is about. Define Personality Consider the relevance of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 21 September 2018
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Title: Overview of Personality Psychology


1
Overview of Personality Psychology
  • Goals for Today
  • Broadly understand what personality psychology is
    about
  • Define Personality
  • Consider the relevance of personality for the
    study of behavior more broadly
  • Overview of Approaches/Paradigms of Personality
  • Provide a general framework for understanding
    personality in context.
  • Overview of personality science in action

2
  • Definition(s) of Personality
  • (from textbook)
  • An individuals characteristic patterns of
    thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the
    psychological mechanismshidden or notbehind
    those patterns (p. 5)
  • An individuals unique and relatively consistent
    patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  • Often focused on differences between people, or
    individual differences

3
Is personality even relevant to the study of why
people do what they do?
  • Does personality even really matter?
  • Eg, Obedience to authority
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?veTX42lVDwA4

4
Is personality even relevant to the study of why
people do what they do?
  • The disposition a person brings to the
    experiment is probably less important a cause of
    his behavior than most readers assume.. Often,
    it is not so much the kind of person a man is as
    the kind of situation in which he finds himself
    that determines how he will act. (Milgram,
    1974, p. 205)
  • The obedience effect is due to situational
    variables and not personality variables. ..
    These findings enable us to rule out the role of
    personality in obedient behavior. (Zimbardo
    Weber, 1994, p. 456-457)

5
Basic Domains/ Paradigms in Personality
Psychology
Approach/Paradigm Summary of focus Big Names
Trait Broad individual differences, personality assessment, predicting differences in behavior   Allport, Cattell
Biological Tendencies and limits imposed by biological forces such as anatomy, chemistry, and genetics   Eysenck, Buss
Learning How external, observable stimuli affect behavior. Downplays the particular importance of internal characteristics and early experiences   Skinner, Pavlov
Psychoanalytic Unconscious influences on behavior, sex and aggression as motivations. Emphasize early experiences.   Freud
Neo-analytic Self as it negotiates internal and external influences. Needs and motivations   Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson
Humanist/Existential Potential, meaning, growth, fulfillment, free will, happiness, dignity. Needs and motivations   Rogers, Kelly, Maslow, Fromm,
Cognitive Behavior as a function of thinking and situational forces. Predicting differences in behavior   Rotter, Bandura, Mischel
Where does your personality come from?
Interesting but primarily historical. Not
directly relevant to most contemporary
personality theory and research
Somewhat oversimplified categorization of two
major contemporary paradigms for Personality
Psychology Trait and Cognitive
6
A General Framework for Personality Psychology
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