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Psychological Therapies

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Title: Psychological Therapies


1
Psychological Therapies
2
Psychotherapy
  • An interaction between a trained therapist and
    someone seeking to overcome psychological
    difficulties or achieve personal growth.

3
Eclectic Approach
  • Form of therapy where the therapist combines
    techniques from different forms of therapy. Kind
    of like a smorgasbord.

4
Psychoanalysis
  • Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique.
  • Uses free association, hypnosis and dream
    interpretation to gain insight into the clients
    unconscious.

5
Psychoanalytic Methods
  • Psychotherapists use their techniques to overcome
    resistance (the blocking from consciousness of
    anxiety-laden material).
  • The psychoanalysts goal is for you to become
    aware of the resistance and together interpret
    its underlying meaning to gain self-insight.

6
Transference
  • In psychoanalysis, the patient transfers to the
    analyst emotions linked with other relationships.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vb02H0dW2xf8

7
Alternative Therapies
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder is depression
    experienced during the winter months.
  • Based not on temperature, but on amount of
    sunlight.
  • Treated with light therapy.

8
Humanistic Therapy
  • Focuses of peoples potential for
    self-fulfillment (self-actualization).
  • Focuses on the present and future.
  • Focuses on conscious thoughts (not unconscious
    ones).
  • Take responsibility for you actions.

9
Client (Person) Centered Therapy
  • Developed by Carl Rogers.
  • Therapist should use genuineness, acceptance and
    empathy to show unconditional positive regard
    towards their clients.
  • Most widely used Humanistic technique.

10
Active Listening
  • Central to Rogers client-centered therapy.
  • Empathetic listening where the therapist echoes,
    restates and clarifies the clients thoughts and
    feelings.

11
Behavior Therapies
  • The goal of this type of therapy is to apply
    learning principles to the elimination of
    unwanted behaviors.
  • The behaviors are the problems - so we must
    change the behaviors.

12
Classical Conditioning Techniques
  • Counterconditioning
  • A behavioral therapy that conditions new
    responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted
    behaviors.

Two Types Exposure Therapies Aversive
Conditioning
13
1. Exposure Therapies
  • Systematic desensitization - type of
    counterconditioning that associates a pleasant
    relaxed state with gradually increasing,
    anxiety-triggering stimuli. (i.e. phobias)

How would I use systematic desensitization to
reduce my fear of old women?
14
Systematic Desensitization uses
  • progressive relaxation versus

Flooding which
exposes you to an anxiety-provoking situation at
the highest level of fear all at once.
15
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
Scientific American Frontiers Virtual Fear
16
2. Aversive Conditioning
  • A type of counterconditioning that associates an
    unpleasant state (nausea) with an unwanted
    behavior (alcoholism).

Example putting peppers on a nail biters
fingernails.
17
Aversive Conditioning
18
Operant Conditioning
  • Token Economy an operant conditioning procedure
    that rewards a desired behavior.

A patient exchanges a token of some sort (earned
for exhibiting the desired behavior) for various
privileges or treats.
19
Cognitive Therapy
20
Cognitive Therapy
  • Cognitive therapists try to teach people new,
    more constructive ways of thinking.

Is .300 a good or bad batting average?
21
Cognitive Therapy
22
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
  • Integrative therapy that combines changing
    self-defeating thinking with changing
    inappropriate behaviors.

23
Cognitive Therapy - Does It Work?
24
Group Family Therapies(i.e. Alcoholics
Anonymous, etc.)
25
Group Therapy
  • Advantages help more people in less time less
    expensive and you can discover that others have
    problems similar to yours.

26
Family Therapy
  • Views and in individuals unwanted behaviors as
    influenced by or directed at other family
    members.
  • Attempts to guide the family toward positive
    relationships.

27
Biomedical Therapies
Therapies aimed at changing the brains
functioning with prescribed drugs,
electroconvulsive therapy, or surgery.
28
Psychopharmacology
  • The study of the effects of drugs on mind and
    behavior.

29
Drugs and Hospitalization
30
Emptying of Mental Hospitals
31
Testing New Drugs
  • When a new drug is released there is always too
    much enthusiasm.
  • Must use a double-blind procedure to combat
    placebo and experimental effects.

Types of drugs include
32
Antipsychotic Drugs
  • Medicines used to treat psychosis - typically in
    schizophrenia and bipolar patients.
  • Thorazine - although effective often has powerful
    side effects (blocks the activity of dopamine).
  • Tardive dyskinesia neurotoxic effect involving
    involuntary movements of the facial muscles,
    tongue, and limbs.

33
Antianxiety Drugs
  • Includes drugs like Valium, Librium and Xanax.
  • Used to treat people undergoing significant
    stress or anxiety disorders.
  • Most widely abused prescription drugs.

34
Antidepressant Drugs
  • Lift you up out of depression.
  • Most increase the availability of norepinephrine
    or serotonin.
  • Prozac, Paxil Zoloft are known as SSRIs
    (selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors) and
    block serotonin reuptake.
  • Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer used by
    those with bipolar disorder.

35
Prozac, Paxil Zoloft
36
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
  • Therapy for major depression in which a brief
    electric current is sent through the brain of a
    patient causing a mild seizure.
  • Usually produces temporary memory loss.
  • But has been very effective of temporarily
    ridding people of suicidal thoughts.

37
Alternative to ECT
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
    (rTMS).
  • Application of magnetic energy to the brain.
  • Doesnt produce seizures or memory loss.
  • Still waiting for conclusive data.

38
Psychosurgery
  • Egas Moniz developed the lobotomy in the 1930s
    and it became very popular in the 40s and 50s.
  • Surgery that removes or destroys frontal lobe
    brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
  • Ice pick like instrument through the eye sockets
    cutting the links between the frontal lobes and
    the emotional control centers.

39
Lobotomy
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