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Unit 6


Unit 6 Adjustment and Breakdown Stress and Health Sources of Stress What is stress? Event, response, or perception of a situation that causes conflict Person s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 6

Unit 6 Adjustment and Breakdown
  • Stress and Health

Sources of Stress
  • What is stress?
  • Event, response, or perception of a situation
    that causes conflict
  • Persons reaction to their inability to cope with
    a certain tense event or conflict

Sources of Stress
  • Components of stress
  • Stress-causing event or situation stressor
  • Stress reaction often negative
  • From acute anxiety or pressure distress ??
  • (harassment, mugging, illness, breakup)
  • Always bad?
  • From motivating challenges eustress ??
  • (precompetition nerves, stage jitters)

Sources of Stress
  • Conflict situations
  • Must choose between two or more options with
    conflicting motivesexamples ??
  • 4 different types
  • Both good approach-approach ??
  • (accepted to 2 colleges, concert or ballgame,
    invited to 2 parties)
  • Both bad avoidance-avoidance ??
  • (study physics or math, study or do chores, bad
    job or no job)

Sources of Stress
  • One good one bad approach-avoidance ??
  • (ask for raise get raise or get fired, ask for
    date get date or get rejected, ask parents to
    go out yes or no)
  • Multiple options with good and bad double
    approach-avoidance ??
  • (2 vacation choices, aggressive or conservative
    golf shots)

Sources of Stress
  • Why do some people view a situation as stressful
    but others dont?
  • Level of stress you feel depends on how you
    appraise the situation
  • Immediate evaluation of a situation primary
  • Deciding how to deal / cope with the situation
    secondary appraisal

Sources of Stress
  • Environmental ??
  • noise, crowding
  • Life changes ??
  • teenage issues
  • SRRS

Male participants rated on scale of
1-100. Concerns one stressor creates / compounds
another scale doesnt assess
ongoing stressors (poverty, racism etc.)
Sources of Stress
  • Hassles - relatively minor, day-to-day events,
    gradually weaken bodys defense system ??
  • slow traffic, lose keys, forget homework
  • Uplifts small, positive events
  • doing well on test, winning match, nice visit
    with a friend

Reactions to Stress
  • How do people react?
  • (Physical, behavioral, psychological)
  • We are holistic organisms
  • Mind over matter
  • Will to live

Reactions to Stress
  • Hans Selye identified 3 stages in the bodys
    stress reaction General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Alarm fight or flight, heartrate breathing
    faster, more alert, muscles tense, pupils dilate
  • Resistance find means of coping with stressor,
    may develop psychosomatic symptoms (real physical
    symptoms caused by stress tension)
  • Exhaustion adrenaline depleted, disorientation,

Reactions to Stress
  • Types of reactions??
  • Emotional
  • Cognitive
  • Behavioral
  • Physical

Reactions to Stress
  • Emotional
  • Anxiety vague, generalized apprehension or
    feeling of danger (most common response to sudden
    powerful stressor)
  • Anger irate reaction to frustration
  • Fear real or imagined danger
  • Overreacting to minor irritations, self doubt,
    tension, short temper

Reactions to Stress
  • Cognitive
  • Difficulty concentrating, thinking
  • Recurring thoughts, worry
  • Poor decision making
  • Unjustified suspicion, distrust
  • Continued frustration - burnout

Reactions to Stress
  • Behavioral
  • Nervous habits (pacing, trembling)
  • Gulp meals
  • Smoke, drink, take drugs
  • Become lethargic, aggressive
  • Lose interest in eating, grooming
  • Escape, unemployment
  • Not all bad - heroism, cooperation

Reactions to Stress
  • Physical
  • Psychosomatic - real physical symptoms caused by
    stress and tension??
  • (headaches, stomachaches, muscle pain, insomnia,
    migraines, sweating, dry mouth)
  • (urinary / bowel trouble, ulcers, hypertension,
    arthritis, asthma, heart disease)
  • (indirect contribution to illness - tampers with
    immune system)

Reactions to Stress
  • What factors influence individual reactions?
  • Personality
  • Type A irritable, impatient, hostile, extremely
    competitive, eat/move fast impact on health??
  • (constant adrenaline flow, coronary artery
    disease, heart attacks)
  • Type B relaxed, patient, better coronary health
  • Emotional expressiveness (dont express cancer
  • Perceived control
  • Social support

Coping with Stress
  • How do we decide how to cope with stressors?
  • (cognitive appraisal-gt interpretation of event -gt
    stress impact)

Coping with Stress
  • If threatened, how might we cope?
  • Defensive coping strategies ??
  • 3 groups see gruesome film, one told nothing
  • one told events not real denial decide event
    isnt a stressor
  • one told film is educational, importance of
    safety intellectualization emotionally
    detached viewpoint, block out feelings
  • control group had higher stress levels

Coping with Stress
  • If challenged, how might we cope?
  • Active coping strategies ??
  • hardiness belief we can control out situation,
    commitment to establish and pursue goals, and
    view situation as a challenge
  • control escape, withdraw, manage timing
  • problem solving rational analysis
  • explanatory style style of thinking
  • Optimist puts best face on any set of events
  • Pessimist always sees the dark side

Coping with Stress
  • progressive relaxation
  • meditation
  • biofeedback
  • humor to release pent up feelings and maintain
  • exercise
  • support groups, professional help
  • training
  • improving interpersonal skills

Stress in Your Life
  • Adjusting to college, work force
  • College shock people from diverse backgrounds,
    challenges high school identity
  • Autonomy taking care of yourself making
  • Developmental friendships close relationships
    that force friends to reexamine ideas and beliefs
    (Madison this student culture have more
    impact than professors)
  • Resynthesis combining old ideas with new ones,
    reorganizing feelings, renew identity
  • Comparable worth concept that men women
    should receive equal pay for jobs with comparable
    skill and responsibility
  • Work satisfaction coworker relationships,
    challenge, comfort
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