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Title: Engineering%20work%20in%20the%20information%20society


1
Engineering work in the information society
Adam Pawlak
adam.pawlak_at_polsl.pl

2
Presentation Outline
  • Elements of the revolution based on
    information
  • The vision
  • Information and communication - Information
    anytime , anywhere
  • Society - global village
    Enterprise - global workbench
  • Infrastructure for the information society
  • Internet, multimedia network, vs. interactive
    television
  • Convergence of technologies
  • Mobile and satellite communication
  • Working in the information society
  • distributed work, teleworking
  • fast response to change, collaboration
  • abstract work, new on-line jobs
  • New engineering paradigms and tools based on
    Internet

3
Information society ... Which society...?
  • Information superhighways (USA) or global
    information infrastructure
  • (GII) - technology backbone for the IS.
  • Information society (European Commission) -
  • - informationsgesellschaft (Germany)
  • Global information society
  • A knowledge-based society

4
The new industrial revolution
  • New information and communication
    technologies, as well as advances in
    microelectronics are responsible for the new
    industrial revolution that is based on
    information.
  • Information may be processed, stored,
    retrieved, and communicated in whatever form
    oral, written or visual - unconstrained by time,
    distance, and volume.
  • 109-fold reduction in the cost and speed of
    storing and transmitting information.
  • This revolution adds new capacities to human
    intelligence and constitutes a resource which
    changes the way we work and live together.
  • The diffusion of these new technologies at all
    levels of economic and social life is thus
    gradually transforming our society into an
    information society.

5
Revolutionary changes contd
  • New telematic infrastructures can handle the
    ever increasing
  • tide of multimedia (voice, data, image,
    text and video) traffic.
  • Telephone, telefax, television and
    computers - are to be used in
  • an integrated way.
  • New ideas, and inventions will spread out
    globally very rapidly.
  • The main competitive advantage will be the
    ability to learn
  • and respond faster than competition.
  • Increased competitiveness for enterprises
    and opening
  • of new perspectives in terms of both work
    organization and job creation.
  • Knowledge and ideas will drive economy.
    Tremendous quantity
  • of information will be available.
    Filtering will be a problem.



6
Data, Information, and Knowledge
  • Unstructured data does not automatically mean
    information, nor can
  • all information be equated with knowledge.
  • Information is comparable to the raw materials
    processed by industry
  • to make useful products.
  • All information can be classified, analyzed and
    reflected upon and
  • otherwise processed to generate knowledge.
  • Codified vs. tacit knowledge
  • Information and communication technologies as
    such has no effect
  • on knowledge, still less on wisdom.

7
The rough sea of on-line information
  • One of the main problems for the IS is
    available on-line
  • misinformation, poor quality information,
    unreliable
  • information and commercial type information
  • Development of the skills and tacit knowledge
    to make effective use
  • of on-line vast resource is a must.

8
During the last 20 years, we have witnessed a
revolution in information and communication
technologies, more far-reaching than most of us
could have anticipated ...
9
Some technology predictions in the Past
Thomas J. Watson (1943) The worldwide need for
computing will
be met by five computers. Popular
Mechanics (1949) Computers will one day weight
less
than 1.5 tons. Prentice-Hall, Business Editor
(1957) The data processing fad will

not outlast the year. Ken Olson (1980) The
personal computer business will fall flat on its
face. No one
will want a computer at home.
Source Bryan Preas, Xerox PARC
10
Vehicles on the information superhighway
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr95/

11
The Internet has doubled in size each year for
the past decade.
THE Internet and the ITU
Dr Pekka Tarjanne
Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database.
12
While 14 million new Internet users were added
during 1994, this was still less than the growth
in other global networks.
THE Internet and the ITU
Dr Pekka Tarjanne
Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database.
13
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr95/

14
Digitization is driving the convergence of
computing, telecommunications and television
  • It may be possible to provide all three services
    over a single network
  • Digital computing - arrived after the War with
    several generations
  • of computers
  • Digital telecommunications established in the
    late 1950s and early 1960s.
  • It is still far from complete, but the process
    has speeded up considerably
  • over the past few years.
  • Digital television is the last to arrive with
    the benefits of high quality
  • of transmission and the vastly increased quantity
    of channels.

Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr95/

15
  • New hybrid network architectures are emerging
  • telephone calls to be made over cable
    television networks or the Internet, or
  • video to be carried over telephone wires.
  • Optical fibre will stay essential for
    transferring the large amounts
  • of multimedia data.
  • Digital compression techniques, more and more
    important.
  • Drastically reduced cost of information storage

16
Drastically reduced cost of information storage
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr95/

17
Information Telecommunication Market
18
PCS Personal Communication Services MMDS
Multichannel Mulitpoint Distribution System
GMPCS Global Mobile Personal Communications
Systems. .
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr95/
19
Presentation Outline
  • Elements of the revolution based on
    information
  • The vision
  • Information and communication - Information
    anytime , anywhere
  • Society - global village
    Enterprise - global workbench
  • Infrastructure for the information society
  • Working in the information society
  • distributed work, teleworking
  • fast response to change, collaboration
  • abstract work, new on-line jobs
  • New engineering paradigms and tools based on
    Internet
  • Towards collaborative engineering

20
The vision
Information anytime, and anywhere
Applications, e.g. air traffic control, road
traffic management, health care,
teleworking, distance learning,...

21
Society - global village
  • Minimising of distance and remoteness among
    citizens
  • New opportunities to express cultural
    traditions and identities,
  • also for those standing on the geographical
    periphery

22
Enterprise - global workbench
  • Globalization, and new markets - new ways in
    accessing customers
  • Novel information services and applications
  • Audio-visual markets
  • Ending monopoly for telecom operators
  • Means also fostering an entrepreneurial
  • mentality to enable the emergence of
  • new dynamic sectors of the economy

23
The European Commissions vision
  • The EC has been committed to IS vision since
    the beginning of the 80s.
  • Information technologies - ESPRIT programme,
    launched in 1984.
  • RACE programme on advanced communications
    (1985).
  • First three programmes on telematic
    applications launched in 1986
  • AIM (health care), DRIVE (road transport) and
    DELTA (distance learning).
  • All these programmes have been extended in the
    4th RDT framework programme.
  • The policies implemented since 1987 in the
    fields of telecommunications and,
  • more recently, the audiovisual sector, are
    also involved in this dynamic
  • development.
  • The Commission issues White Paper (1993) on
    Growth, competitiveness and
  • employment the challenges and courses for
    entering into the XXIst century

24
Growth, competitiveness and employment the
challenges and courses for entering into the
XXIst century EC - White paper, 1993
  • Emphasizes the significance of this evolution
    towards
  • the information society for the future of
    European society.
  • Stresses the importance and urgency of
    developing a Pan-European
  • information infrastructure to help revive
    European economic growth
  • and competitiveness and to create new
    markets and jobs.
  • European Council ordered in Dec. 1993
    preparation of the report
  • on concrete measures for its implementation.
  • As a result, the Bangemanns report was
    prepared (June 1994)
  • Europe and the global
    information society -
  • Recommendations to the
    European Council


25
Europe and the global information society -
Recommendations to the European Council - the
Bangemanns report
  • Emphasizes the urgency of a Community action
    and the need to speed up
  • the process of liberalization at the same
    time consolidating the universal service.
  • Specifies that financing information
    infrastructure is mainly the responsibility
  • of the private sector.
  • European Union and its Member States to create
    a coherent statutory
  • framework to avoid the circulation of
    information being impeded by different
  • national regulations.
  • The report also proposes a list of ten
    initiatives aimed at demonstrating the
  • feasibility and usefulness of new telematic
    applications.

26
Ten initiatives of the Bangemans group
Teleworking Distance learning Networks between
universities and research centres Telematic
services for SME's Road traffic management Air
traffic control Health networks Electronic
tendering Trans-European networks of government
authorities Urban information superhighways
27
Appl. 1 Teleworking - More jobs, new jobs, for
a mobile society
  • Target
  • 10 million teleworking jobs by the year 2000.

Positive role of Telework is not only
contributing to the economic competitiveness of
European enterprises but also to the quality of
life of its citizens, and its potential in
creating work opportunities.
28
Appl. 4 Telematic Services for SMEs -
Relaunching a main engine for growth and
employment in Europe
  • The widest possible use of telematic services
    (E-mail, file transfer, EDI,
  • video conferencing, distance learning, etc.)
    by European SMEs, with links
  • to public authorities, trade associations,
    customers and suppliers.
  • Raise the awareness of added value services,
    and communications in
  • general, among SMEs.
  • Increase access to trans-European data
    networks.
  • If the necessary ISDN networks are available at
    competitive rates,
  • the private sector will provide trans-European
    value-added services
  • tailored for SMEs.
  • Target 40 of SMEs (firms with more than 50
    employees)
  • using telematic networks by 1996.

29
The EC programmes related to the research
and development for the information society
ACTS (Advanced Communications Technologies and
Services) - the European Commission's major
effort to support precompetitive RTD in the
context of trials in the field of
telecommunications during the period of the
Fourth Framework Programme of scientific research
and development (1994-1998). RACE is a
collaborative European research programme,
running from June 1987 to December 1995
(including Phases I II and extension). The
overall objective is the introduction of
Integrated Broadband Communication (IBC) taking
into account the evolving ISDN and national
introduction strategies, progressing towards
Community-wide services by 1995. ESPRIT an
initiative of the European Commission DG III
(Industry) is a major research programme in
information technologies
30
The EC programmes related to the research
and development for the information
society contd
Telematics application programme Research,
technological development and demonstration
projects for telematics applications and support
actions in the following sectors of the
programme Administrations, Transport, Research,
Education and Training, Urban and Rural Areas,
Environment, Other Exploratory Actions, Language
Engineering.
IBC Lab Demonstration and dissemination of the
results of RD efforts RACE and ACTS. As the
Programme RACE is coming to an end and ACTS is
taking over, more advanced communication
prototypes in various domains are becoming
available which can be used by the Commission
services to interact with the projects and field
related actors in a more effective manner.
31
The EC programmes related to the research and
development for the information society
contd
The TeleServ project is part of the European
COPERNICUS Programme, which is set up to manage
technology projects in Central and Eastern
European (CEE) countries. TeleServ's strategic
goal is to connect 2000 technologists in the CEE
region, to networks and services used by their
peers in the West. The intention is to provide
technology transfers and employment
opportunities in both directions for the region.
I'M Europe - an initiative of Directorate-General
XIII of the EC to provide the World Wide Web
with information about Europe and the European
electronic information market.
32
ACTS (Advanced Communications Technologies and
Services)
  • The development of advanced communication
    systems and services will
  • contribute to the emergence of an
    information society in Europe.
  • RTD aimed at bringing together
    telecommunications, television and media
  • is essential for the development of
    trans-European networks and services.
  • These activities are therefore crucial not
    only for all economic activities but
  • also for social cohesion and cultural
    development.
  • Compared with the third framework programme,
    greater emphasis will be
  • placed on the application of technologies.

Topics to be focussed on
33
ACTS in IV Framework Programme contd
Topics to be focused on Interactive digital
multimedia services - systems and services
combining sound, images and digital data
Photonic technologies - fully optical networks by
the year 2000 High-speed networking -
services such as videophones, teleworking and
social care, thanks to efficient integrated
networks Mobility and personal communications
networks - offer the public a new generation
of flexible and reliable cordless transmission
systems Intelligence in networks and service
engineering - intelligent communication
systems and enable users themselves to determine
the type of services offered Quality,
security and safety of communication services and
systems - ensure the reliability and security
of information transmitted (electronic
signatures).
34
ESPRIT
  • ESPRIT an initiative of the European Commission
    DG III (Industry).
  • The technological areas to be supported are
  • Software Technologies (ST)
  • Technologies for Components and Subsystems (TCS)
  • Multimedia Systems (MS)
  • Long Term Research (LTR)
  • Focused Cluster Open Microprocessor Systems
    Initiative (OMI)
  • Focused Cluster High Performance Computing and
    Networking (HPCN)
  • Focused Cluster Technologies for Business
    Process (TBP)
  • Focused Cluster Integration in Manufacturing
    (IIM)

35
Fifth Framework Programme
Thematic Programmes
Information Society Technologies 3.925 BECU
Competitive Sustainable Growth 3.925 BECU
Living World Ecosystem 3.925 BECU
Horizontal Programmes
International Cooperation 491 MECU
Innovation SMEs 350 MECU
Human Potential 1.402 BECU
Total 16.3 Billion ECU (incl. Euratom)
Source Marc GOFFART European Commission
http//www.kp.dlr.de/BENEFIT/sr/index-mg.htm
36
Source Marc GOFFART European Commission
37
Presentation Outline
  • Elements of the revolution based on
    information
  • The vision
  • Information and communication - Information
    anytime , anywhere
  • Society - global village
    Enterprise - global workbench
  • Infrastructure for the information society
  • Internet, multimedia network, vs. interactive
    television
  • Convergence of technologies
  • Mobile and satellite communication
  • Working in the information society
  • distributed work, teleworking
  • fast response to change, collaboration
  • abstract work, new on-line jobs
  • New engineering paradigms and tools based on
    Internet
  • Towards collaborative engineering

38
Moores law
The power of microprocessors has been regularly
doubling about every 18 months for the past 25
years. The trend continues.
39
Metcalfes law
The value of a computer network grows as the
square of the number of connected elements. The
trend is to connect all computers to a single
network.
40
US Vice-President Al Gore on GII March 21, 1994.
A planetary information network that
transmits messages and images with the speed of
light from the largest city to the smallest
village on every continent. ... This GII
will circle the globe with information
superhighways on which all people can travel ...
These highways --or, more accurately,
networks of distributed intelligence -- will
allow us to share information, to connect, and to
communicate as a global community.
41
Bangemann Report to the European Council, Europe
and the global information society, Brussels,
May 1994.
Throughout the world, information and
communications technologies are generating a new
industrial revolution already as significant and
far-reaching as those of the past. It is a
revolution based on information. ... Information
has a multiplier effect that will energize every
economic sector. With market-driven tariffs,
there will be a vast array of novel information
services and applications. ... Since
information activities are borderless in an open
market environment, the information society has
an essentially global dimension".
42
Building Japan's information infrastructure,
Izumi Aizi Nihon Keizai Shimbun, April 16, 1993
The cost of information today consists not so
much of the creation of contents, which should
be the real value, but of the storage and
efficient delivery of information, that is in
essence the cost of paper, printing, transport,
warehousing, and other physical distribution
means, plus the cost of the personnel needed to
run these "extra" services. ... Realising an
autonomous distributed networked society, which
is the real essence of the Internet, will be the
most critical issue for the success of the
information and communication revolution of the
coming century or millennium."
43
Global information infrastructure (GII)
  • Several competing visions
  • a high performance computer network which will
    facilitate high-speed
  • data access and retrieval - computer
    industry perspective
  • a multimedia network, the primary use of which
    will be conveying
  • video in conjunction with data, image, text
    and voice -
  • the telecommunications industry perspective
  • a medium for interactive television, in which
    the intelligent television
  • set rather than the home computer or the video
    telephone becomes
  • the main communication channel - the
    entertainment industry perspective.

Which vision will materialise as GII ?
44
The Internet as a high performance computer
network ?
  • GII can be seen as a high performance computer
    network
  • which will facilitate high-speed data access
    and retrieval.
  • The Internet is seen as the precursor for a
    GII.
  • Should be extended from the academic and
    research communities
  • to a broader commercial marketplace.
  • Must preserve openness and innovation that have
    been a critical part
  • of the Internet's success.
  • Could form the basis for a new model of network
    development.
  • The Internet suffers from potential misuse,
    security problems
  • and lack of structure. It is also a narrow
    band rather than a broadband
  • or high capacity network.
  • The Internet may, therefore, be more useful as
    a test bed for network
  • evolution rather than being the network
    itself.

45
GII as a multimedia network ?
  • Alternatively the GII could be envisaged as a
    multimedia network,
  • for conveying video, with data, image, text and
    voice.
  • According to this vision, many of the potential
    applications will
  • encompass the entertainment, education and health
    care sectors
  • as well as the business market.
  • This vision by providing access to schools,
    universities, hospitals
  • and public libraries predominates among
    politicians.

46
Interactive television as a foundation for GII ?
  • The intelligent television set becomes the main
    communication channel with
  • multiple new television channels,
  • video-on-demand,
  • home shopping and other services.
  • Good for video games as well as for
    multinational videoconferences.
  • Entertainment would be the key service, but
    education and business
  • services will profit as well.

47
A report of the Japanese Ministry of Posts and
Telecoms (MPT) said that terrestrial digital TV
broadcasting should start in the Tokyo, Osaka and
Nagoya regions by the end of 2003 instead of
2000. The delay is linked to the multi-billion
Ecu investment required to switch to digital
broadcasting, which acts as a deterrent
for industry. The MPT recently unveiled a
stimulus package aimed to help broadcasters to
switch to digital TV. The report said it
expects analogue broadcasting in Japan to end in
2010.
48
Information industry convergence - single
network of networks can, theoretically,
accommodate each of these different visions.
49
Towards the information infrastructure for the IS
  • Seamless interconnection of networks
  • - fixed, mobile, and satellite
  • Interoperability of services and applications
  • Integrated Services Digital Network - ISDN a
    first step
  • - use of telephone lines for transfer of data
    (even moving images)
  • - e.g. PC to PC communication, low cost
    transmission of documents
  • - teleworking using ISDN services can be
    attractive to a wide range
  • of bussinesses. Ideal for distance learning.
  • Broadband networks the path to multimedia
  • - Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology
    should be
  • the backbone of the information society.
  • - cable (optical fibre), and satellite networks
    - data compression,
  • and advanced DSP transmission techniques.

50
Optical fibres - voice channel equivalents
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr9
5/
51
Optical fibres - used vs. unused capacity
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report http//www.itu.int/ti/wtdr95/

52
INTERNET
  • Radically decentralised systems, no one
    controls it!
  • Internet is, in a certain sense, is a set of
    protocols. Anyone who follows
  • those protocols can play any of a number of
    roles in the syste service provider,
  • service user, network provider, and so on.
  • Services required by the IS are supported by
    INTERNET
  • - built-in control mechanisms (TCP/IP protocol)
    is its strength
  • - can comprise even 600 - 1000 millions of
    networks required are
  • new routers and intelligent software
  • - Serious security problems

53
Netscape founder Marc Andreesen has described the
Internet as "... a platform for
entrepreneurial activities - a free market
economy in its truest sense. Its a level playing
field where people can do anything they wanted
to".
54
Despite this astonishing rate of growth, the
Internet still only constitutes a small slice of
the information industry pie.
THE Internet and the ITU
Dr Pekka Tarjanne
Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database.
55
European high performance Internet
DANTE, FINE, RIPE, TEN-34 and TERENA
Rapid follow-on of the TEN-34 Project to 155 and
622 Mbps
56
Internet2
US Internet2 project
  • Commodity Internet
  • Internet2 plans to operate at 2.4 Gbs/sec
  • 600 Mbit/s - is fast enough to transmit a
    30-volume encyclopaedia
  • in less than one second.
  • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), will
    enable users to reserve a
  • required internet bandwidth.
  • Selectable quality of service (QoS)
    transmission speed, bounded delay
  • and delay variance, throughput, and schedule
  • Today is used the Internet Protocol (IP)
    version 4.
  • I2 will deploy IP version 6 (IPv6).
  • All implementations must be backward
    compatible with IPv4.

57
(No Transcript)
58
Information infrastructure for the IS
contd Mobile communication
  • 8 million users (1994) - doubling every year
  • Europe is an important leader in mobile
    communications
  • GSM - very successful

59
Information infrastructure for the IS
contd Satellites
  • Mainly used for television broadcasting, however
  • May provide Internet access at low cost (??)
    with broadband
  • bandwidth on demand to very large number of
    users.

60
Satellites and the Internet
Linking every home in the World to the Internet
through fibre optic cable would cost 300
billion. To do the same think with global
satellite coverage would cost about 9
billion. FCC Commissioner Susan Ness After Randy
Katz, UC Berkeley
Applications Desktop video conferencing
Computer networking Tele- medical imaging
CAD/ CAM transmission Distance learning
Multimedia database/ digital library access
High speed Internet access - direct- to- end-
user Infrastructure on demand
61
Size of the Satellite Market
  • 1997
  • 1500 satellites of all types
  • 700 Ku- band satellites
  • 300 GEO satellites, representing over 18
    Billion in
  • services equipment
  • As many satellites sold between 1995- 1997 as
    sold
  • throughout 1980s
  • 44 Iridium satellites in orbit by end of year
  • 2003
  • Satellite population to grow to 2000, 60
    billion
  • Shift to Ka- band
  • 1078 planned satellites for 14 different s
    ystems
  • (mostly LEOs)

Source Randy Katz
62
Source 1995 World Telecommunication Development
Report
63
Presentation Outline
  • Elements of the revolution based on
    information
  • The vision
  • Information and communication - Information
    anytime , anywhere
  • Society - global village
    Enterprise - global workbench
  • Infrastructure for the information society
  • Working in the information society
  • distributed work, teleworking
  • fast response to change, collaboration
  • abstract work, new on-line jobs
  • New engineering paradigms and tools based on
    Internet
  • Towards collaborative engineering

64
Reshaping work
  • Dramatic reduction in the cost and time of
    storing, processing and
  • transmitting information has a fundamental
    effect on the way
  • we organise the production and distribution
    of goods and services and, thereby,
  • on work itself.
  • Reshaping skill structures and the organisation
    of enterprises.
  • New industrial and enterprise culture
    characterised
  • by flexibility, trust, commitment and
    ability to anticipate and harness
  • changes required.
  • Fundamental change to the labour market, and to
    society as a whole.

65
The facts a new world of work
  • Transformations from standardised manual
    production towards a more
  • diversified, knowledge based, production of
    goods and services.
  • "Flexible enterprises" more and more based on
    processes, less and less
  • on specialised functions. Workers perform a
    range of tasks, rather than
  • pass the job on from one to another.
  • Enterprises are being transformed from
    hierarchical and
  • complex organisations with simple jobs, to
    less hierarchical, more
  • decentralised and network-oriented
    organisations, with more complex jobs.
  • The new flexible enterprise has been described
    as a fleet of small boats,
  • moving on the same course, as opposed to an
    oil tanker steered from
  • a central point.

Source GREEN PAPER, LIVING AND WORKING IN THE
INFORMATION SOCIETYPEOPLE FIRST, European
Commission.
66
New distribution of international labour
  • The development of high speed networks and
    advanced services will
  • induce a new distribution of international
    labour.
  • Companies will no longer consider distance as a
    barrier to implement
  • subsidiaries or to start up new firms in
    other regions and countries.
  • It encourages outsourcing of jobs around the
    globe, including
  • white collar workers (e.g. software
    production in Asia).

67
  • The first challenge to build knowledge and
    raise awareness
  • of new forms of work organisation.
  • The second challenge to ensure that SMEs take
    full advantage of the IS
  • Enormous potential for firms to become more
    competitive and to create
  • better working conditions.
  • It has particular advantages for SMEs, the key
    engines of employment
  • growth - and especially "microfirms" - since the
    whole concept is built on
  • the small unit, market-driven, decentralised and
    based on team working.

Source GREEN PAPER, LIVING AND WORKING IN THE
INFORMATION SOCIETYPEOPLE FIRST, European
Commission.
68
Attributes of work in the IS
Re-engineering, downsizing, decentralisation,
flattening of hierarchies, networking of
self-directed firms, total quality management,
part-time working and teleworking are all
part of the same inevitable process of
re-adjustment to a new environment.
distributed work, part-time work, short-term
contracts increased accessibility of work for
all women at home, disabled people, people in
remote locations.
69
  • Effective, flexible organisation of work as a
    key competitive factor
  • - fast response to change,
  • - free flow of ideas between enterprise
    departments.
  • Reduced waste and duplication of effort to
    increase cost effectiveness
  • and shortening production cycles.
  • Close collaboration with suppliers, buyers and
    even competitors to make
  • the productive ensemble more responsive
    market and technological changes.

70
Flexibility changes affecting individual workers
  • functional flexibility leads to a wider range
    of skills or roles
  • temporal flexibility leads to more contracts
    such as casual,
  • temporary or fixed term employment
  • externalisation leads to more employment
    taking the form of freelance
  • or sub-contract work.
  • Telework is a good example of how information
    technologies both permit
  • and promote the new flexibility.

71
New company structures..
  • ...under increasing economic pressure are
    emerging.
  • Companies are adapting their structures to
    become more competitive.
  • They tend to be more and more organised as
  • a network of processes and to be
  • decentralised, distributed,
  • collaborative (vital functions are outsourced to
    competitors,
  • to their mutual benefit),
    and
  • adaptive (shifting from products to services).

72
Teleworking
  • Teleworking in homes and satellite offices, so
    that commuters no longer need
  • to travel long distances to work. From
    there, they can connect electronically
  • to whatever professional environment they
    need, irrespective of the system in use.
  • telecentre working (where an office is shared by
    several firms),
  • distance group working, and
  • teleservices provision as in telesecretariats,
    and telemaintenance.
  • Companies (both large and SMEs) and public
    administrations will benefit from
  • productivity gains, increased flexibility,
    cost savings.
  • For employees, more flexible working
    arrangements will be particularly beneficial
  • for all those tied to the home, and for
    people in remote locations the narrowing
  • of distances will help cohesion.
  • Decreased opportunities for social contact.
  • Labor legislation, and social security
    will have to be assessed.

73
Teleworking contd
The main areas of potential application are in
data and text processing, programming,
writing, editing, translating, marketing and
training, and research/consultancy activities.
74
New types of jobs and forms of work
  • New information managers (using expertise about
    the contents of cyberspace
  • to provide knowledge rather than
    information)
  • Multimedia managers (people skilled in putting
    together information from
  • different sources and from different media so
    that messages can be put across)
  • Internet plumbers (people who provide
    troubleshooting services to firms and
  • individuals in setting up, using and adapting
    on-line services)
  • New educationalists - (people who can act as
    guides and coaches to the array
  • of information and learning material on-line).

75
Working in the information society - Some
conclusions
  • Technologies are neither inherently good nor
    bad.
  • It is up to us to shape it into the forms
    which we desire.
  • New patterns of autonomous work to emerge
    based upon the on-line economy.
  • Work will become more abstract in nature.
  • Information work is brain work requiring
    conceptual and analytical skills
  • rather than being based on intuitive
    skills or physical actions.
  • It will be possible to bring work back to the
    home.
  • Very small firms (even self-employed people)
    can use the access to
  • the network to compete with firms that have
    the advantages of size.
  • Clearly, the challenge for all of us is to place
    an emphasis on developing
  • the positive aspects of the Information
    Society.

76
Presentation Outline
  • Elements of the revolution based on
    information
  • The vision
  • Information and communication - Information
    anytime , anywhere
  • Society - global village
    Enterprise - global workbench
  • Infrastructure for the information society
  • Working in the information society
  • distributed work, teleworking
  • fast response to change, collaboration
  • abstract work, new on-line jobs
  • New engineering paradigms and tools based on
    Internet
  • Towards collaborative engineering

77
Collaboration is one of the central requirements
for engineering today
78
Internet users in mlns
PC users 180 mlns in 1994
The Internet has doubled in size each year for
the past decade. Pekka Tarjanne, SG ITU, 1995
Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database
79
The WWW phenomenon
While the Internet doubles in size every 11 -12
months the World Wide Web doubles every 53 days.
Source Alexander NTOKO,
Int.Telecommunication Union, 1996
80
Traditional engineering paradigm
  • little or no information sharing,
  • a static organizational structure,
  • lack of cooperation among competitors,
  • vertical integration,
  • product focus, and
  • static passive infrastructure.

81
A paradigm shift in engineering
  • A competitive marketplace
  • Fast and safe enterprise-wide engineering
  • Efficiency and certain maturity of network
    technologies
  • - Communication over the Internet, and corporate
  • Intranets is easy and inexpensive,
  • - Internet is rapidly integrated in a design
  • process by providing every member of
  • an engineering team an immediate access
  • to any required information through WWW

82
Towards the virtual (agile) model of engineering
  • information sharing,
  • collaboration among competitors,
  • dynamic organizational structure,
  • shared infrastructure,
  • shared core competencies,
  • focus on customers requirements.

83
New technologies - new applications - new
requirements
  • Virtual design environments (tools over
    Internet)
  • Collaborative virtual prototyping environments
  • Tele-immersion
  • Modelling over Internet

Due to a confluence of factors, engineering
collaboration integrating widely distributed
teams becomes feasible.
84
  • Virtual design environments (tools over Internet)
  • Configurable set of engineering tools
    distributed over Internet
  • or on enterprise Intranets.
  • Easier sharable work

85
Internet-wide IC design using WELD - Web-based
Electronic System Design
http//www-cad.eecs.berkeley.edu/Respep/Research
/weld/
86
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87
Three-tier architecture consisting of
Tools or services that are made available for
network access
Services existing in the network that assist
various client/server activities
Users/programs who access the network resources
of the system
88
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89
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90
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91
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92
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93
Synchronicitys Mission
To be the leading supplier of Web-Based
Groupware for the Management, Reuse, and Secure
Distribution of Electronic Design Information
and Intellectual Property.
94
Design Management Groupware (DMG) product for
collaborative design on the WWW for engineering
groups designing integrated circuits (ICs).
  • DesignSync HLD, developed to enable
    collaboration among local and
  • geographically dispersed design teams,
    improves efficiency, productivity and
  • communication of project information, while
    decreasing development
  • cycles and associated costs.
  • Secure, Web-based client/server architecture
    with configuration
  • management and revision/release control, as
    well as full user authentication,
  • data encryption and compression when
    sensitive design data is in transit.
  • DesignSync HDL dramatically simplifies project
    and user administration
  • while allowing project team members better
    communication and access to
  • crucial design data anytime, anywhere.

Source Synchronicity - http//www.syncinc.com/
95
  • Collaborative virtual prototyping environments
  • Support teams with shared viewing environments
    in combination with
  • sophisticated communication tools.
  • They have a character of multi-user and
    multi-application
  • shared 3D environments.
  • 3D objects "can be joined into one scene that
    can be viewed by different
  • users with independent or shared camera
    positions, enabling the distribution
  • of visualisation tasks between smaller, flexible
    and more specialised
  • applications".

96
  • Tele-immersion
  • Presents the high-end technology of virtual
    prototyping.
  • Will significantly change the research and
    engineering paradigms.
  • Engineers at widely dispersed places will be
    able to share a single
  • virtual environment.
  • They will be able to interact and communicate
    in real time.
  • Modelled objects may have molecular, physical
    or economic attributes.
  • Virtual prototypes can be modelled, their
    designs reviewed, and evaluated.

97
  • Modelling over Internet
  • ProActiveM technology and Engineering Links for
    CAD/CAM/CAE domain
  • from Bentley.
  • Collaborative engineering based on Web with set
    of tools and technologies
  • extending the Web browsers with CAD
    capabilities.
  • Active Models can run without re-compilation
    on all platforms,
  • and are indexed in the way facilitating their
    search.
  • ProActiveM is an object-oriented language,
    binary compatible on
  • Bentley platforms.
  • It's a superset of Java, thus it allows
    execution of Java programs
  • within Bentley's CAD software.

98
Bentley Systems MicroStation Link embedded Web
browser (a) provides full Web navigation-all
capabilities without making users leave the CAD
system, and (b) can be used to embed
pointers to information related to the overall
project.
Source Regli97
99
Presentation Outline
  • Elements of the revolution based on
    information
  • The vision
  • Information and communication - Information
    anytime , anywhere
  • Society - global village
    Enterprise - global workbench
  • Infrastructure for the information society
  • Working in the information society
  • distributed work, teleworking
  • fast response to change, collaboration
  • abstract work, new on-line jobs
  • New engineering paradigms and tools based on
    Internet
  • Towards collaborative engineering

100
Engineering work in the information society -
relevant notions
Keywords information society, Internet-based
collaborative engineering, distributed
engineering, network-based engineering, WWW
technologies, global engineering networks, tools
over the Internet, virtual design environments,
digital engineering libraries, networks,
pan-European collaboration, standards.
101
From the panel in Florence
Introduction New model of engineering
Internet and WWW as enabling technologies
Towards collaborative engineering based on Web
CSCW - a discipline with a tradition WWW in
Internet-based collaboration Engineering over
WWW New technologies and applications
Engineering libraries and services on Web
Collaborative engineering vs. reengineering
Standards for collaborative engineering IT
infrastructures
102
New projects, e.g.
  • MADEFAST had as a design objective an optical
    seeker
  • Radeo Program
  • VELA targets an advanced multimedia processor
    chip

103
Collaborative engineering is an innovative method
for product development which integrates widely
distributed engineers for virtual
collaboration. Cutkosky, MADEFAST, Communicat.
of the ACM, Sept. 1996
shared eng. data
real-time communicat
interactivity
Objective optical seeker
104
Multidisciplinary engineers Not co-located
Asynchronous Communications
105
Engineering notebook
for personal and shared design information and
as a gateway to tools and services on the
Internet
Source
http//madefast.stanford.edu/ACM_paper.html
106
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107
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108
Technology for collaborative engineering
  • high performance workstations with advanced
  • visualisation and modelling software needed
  • for virtual prototyping,
  • high speed networks, and
  • appropriate standards including those for
  • product data representation, as well as
  • communication.

WWW as an universal, platform truly
independent interface to team members, tools, and
libraries.
109
Design of new systems on a chip is particularly
well suited for new collaborative engineering
technologies. Designs exceeding 10 mlns of
transistors per chip would require hundreds of
man-years effort if designed from scratch. The
viable strategies are those based extensively on
re-use. Re-use crossing the enterprise borders
require however, new standards and solutions
including those for intellectual properties
protection. The recently announced CAD tools
which are Web-based project SpecChart Editor,
JavaSIS - logic synthesis, and optimization 's
- groupware product for the management, reuse,
and secure distribution of electronic design
information ' s Design Exchange provides secure
design collaboration environment for
geographically dispersed design teams to name
just a few. These are first academic and
industrial developments in putting the Internet
and Web into the engineering practice. Perhaps,
it's worth to note, that all are stemming from
the US.
110
WWW-based collaborative engineering
  • WWW has been conceived as a support for
    collaboration among researchers
  • - asynchronous communication, electronic
    publishing
  • WWW requires
  • extensions of HTML and the HTTP protocols
    content languages
  • navigation, annotation, and visualisation of
    complex engineering
  • objects new types of "engineering" links
  • protection of intellectual properties
  • indexing and retrieval of complex objects
  • collaboration-oriented developments in WWW
    browsers
  • engineering databases infrastructure for WWW.

111
Strategic goal - global engineering networks
  • "Working together through shared knowledge"
  • - original goals of the WWW Tim
    Berners-Lee
  • "Collaboration on the Web" talk , he
    stressed the need for
  • "sharing knowledge - with semantics ".
  • A common understanding of engineering artifacts
    has to be
  • established.
  • Internet-based engineering services will cluster
    into networks
  • specialized for a particular engineering
    domains, like DSP design,
  • mechanical and civil, or chemical engineering.
  • All these engineering networks will provide
    access to specialized
  • libraries collecting domain-specific knowledge
    and expertise.

112
Strategic goal - global engineering networks
contd
  • Research and development is required
  • a systematisation of engineering knowledge,
  • new methods and tools for acquisition, retrieval
    and representation
  • of engineering knowledge
  • new techniques and tools for engineering
    knowledge
  • capture/codification, and re-use.

113
Virtual organizasations enabling net-based eng.
  • Will become capable of faster change, i.e.
    enabling dextrous design and production

114
Towards the pan-European collaborative
engineering
  • First successful examples of pan-European
    collaborative
  • engineering based on Internet.
  • Telework can contribute to a decreased brain
    drain and
  • fix in Europe groups of experts in specific
    domains.
  • Is the awareness about the potential of the new
  • technologies for collaborative engineering
    equally
  • shared among the EU and CEE partners ?

115
  • Benefits of Collaborative Engineering
  • Core competency sharing through "platform of
    capability"
  • in the product development
  • Product and process optimization with fewer
    iterations
  • Rapid response to customer needs
  • Cooperation and team responsibility for customer
  • defined opportunities
  • Cost containment in experimenting with new
    designs

Source US National Center for Excellence in
Metalworking Technology
116
References
Regli97 Regli W., Internet - enabled Computer
Aided Design, Internet Computing, Jan-Feb.
1997 Internet2 Project - next generation Internet
for research and education. IC97 Engineering
meets the Internet How will the new technology
affect engineering practice? Internet Computing,
Jan-Feb. 1997. PCSWW97 Pawlak A., Cellary W.,
Smirnov A., Warzee X., Willis J. Collaborative
Engineering based on Web - how far to go?,
Advances in Information Technologies The
Business Challenge, J.-Y. Roger et al. (Eds.) IOS
Press, 1997. TEN-34 Trans-European Network. WELD
Web-based Electronic Design project at Univ. of
California, Berkely. WETICE96 Workshops on
Enabling Technologies Infrastructure for
Collaborative Enterprises, Workshop at Stanford,
July 19-21 1996.
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