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Urbanization/Immigration Pages 565-577


Urbanization/Immigration Pages 565-577 Growth of Urban Areas Challenges Rise of Immigration Who & why? Native reactions Government restrictions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urbanization/Immigration Pages 565-577

Urbanization/Immigration Pages 565-577
  • Growth of Urban Areas
  • Challenges
  • Rise of Immigration
  • Who why?
  • Native reactions
  • Government restrictions

Characteristics of Urbanization During the Gilded
  1. Megalopolis.
  2. Mass Transit.
  3. Magnet for economic and social opportunities.
  4. Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner
    outer core
  5. New frontier of opportunity for women.
  6. Squalid living conditions for many.
  7. Political machines.
  8. Ethnic neighborhoods.

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Urban Growth 1870 - 1900
  • Why?
  • Poverty, famine, land shortages, religious or
    political persecution
  • Who?
  • Britain, Ireland, Germany, Italy, Russia,
    Austria-Hungary, China, Japan, West Indies,
  • How many?
  • Between 1870 1920
  • 20,000,000

  • Difficult journey
  • Steamship
  • Inspection at Ellis Island or Angel Island
  • Physical examination
  • Document examination
  • Literacy examination
  • Ability to work
  • 25

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Reactions to Immigration
  • Fuel for the political machine
  • Jobs and favors for votes
  • Private social reform
  • Jane Addams Hull House
  • Spread of urban settlement houses
  • New Nativism
  • Labor competition
  • Political competition

Urban Reformers
  • Social Gospel Movement Salvation through
    service to the poor
  • Food kitchens
  • Employment assistance
  • Work conditions
  • Creation of Settlement Houses
  • Community centers for education, health,
    financial and legal assistance
  • Hull House (Chicago) by Jane Adams

Immigration Laws
  • 1875 First exclusionary act. Convicts,
    prostitutes, and "coolies" (Chinese contract
    laborers) are barred from entry into the United
  • 1882 Immigration Act passed. The federal
    government moves to firmly establish its
    authority over immigration. Chinese immigration
    is curtailed ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, and
    those unable to take care of themselves are
    excluded. In addition, a tax is levied on newly
    arriving immigrants.
  • 1885 Contract laborers' entry barred. This new
    legislation reverses an earlier federal law
    legalizing the trade in contract labor.
  • 1891 Office of Immigration created. Established
    as part of the U.S. Treasury Department, this new
    office is later given authority over
    naturalization and moved to the U.S. Justice
    Department. (Today it is known as the Immigration
    and Naturalization Service.) In the same year,
    paupers, polygamists, the insane, and persons
    with contagious diseases are excluded from entry
    to the United States.
  • 1892 Ellis Island opens. Between 1892 and 1953,
    more than 12 million immigrants will be processed
    at this one facility.
  • 1903 Additional categories of persons excluded.
    Epileptics, professional beggars, and anarchists
    are now excluded.

Social Change and Reform Pages 578-594
  • Religious change
  • Darwins Theory
  • African-Americans
  • Education
  • Booker T. vs. W.E.B.
  • Horatio Alger
  • Womens Rights
  • Prohibition Movement

Evolution vs. Creation
Segregation and Discrimination
  • Voting Restrictions
  • Literacy tests
  • Poll tax
  • Grandfather clause (white only)
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Legal separation (segregation) of races
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision allows separate
    but equal

Race Relations
  • Racial etiquette
  • Riots
  • Lynchings
  • African-American Leaders
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Gradual approach to racial equality
  • Equality through economic independence
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Immediate social and economic equality
  • Founded Niagara Movement (later NAACP)
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Journalist (Memphis) has to leave after lynching

Womens Suffrage Movement
  • Suffrage right to vote
  • Focus of women reformers since 1848
  • Strategy
  • Gain right to vote by state
  • Pursue court cases to test 14th amendment
  • Push for a constitutional amendment
  • Form political organizations
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • Leaders
  • Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, Lucy
    Burns, Alice Paul

Womens Suffrage Movement Key Events
  • 1848 Seneca Falls Convention declaration
    calls for voting rights for women
  • 1878 Proposed amendment for womens suffrage in
    U.S. Congress (denied)
  • 1893 Colorado becomes the first state to grant
    women right to vote (15 more by 1918)
  • 1913 Pickets protest President Wilsons
  • 1919 Proposed amendment for womens suffrage in
    U.S. Congress (approved)
  • 1920 - 19th amendment ratified by ¾ of state

Rise of the Railroads Pages 536-545
  • Expansion of the Railways
  • Transcontinental Success
  • Improvements and innovations
  • Abuses
  • Government actions and regulations

Causes of Rapid Industrialization
  • Steam Revolution of the 1830s-1850s.
  • The Railroad fueled the growing US economy
  • First big business in the US.
  • A magnet for financial investment.
  • The key to opening the West.
  • Aided the development of other industries.

More Causes of Rapid Industrialization
  1. Unskilled semi-skilled labor in abundance.
  2. Abundant capital.
  3. New, talented group of businessmen
    entrepreneurs and advisors.
  4. Market growing as US population increased.
  5. Government willing to help at all levels to
    stimulate economic growth.
  6. Abundant natural resources.

Railroad Construction
Age of Railroads
  • Transcontinental Railroad 1869
  • Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads
  • Harsh work conditions
  • Time problems
  • No standard time zones
  • Opportunities
  • Nationwide network of suppliers and markets
  • New towns and communities
  • Expanded travel and settlement

What time is it?
  • Eastern Standard Time 1 hour
  • Central Standard Time NOW!
  • Mountain Standard Time -1 hour
  • Pacific Standard Time -2 hours

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Railroad Problems
  • Corruption
  • Credit Mobilier company inflated costs to build
    railroads paid off Congressmen
  • Price fixing against farmers
  • Overbuilding
  • Non standard gauges / iron vs. steel rails
  • Competition
  • Lack of government regulations

Cornelius Commodore Vanderbilt
Cant I do what I want with my money?
William Vanderbilt
  • The public be damned!
  • What do I care about the law? Haint I got the

Robber Barons / Gospel of Wealth Pages 545-551
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • J.P. Morgan
  • Social Darwinism
  • Gospel of Wealth

Big Business Emerges
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Steel Baron 80 of American Steel
  • Management Genius
  • Gospel of Wealth
  • 90 (325 million) donated to music, arts, and
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Oil Baron Standard Oil 90 of American Oil
  • Consolidate, compete, and dominate
  • Philanthropist - 500 million to U of C,
    foundations, and hospitals
  • J.P. Morgan
  • Financial Genius
  • Philanthropist smaller scale but still huge

New Type of Business Entities
  1. Pool 1887 ? Interstate Commerce Act ?
    Interstate Commerce Commission
  2. Trust ? John D. Rockefeller

Standard Oil Co.
Standard Oil Company
New Types of Business Entities
  1. Trust Horizontal Integration ? John D.

Vertical Integration A. Gustavus Swift ?
B. Andrew Carnegie ? U. S. Steel
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Iron Steel Production
U. S. Corporate Mergers
Railroad Impacts
  • Grange
  • Organization to protect farmers
  • Sponsor candidates, create legislation, and take
    legal action to regulate freight rates and
    protect farmers and consumers
  • Supreme Court forces issue on the Federal
  • Wabash v. Illinois
  • National government has responsibility for
    regulation of interstate trade
  • Leads to the creation of Interstate Commerce
  • Interstate Commerce Act
  • Congress gets the power to regulate railroads
  • Will this fix the issue?
  • Panic of 1893
  • Financial problems of the Railroads cause largest
    depression ever (up to then!)

Industrial Consolidation Iron Steel Firms
New Financial Businessman
  • The Broker J. Pierpont Morgan

New Business Culture
  • Laissez Faire ? the ideology of the
    Industrial Age.

Individual as a moral and economic
ideal. Individuals should compete
freely in the marketplace. The
market was not man-made or invented.
No room for government in the market!
Social Darwinism
  • British economist.
  • Advocate of laissez-faire.
  • Adapted Darwins ideas from the Origin of
    Species to humans.
  • Notion of Survival of the Fittest.

Herbert Spencer
Social Darwinism in America
  • Individuals must have absolute freedom to
    struggle, succeed or fail.
  • Therefore, state intervention to reward society
    and the economy is futile!

William Graham Sumner Folkways (1906)
New Business Culture The American Dream?
  • Protestant (Puritan) Work Ethic Horatio
    Alger 100 novels

Is the idea of the self-made man a MYTH??
The Gospel of Wealth Religion in the Era of
  • Wealth no longer looked upon as bad.
  • Viewed as a sign of Gods approval.
  • Christian duty to accumulate wealth.
  • Should not help the poor.

Russell H. Conwell
On Wealth
  • The Anglo-Saxon race is superior.
  • Gospel of Wealth (1901).
  • Inequality is inevitable and good.
  • Wealthy should act as trustees for their
    poorer brethren.

Andrew Carnegie
Regulating the Trusts
  • 1877 ? Munn. v. IL
  • Decides a private company can be regulated in
    the public interest
  • 1886 ? Wabash, St. Louis Pacific
    Railroad Company v. IL
  • 1890 ? Sherman Antitrust Act in
    restraint of trade rule of reason
  • 1895 ? US v. E. C. Knight Co.
  • Decides E.C. Knight diversified enough to avoid
    violating Sherman Act
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