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What is World View? (Sue


What is World View? (Sue & Sue, 1990) we can define a world view as how a person perceives his/her relationship to the world (nature, institutions, other people, etc.). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is World View? (Sue

What is World View? (Sue Sue, 1990)
  • we can define a world view as how a person
    perceives his/her relationship to the world
    (nature, institutions, other people, etc.).
  • World views are highly correlated with a person's
    cultural upbringing and life experiences

  • Ivey, Ivey, and Simek-Downing (1987) refer to
    world views as "one's conceptual framework," or
    "how you think the world works." Ibrahim (1985)
    refers to it as "our philosophy of life," or our
    "experience within social, cultural,
    environmental, philosophical, and psychological
  • Put in a much more practical way, world views are
    not only composed of our attitudes, values,
    opinions, and concepts, but also they may affect
    how we think, make decisions, behave, and define

What is the importance of understanding world
  • Counselors who hold a world view different from
    that of their clients and are unaware of the
    basis for this difference are most likely to
    impute negative traits to clients.
  • Constructs used to judge "normality" and
    "healthy" or "abnormality" and "unhealthy" may be
    inadvertently applied to clients.
  • In most cases, culturally different clients have
    a greater possibility of holding world views
    different from those of counselors.

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck model (1961) of World
  • Time Is the orientation based on the past,
    present, or the future?
  • Human relations Are individuals, collateral
    relationships, or lineal relationships valued
  • Human activity Is the focus on doing, being, or
  • Human nature At birth, are people considered
    basically good, bad, neutral, or mixed?
  • Supernatural Is the relationship with the
    supernatural one of control,subordination, or

Human Activity
  • In the dominant European American culture
    culture, "doing" is valued over "being" or even
  • There is a strong belief that one's own worth is
    measured by task accomplishments.
  • In the European culture, statements like "do
    something" indicate the positive value placed on
  • In counseling and therapy, the perceived
    "inaction" of a client who may adhere to a
    "being" orientation is usually associated with
    some form of personal inadequacy.

Relationship with others
  • some cultures, relationships tend to be more
    lineal, authoritarian, and hierarchical
    (traditional Asian cultures) in which the father
    is the absolute ruler of the family.
  • Some cultures may emphasize a horizontal, equal,
    and collateral relationship
  • in the U. S. the dominant value is individual
  • A counseling relationship that tends to be more
    equal and individualistic may prove uncomfortable
    for clients who may adhere to a much more formal
    hierarchical relationship.

Nature of People
  • cultures, societies, and groups may socialize
    people into a trusting or suspicious mode.
  • Third World groups, by virtue of their minority
    status in the United States, may develop a
    healthy suspiciousness toward institutions and
  • Unfortunately, because many mental health
    professionals may operate from a different value
    orientation (man is basically neutral or good),
    they may see the minority clients as evidencing
    "paranoid" traits.

Relation of People to Nature
  • Cultures vary in their assumptions regarding to
  • Many indigenous populations in North America
    perceive themselves as in harmony with nature.
  • Other groups perceive themselves as governed by
  • The dominant American culture perceives humans as
    having mastery of nature

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Introduction To Individualism/Collectivism
  • This dimension describes the extent to which
    persons see themselves as individuals whose
    identity is separate from any work or social
    group, or as individuals whose identify is
    derived primarily from affiliation with multiple
    work and social groups.
  • Individualism is one of the strongest US values

  • Americans learn to think from the underlying
    assumption that the individual is directly
    related to the society without need for an
    intervening group - although involvement with
    family, community, team, and employer is highly
  • Not all Americans are highly individualistic in
    behavior or belief, but most native-born
    Americans share a core set of values which
    maintain that it is good to be an individual and
    to express one's self as that individual.

  • In countries on the collective side of this
    dimension, the "seamless" integration of the
    individual into the group is considered a
    principal goal of the society.

Childhood Socialization
  • In individualistic cultures are socialized into
    developing an independent and personal sense of
    duty and responsibility to society, not through
    the group, but as an independent person who
    voluntarily subordinates self to the good of the
    group, team, community, nation etc.
  • Children are socialized to create a sense of
    personal morality that ensures, to some degree,
    social order.

Collectivist cultural socialization
  • In highly Collectivist cultures the individual
    has little or no relationship with society EXCEPT
    through the groups in their life
  • This may include the persons family,
    gender-based associations, perhaps their clan or
    ethnic group, their workgroup, and perhaps their

  • Children socialized into the various groups in
    their lives, and it is largely from within those
    groups that they relate to the world for life.
  • What is needed, therefore, in a Collectivist
    culture are ethical guidelines which can be
    enforced by social groups, rather than moral
    guidelines designed to be incorporated by

Collectivist vs. Individual Morality
  • In a collective culture, social groups exercise
    primary social control over the individual
  • in an individualist culture, only individual
    morality (and good police work) create social
    control over the individuals, who have been
    taught by their culture that they are not
    answerable to anyone except themselves.

In a High Individualism culture, the following
tendencies are very strong
  • Individual achievement is the basis for social
  • There are strong social/legal concepts involving
    individual rights
  • People are expected to act on their own behalf
    Individuals can hold and express unpopular
  • Individualized decision making is preferred to
    consensus decision making

  • Social philosophies focus on universal principles
    not on social particulars
  • Loyalty to the company is not expected pay for
    performance is expected
  • People seek variety and interest in work

In a High Collectivism culture, the following
tendencies are very strong
  • Attributes such as birth, ethnicity, and gender
    are the basis for social standing
  • Legal structures protect group and community
  • People are expected to defer to the interests of
    the group and powerful others
  • Individuals cannot express unpopular opinions
    without risk of sanction

  • Consensus decision making is preferred
    individualism is seen as dangerous
  • Social philosophies focus on privileges and
    prerogatives, not on universal principles
  • Loyalty to the company is expected performance
    is secondary

Techniques of Counseling
  • counseling can be conceptualized as breaking down
    into the therapeutic relationship and techniques.

Tactics/techniques of counseling
  • "A defined tool or method that is employed by the
    counselor in order to facilitate effective
    counseling or positive behavior change in the

What do we mean by therapeutic relationship?
  • Definition of Therapeutic Relationship The
    relationship in counseling and psychotherapy is
    defined as the feelings and attitudes that
    counseling participants have toward one another
    and the manner in which these are expressed
    (Gelso Carter, 1985)
  • Assumes a reciprocal role for both the counselor
    and client to define the relationship

Emphasizes that there are two factors in
  • Relationship factors and Technical factors.
  • Technical Factors refers to the therapists
    particular theoretical orientation and the
    specific counseling methods used to bring change
    within the client
  • The distinction is often very difficult to
    observe, as the counselors theory and techniques
    both influence and are influenced by relationship

Why is the therapeutic relationship important?
  • Historically The counseling relationship has
    been consistently noted to be essential for
    counseling success.
  • Freud and other psychodynamic theorists the role
    of transference and countertransference as
    essential for the understanding of childhood

  • Transference a repetition of feelings,
    behaviors, and attitudes toward the counselor,
    but are more accurately belonging to the clients
    significant others from the past.
  • Countertransference the counselors transference
    to the events that occur during therapy

  • Carl Rogers would emphasize that the therapeutic
    relationship was both necessary and sufficient
    for helping in counseling and that other
    techniques would only prohibit progress in

The Common Factors Research
  • Efforts to reconcile behavior theory and
    psychodynamic therapy resulted in efforts to find
    the common factors in counseling and
  • After a review of all psychotherapy theories, as
    well as historical and anthropological
    descriptions of the methods and principles of
    healing, Jerome Frank would eventually define
    psychotherapy as consisting of four components.
  • The first component is the therapeutic
    relationship in which the therapist and patient
    have clearly defined roles and expectations.

Common Factors Research, cont.
  • Research in the effectiveness of psychotherapy
    had noted that most therapies are essentially
    equal in their success rates, despite apparent
    differences in their theoretical formulations and
  • Studies that examined the elements of therapy to
    determine what aspects of different counseling
    methods found that counseling relationship
    factors were more cited than particular
    techniques in explaining client satisfaction.

What comprises the therapeutic relationship?
  • According to Gelso Carter (1985), the
    components are
  • The Working Alliance
  • Transference Countertransference
  • The Real Relationship

Working Alliance
  • the alignment or joining together of the clients
    reasonable and observing side with the
    counselors working or therapizing side for the
    purpose of facilitating the work of counseling.

Transference Countertransference
  • Transference is always an error. This means that
    not all emotional issues in therapy are examples
    transference. Specifically, it means that only
    displaced emotions coming from past relationships
    reflect transference.
  • Transference can either be positive or negative.
  • Transference is facilitated by the therapists
    neutrality and ambiguity.
  • Transference is not conscious.
  • Transference is most likely to come in ones most
    unresolved past issues.

The Real Relationship two components.
  • Genuineness the degree to which the counselor
    is able to be open and honest within the
    counseling relationship
  • Realistic Perceptions the accurate perceptions
    by both the counselor and client, unclouded by
    transference and countertransference.

Rogers Facilitative Conditions
  • Empathic Understanding accurate understanding
  • Unconditional Positive Regard refers to complete
    acceptance of the client as a person of worth
  • Congruence the ability of the counselor to be
    freely himself or herself

Counseling Techniques Highlen and Hills (1984)
Classification Scheme of Techniques.
  • Level 1. Nonverbal Behavior
  • Level 2. Verbal Behavior
  • Level 3. Covert Behavior.
  • Level 4. Interpersonal manner.

Level 1. Nonverbal Behavior.
  • Contain the most specific and clearly observable
    levels of counselor response. They are not
    theoretically-driven. They include

  • Paralanguage pertains to how things are said
    rather than what is said. voice tone, spacing of
    words, emphasis, inflection (loudness, and
    pitch), pauses, various nonlanguage sounds, and
  • Facial expression
  • Kinesics pertains to body movements other than
    facial expression and eye movements.

  • Looking and gaze aversion. The extent to which
    interactants look at each other and how they look
    at each other during their interaction. Eye
    contact is very culturally determined.
  • Proxemics refers to the area of nonverbal
    behavior dealing with the structure and use of
    space in human interaction.
  • Touch. Hugging, handshaking, handholding. When,
    if, or how to use touch is clearly not known and
    very controversial.

Level 2. Verbal Behavior.
  • Levels 2-5 contain more abstract and general
    variables that must be inferred.
  • Unlike nonverbal behavior, they are often derived
    from a theory of counseling.
  • It is at this point that we recognize that
    counseling remains as much an art as it is a

Level 2 Response Modes Approach
  • in analyzing what the counselor says, the grammar
    is focused more than the content. They include
  • Minimal Responses
  • Directives

1. Minimal Responses.
  • In Hill's system of categorization the first two
    response modes are called minimal encouragers and

2. Directives.
  • The category of directives involves directing the
    client to do something by conveying approval,
    providing information, or giving directions,
    suggestions or advice
  • Counseling Texts emphasize that it is important
    for counselors to avoid being too directive so
    that the client does not "own" the process.
  • Advice-giving depends upon the theoretical
    perspective of the counselor.

3. Information Seeking.
  • Closed questions and open questions to obtain
  • Open questions seek client exploration or
    clarification whereas closed questions are
    answered with a yes/no.

The other types are called Complex Counselor
  • Complex Counselor Responses refer to the process
    of counseling as part of the analysis.
  • 4. Paraphrase in the text, paraphrases are
    broken down into restatements, reflections,
    nonverbal referents, and summaries.
  • Indicate to the client that the therapist is
    listening and attending to the client and they
    enable the client to continue exploration.
  • Paraphrases also let therapists check out their
    understanding of what clients are saying.

  • 5. Interpretation usually offers new meaning and
    points to the causes underlying the client's
    actions and feelings. The text points out that
    this is the most complex in terms of skill
    required. They emphasized five types

  • establishing connections between seemingly
    isolated statements, problems, or events,
  • points out themes or patterns in the clients
    behavior or feelings, (3) interpretation of
    defenses, resistance, or transference,
  • relates present events, experiences, or feelings
    to the past, and
  • giving a new framework to feelings, behaviors,
    or problems.

  • Most of these interpretations are clearly
    theory-driven. The counselors perspective will
    determine what will be focused upon and how, if,
    and when a particular interpretation will be used
  • The text emphasized that the depth and timing of
    the interpretation are crucial in their

6. Confrontation
  • points to some discrepancy or contradiction in
    the client's behavior, thoughts, or feelings.
  • Confrontation is definitely a technique which
    varies among counselors

7. Self-Disclosure
  • the revealing of personal information by the
    counselor to the client. The favoring of
    self-disclosure will be heavily influenced by the
    theoretical orientation of the counselor.
  • For example, humanistic approaches believe that
    self-disclosure is very helpful, whereas
    psychodynamic approaches believe that
    self-disclosure of the therapist will distract
    the client from self-understanding.

Level 3. Covert Behavior.
  • Refer to the counselors reaction to the session.
    This includes this aspect because internal
    reactions by the counselor significantly
    influence the counselor's treatment of the
    client, verbally and nonverbally.

One aspect is the study of counselor intentions
  • Not surprising, the counselors intentions are
    affected by the theoretical orientation adopted
    by the counselor and will affect the responses
    within counseling.
  • What is probably more informative is that
    counselors intentions change during counseling.
    Research needs to explore how and when this

Level 4. Interpersonal manner.
  • refers to constellations of verbal and nonverbal
    behaviors that sum up the personal style of a
  • At the most general level, interpersonal manner
    entails how the counselor comes across to the
    client, and is defined by the impressions that
    the counselor creates in his or her clients.

Sues Model of Cross Cultural Counseling Outcomes
  • Derald Sue (1977) developed a counseling model
    based upon Processeses and Goals in Counseling
  • Three Stages Preentry Level, Entry Level, and
  • Preentry Level includes unique and common
    characteristics of the counselor and client
  • the Entry Level refers to the process of
    counseling includes general approaches,
    strategies, and Techniques.
  • Outcome Level pertains to the goals of
    counseling desired Outcomes

Four possible conditions
  • Condition I Appropriate Process, Appropriate
  • Condition II Appropriate Process, Inappropriate
  • Condition III Inappropriate Process, Appropriate
  • Condition IV Inappropriate Process,
    Inappropriate Goals

Preentry Level for the Culturally Different Client
  • At the Preentry level, cultually different
    clients inherit a whole constellation of cultural
    and class values, language factors, and life
  • Those factors form the person's cultural identity
    and his/her world view. Oftentimes, the minority
    client's communication style is a function of
    these factors. Further, the counselor is also a
    product of his or her culture, class, language,
    and experiences

Entry Level
  • On entering the "process of counseling,"
    counselors choose a general approach, style, or
    strategy in working with clients.
  • All theories of counseling rely heavily on some
    basic techniques in the therapeutic session.

Outcome Level
  • Closely linked to the actual process of
    counseling are certain implicit or explicit goals
    such as insight, self-actualization, or behavior

Condition I Appropriate Process, Appropriate
  • In condition I the client is exposed to a
    counseling process that is consistent with his or
    her values, life experiences,,and culturally
    conditioned way of responding.
  • this particular activity of counseling (teaching,
    giving advice, etc.) is not traditionally seen as
    a legitimate part of it.

Condition II Appropriate Process, Inappropriate
  • Oftentimes, a counseling strategy may be chosen
    by the counselor that is compatible with the
    client's life experiences, but the goals are
  • While the approach may be a positive experience
    for many minorities, there is danger here
    regarding control and behavioral objectives.

  • The counselor in this situation may inadvertently
    be imposing his or her own standards and values
    on the client. The end goals place the problem in
    the hands of the individual rather than society,
    which produced the problem.

  • For example to what extent does the client
    assume responsibility for deciding the direction
    of change?
  • To what extent is the counselor forcing the
    client to adapt or adjust to a "sick" situation
    that ought to be changed?

Condition III Inappropriate Process, Appropriate
  • More often than not, counselors tend to use
    inappropriate strategies in working with the
    culturally differenent.
  • Early termination of counseling is most likely
    to occur when the process is antagonistic to the
    values of the client and forces him or her to
    violate some basic personal values.

The theoretical orientation of the counselor may
create Condition III
  • The counselor who leans heavily on some form of
    intervention like the behavioral techniques may
    be seen as coercive and manipulative.
  • Rogerian conditions of respect for individuals,
    empathy, genuineness, and warmth may be very
    compatible with the values of many Third World
  • However, the Rogerian process of paraphrasing,
    reflecting feelings, and summarizing can be
    incompatible with cultural patterns.

Condition IV Inappropriate Process,
Inappropriate Goals
  • Approaches that are clearly inappropriate in
    terms of techniques and goals most generally lead
    to early termination of counseling.
  • Equal treatment may be discriminatory.

(No Transcript)
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