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Title: Don t Lose Your Head! Charles I Game Author: David Westenberg Last modified by: Owner Created Date: 10/13/2008 12:35:47 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Don

Dont Lose Your Head!Charles I Game
Q 1
Background In 1649, the King of England, Charles
I, was beheaded.
  • Since 1642, he had been involved in a bitter
    Civil War with Parliament. In this game you will
    take the role of King Charles, and will make a
    number of decisions about how to run your
    country. After making each decision you will be
    told what the result of it was, and how it
    compares to what Charles really did.

Question 1 What is Your Attitude Toward
  • It is 1625. You have just become King, and it is
    time to make up your first speech to Parliament.
    You realize that Parliament is very important for
    your power, because it raises money for you in
    the form of taxes. Crowds cheer as you make your
    way into the Palace of Westminster, dressed in
    all your robes of state. The House of Commons all
    stand up as you enter, and you take your seat at
    the far end of the Chamber. Everyone else sits
    down and waits in silence to hear what you have
    to say.

What is the main message of your speech likely to
  • Option I I have been chosen by God to rule this
    country, and it is the duty of Parliament to obey
    my orders so that the county can be strong and
  • Option 2 I have been given this job by the
    people of Kingdom, and I plan to reach all my
    decisions after discussing the options with
    Parliament- even if this means that things get
    done more slowly.

Option 1
Option 2
Option 1
  • Parliament is not very impressed with your
    speech, which seems unnecessarily aggressive.
    There are lots of mumbles of discontent as you
    march out. You may be storing up problems for
    the future!
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 20
  • What really happened?

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • Parliament is very impressed with your speech.
    You seem to be a King who respects them and they
    just hope that you will stick by your promises.
  • Well done - the chances of Civil War do not
    rise at all!
  • What really happened?

What Really Happened?
Question 1 What Really Happened?
  • In reality, Charles said that he had been
    chosen by God to rule the country, and that it
    was the duty of Parliament to obey his orders so
    that the country could be strong and united.He
    called this idea "Divine Right" - in other words,
    a right given by God.

Question 2 A Royal Marriage?
  • Following your speech to Parliament, you
    get down to the everyday business of government,
    which you find very tiring.Your best friend, the
    Duke of Buckingham (a former favorite of your
    father), notices how worn out you are and takes
    you out for the day horse-riding
    (right).Eventually, you are deep in the
    countryside and you stop for a bite to eat.
    Climbing off his horse, Buckingham passes you his
    drinking flask and asks if you have given any
    more thought to getting married now that you are
    King. What do you say?

Question 2 A Royal Marriage?
  • What do you say?
  • Option 1 I'll marry an English Protestant, so
    that Parliament can see that I am reliable and
  • Option 2 "I plan to stay single. Children could
    grow up and maybe steal my throne.
  • Option 3 "I'll marry a French Catholic, so that
    Parliament can see that I am friendly to all
    religions and countries."

Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Option 1 Marry a Protestant
  • This is probably the most sensible option.
    Catholic countries won't be happy, but at least
    your own Parliament will be convinced that you
    can be relied upon to protect the Church of
    England. Puritans too are less likely to be
    angered by this policy.Well done - the chances of
    Civil War have not risen!

What Really Happened?
Option 2 Dont Marry
  • This might be a sensible option in the short
    term, but in the long term it means that the
    country will face all sorts of problems about
    finding a new King after you are gone. When
    members of Parliament (MPs) get to hear of your
    decision they are very worried - a lot of them
    can remember the problems created by Elizabeth's
    refusal to marry.The likelihood of Civil War
    rises by 5.

What Really Happened?
Option 3 Marry a French Catholic
  • This is not a very wise choice. Parliament is
    absolutely appalled that their King is getting
    married to a CATHOLIC! They are incredibly
    suspicious that you are maybe a Catholic
    yourself, and will be keeping a very close eye on
    you from now on...The likelihood of Civil War
    rises by 10!

What Really Happened?
Question 2 What REALLY Happened?
  • Charles not only married a CATHOLIC, but a FRENCH
    one! This was not popular at all in
    Parliament.Many people thought that maybe Charles
    himself was a secret Catholic.The new Queen's
    name was Henrietta Maria (shown here with her
    son, the future Charles II).

Question 3 Should you Hand Buckingham over to
  • Following your wedding, Buckingham tells you of
    his exciting (but expensive) plan to attack the
    Spanish with a fleet of ships. You love the idea,
    and although Parliament is not very keen, it
    eventually gives you the money for the
    operation.Buckingham sets off, but within a few
    days you get reports that he has made a complete
    pig's ear of the whole thing. Some ships have
    been sunk by the Spanish galleons, many men have
    been killed, and Buckingham is sailing back to
    England in disgrace.Parliament is furious, and is
    demanding that Buckingham be put into prison as
    soon as he gets back.

Question 3 Should you hand Buckingham over to
  • Option 1 Agree to Parliament's demands.
    Buckingham messed it up, and should pay the
  • Option 2 Refuse to punish Buckingham, who is a
    loyal friend. Instead, put some MP's in prison to
    show who is the real boss around here.
  • Option 3 Send Buckingham to court and let them
    decide what should be done.

Option 2
Option 1
Option 3
Option 1
  • You do not rate very highly as a friend, but at
    least you are realistic. By sacrificing
    Buckingham you are able to distance yourself from
    his failure and not take too much blame.
  • You avoid civil war with 0 raise

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • Buckingham breathes a sigh of relief, but
    Parliament is absolutely outraged by your
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 10.

What Really Happened?
Option 3
  • A clever move, in a way - you avoid siding either
    with Buckingham or Parliament. However, neither
    side is happy with this. It looks like you
    haven't got the guts to decide what should be
    done for yourself.
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 5.

What Really Happened?
Question 3 What Really Happened?
  • Charles stood by his friend. This saved the life
    of Buckingham (right), but Parliament was furious
    with the way that the King clearly didn't care
    about what it wanted.In the end, Charles's
    support didn't save Buckingham, who was
    assassinated a couple of years later. Charles was
    deeply upset, but most MP's were secretly glad
    that he was out of the picture at last.

Question 4 How Should You React to the Petition
of Right?
  • Following the disastrous Spanish campaign,
    Parliament produces the the Petition of Right,
    which says that the King will have to deal much
    more closely with Parliament in future and ask
    their permission before reaching any important
    decisions.You initially refuse to sign, but it
    becomes clear that if you do not sign then
    Parliament will not be willing to give you any
    more money.What do you do?

Question 4
  • Option 1 Sign, but ignore it completely
    afterwards - in this way Parliament will feel
    successful but you will keep all your power.
  • Option 2 Sign, and stick by it - Parliament
    represents the people and you need them on your
  • Option 3 Send in your troops and make it clear
    that you will not be bullied by these jumped-up

Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Option 1
  • With a great show of reluctance, you sign the
    Petition of Right and then leave Parliament.They
    are very happy that you have been prepared to
    compromise like this.It is only a matter of time,
    though, before they realize that you have no
    intention of sticking to the Petition...
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 5!

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • You sign the Petition, and stick by it.Many
    people are surprised that you give in so easily
    to the demands of Parliament, and think that you
    are a bit spineless. Parliament, though, is
  • It seems that you have managed to avoid leading
    the country any closer to Civil War on this
    occasion - well done!
  • What really happened?

What Really Happened?
Option 3
  • This does not do anything to improve your
    reputation. All you do is appear aggressive and
    bossy. The fact remains that Parliament is where
    you will get your money from, and you cannot
    afford to anger them too much. he likelihood of
    Civil War rises by 10!
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 10!
  • What really happened?

What Really Happened?
Question 4 What Really Happened?
  • Charles signed the Petition of Right, but had no
    intention whatsoever of sticking to it.
  • Parliament soon realized this, and leading MP's
    like John Pym (right) now began to feel that
    Charles was not a man who could be trusted.

Question 5 How Should I Use the Ship Money?
  • You are fed up with Parliament trying to boss you
    around, and have it dissolved. However, you
    still need the money which Parliament usually
    gives you, and so you decide to raise some Ship
    Money. This is a tax which is usually paid by
    towns on the coast during a war so that ships can
    be built to protect them.
  • Where shall you impose Ship Money?

Question 5 Options
  • Option 1 Coastal counties. I won't raise much,
    but neither will so many people be annoyed with
  • Option 2 Coastal counties and inland counties
    everywhere. That way, I'll raise loads of cash!
  • Option 3 Coastal counties, then inland counties.
    In this way I won't risk annoying so many people
    at the same time!

Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Option 1
  • A sensible policy, although the coastal towns are
    very angry about the tax because the country
    isn't even at war!
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 5.

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • A terrible error. The country isn't even at war
    to start with, and of what use will ships be for
    Midland counties?! It is quite clear to the
    public that this is just an easy way for you to
    raise money without having to go to Parliament.
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 10.

What Really Happened?
Option 3
  • It makes a lot of sense to introduce the policy
    gradually to see how badly people react.
    Nevertheless, the country isn't even at war to
    start with, and of what use will ships be for
    Midland counties?! It is quite clear to the
    public that this is just an easy way for you to
    raise money without having to go to Parliament.
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 8.

What Really Happened?
Question 5 What Really Happened?
  • Charles imposed Ship Money firstly on the
    coastal counties, then on the inland counties as
    well. This was deeply resented, because not only
    was the country not at war, but even if it was
    then the inland counties would hardly need ships
    to protect them!One man, John Hampden, refused to
    pay the money, and was taken to court. The judges
    were on Charles's side and decided that Hampden
    had to pay.

Question 6 A New Book of Common Prayer for
  • It is 1637.Archbishop Laud visits you in your
    palace, bringing with him a New Prayer Book which
    includes a few Catholic-style touches. "Your
    Majesty," he says, "with this book we could
    strengthen our Church by making it more
    decorative and beautiful.You are very
    interested, but become a bit concerned when Laud
    suggests that it should also be imposed in
    Scotland."Surely that would be dangerous, Laud?"
    you say."Why?" he asks."Because the Scots are
    even stronger Protestants than the English, and
    could react really badly. Maybe we should just
    limit it to England for now"."But your Highness!"
    replies Laud, "If we don't impose it on the
    Scots, then they would have a different religion
    to the rest of your Kingdom, which would never
    do!"You realize that what he says also makes
    sense. What do you do?

Question 6 Options
  • Option 1 Don't impose it at all. The Scots could
    react really badly and you don't want to risk it.
  • Option 2 Impose it quickly and firmly. If you
    don't, then England and Scotland would have
    different religions, which would never do.

Option 1
Option 2
Option 1
  • This makes sense in a way, although you end up
    with England and Scotland having different
    religions. It will not be long before the Scots
    start pressing for independence on other issues
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 5.

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • Firmness can also be stubbornness. The Scots are
    furious at being told to use what they see as a
    Catholic Prayer Book, and start to rebel against
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 10!
  • What REALLY happened?

What Really Happened?
Question 6 What REALLY Happened?
  • Charles decided to impose the Prayer Book swiftly
    and firmly in Scotland. This was a terrible
    mistake, as the Scots were very strong
    Protestants and thought that the book was a piece
    of Catholic evil. When priests tried to read it
    out, there were riots.

Question 7 The Grand Remonstrance and the 5
  • It is 1642.Parliament recently passed the Grand
    Remonstrance, which limited your powers still
    further. However, it only just got through
    Parliament - 159 people voted in favor, but 148
    voted against it.Many MP's are clearly coming
    over to your side and think that Parliament is
    getting too big for its boots.Some of your
    advisors suggest that this is a good time to
    arrest the leading Five Members of Parliament who
    are against you so that you can get back in
    control. What do you say?

  • Option 1 Burst into Parliament tomorrow and grab
    the 5 Members unawares!
  • Option 2 "Forget the idea. It will only cause
    more trouble that we can do without".
  • Option 3 "Use a few spies to work out when the 5
    Members will all be in Parliament, then go ahead
    and grab them there".

Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Option 1
  • A terrible mistake. Although you succeed in
    arresting the 5 Members, all those MP's who had
    been supporting you are now convinced that you
    are evil. Parliament is re-united against you and
    your situation looks worse than ever.
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 8.

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • A wise move. In this way you will encourage more
    MP's to come over to your side and not scare them
    off by acting too harshly, although a few others
    think that you are weak and unable to stand up to
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 3.

What Really Happened?
Option 3
  • You send the spies, but some of them must have
    been double-agents, because the 5 Members get to
    hear of the plan to arrest them and vanish. When
    you burst into Parliament they are already gone
    and you look a complete fool.
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 10!

What Really Happened?
What Really Happened?
  • Charles decided to use a few spies to work out
    when the 5 Members would all be in Parliament,
    but some of them must have been double-agents,
    because the 5 Members got to hear of the plan to
    arrest them and vanished. When Charles burst into
    Parliament they were not there and the speaker
    refused to tell the King where they were, saying
    "I have neither eyes to see nor ears to hear in
    this place".Charles had no option but to leave
    again, looking a complete idiot.

Question 8 The Irish Rebellion and the Nineteen
  • The Irish are in open rebellion against you
    because they can see that you are having
    problems. Your weakness indicates that they have
    an opportunity to break free of English rule.
    You go to Parliament and tell them how important
    it is to send an army over there to deal with
    them. They agree, but you are shocked when they
    present you with a list of Nineteen Propositions
    which demand that control of the army should be
    in the hands of Parliament and that even the
    education of your children should be in their
  • What is your reply?

  • Option 1 Give in to their demands. It is
    important the country gets back to normal,
    whatever the cost to me.
  • Option 2 Refuse to accept. These demands are
    humiliating and would leave you completely

Option 1
Option 2
Option 1
  • In the circumstances, this is probably the best
    you can do, although it is only making Parliament
    ever more arrogant.
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 5.

What Really Happened?
Option 2
  • By refusing to accept you prove that you have a
    great deal of principle, but it means that any
    chance of compromise is over. War is now
  • The likelihood of Civil War rises by 10!

What Really Happened?
What Really Happened?
  • Charles completely refused to surrender control
    of the army, saying that to do so would make him
    "a mere phantom of a King". At this point both
    sides realized that there was no hope of
    agreement, and that a war was now inevitable.
  • In August 1642 Charles raised his standard at
    Nottingham and appealed to all loyal subjects to
    join him in a war against Parliament. The Civil
    War had begun.