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WJEC GCSE H

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Title: WJEC GCSE H


1
  • WJEC GCSE H
  • English Language
  • Preparing for the Reading Section

2
  • Your guide to gaining the best possible grade for
    Paper One

3
In the first part of this guide you will learn
how to get the best possible grade on Paper One,
the reading section, of your English examination.
To get started, lets have a quick reminder of
how many marks the reading section is worth.
4
GCSE English/English Language Written Paper
Your examination is worth 40 of your mark for
GCSE English. Paper One makes up 20 of your
GCSE. It is worth 40 marks and is one hour
long. The paper tests your reading and
understanding skills. Paper One is all about
non-fiction texts. The exam board say This
unit will test through structured questions the
reading of two non-fiction texts. Non-fiction
texts may include fact-sheets, leaflets,
letters, extracts from autobiographies,
biographies, diaries, advertisements, reports,
articles and digital and multi-modal texts of
various kinds from newspapers and magazines,
brochures and the internet. Visual material will
always be included in the material used.
5
We are now going to look in detail at Paper
One. How can you maximise your chances of gaining
a top grade in this section? Lets take a look
at what the exam board say you need to know....
6
Key skills for Paper One
The examiners are looking for certain key skills.
Can you do the following? Read and understand
texts, select material appropriate to purpose,
collate from different sources and make
comparisons and cross-references as
appropriate. In other words, can you understand
what the text is about and be able to write about
it clearly, in detail and with insight? Can you
select parts of the text that support your ideas
and compare two different texts with each
other. Can you explain and evaluate how writers
use linguistic, grammatical, structural and
presentational features to achieve effects and
engage and influence the reader, supporting their
comments with detailed textual references? Put
simply, this means can you explain why the author
has used specific words and phrases. Can you
explain how they affect the reader? Can you also
analyse, in detail, the authors use of
presentation in a text?
7
What should I expect?
  • In the examination, you will be given two pieces
    of unseen writing to read. The writing will
    always be non fiction / media and you will be
    asked four or five questions.
  • The texts could be about anything but they may
    possibly be linked by a common theme.
  • The type of texts you are asked to read could be
    any of the following
  • Leaflets
  • Articles (newspaper and magazine)
  • Reports
  • Autobiography / biography
  • Travel writing
  • Advertisements
  • Web pages
  • Reviews

8
WJEC assessment objectives for Paper One
The exam board give us the following information
about the questions Question 1 refers to text
1, and will be a straightforward test of the
candidates ability to retrieve information and
ideas from the text. Question 2 also refers to
text 1 and tests reading and understanding text,
and selecting material appropriate to purpose.
It also tests how writers use linguistic,
grammatical, structural and presentational
features. Question 3 or 3 4 refers to text 2,
and will test the candidates ability to read and
understand texts, and select material appropriate
to purpose, and develop and sustain
interpretation of writers ideas and
perspectives. Final Question refers to both
texts. The question will test candidates ability
to select material appropriate to purpose, to
collate material from different sources and make
comparisons and cross-references. Candidates
should make close reference to, and quote from
the sources to support their comments and
analysis.
9
How long should I spend on each question?
You are given 1 hour to complete the paper. This
means 10 minutes to read the 2 texts and the
question paper, 45 minutes to answer the
questions and 5 minutes to check your work. For
the reading paper spend slightly more than one
minute per mark. For example spend a little over
5 minutes on a 5 mark question and a bit more
than 10 minutes on a ten mark question. If you
stick to this rough guideline you should get to
the final question with around 15-20 minutes to
go which is enough time to produce a strong final
answer and will allow you to check your work
carefully.
10
Good news!! Preparing for the reading section of
the exam really helps you prepare for the writing
section of the exam many of the skills are
identical.
11
Even more good news! You are not tested on
spelling in this section. As long as the examiner
can understand your meaning, your spelling
doesnt matter in the slightest which is great
news for us who have trouble with speling......
12
Back to Basics
Skimming and scanning techniques Skimming and
scanning are ways of reading a text quickly. You
will need these skills when you are looking for
information in the texts. Skimming Skimming is
when you very quickly read over a piece of text.
You do not need to read every word, you are only
finding out the main points or the gist of a
text. Scanning Scanning is when you very quickly
read over a piece of text, this time however, you
are looking for a particular piece of
information. For example, in the exam you could
be asked to locate three reasons why smoking is
on the increase for the under 16s. To do this you
would scan the article looking for key words like
smoking, increase or under 16s.
13
Back to Basics
When reading any type of non fiction text, try to
find the PAF. PAF means PURPOSE, AUDIENCE,
FORM PURPOSE The purpose of a text is most
important. What is the text trying to do? Is it
trying to make you buy something? Is it trying to
give you advice? Is it trying to give you
balanced information about an event? How do you
know this? What gives it away? AUDIENCE Who do
you think is the intended audience of this text?
Is it a child? Is it a teenager? Is it an adult?
How do you know? What gave it away? FORM What
kind of non fiction text is this? Is it a
letter, a newspaper article, a review? How do you
know? What gives it away? Do you know the
features of each kind of non fiction text type?
This will be helpful for the writing section
too.......
14
Try!
Junk mail can be very annoying but it is now your
new best friend. Grab as much of it as you can
and try to identify the PAF. Look at the purpose
it is probably to sell you something. How do
you know? Be detective like and track down clues.
What words and phrases does it use to persuade
you to try the product? Are there any pictures,
colours, particular fonts, bullet points that are
there to persuade you to buy? Look at the
audience who is it for how do you know? Look
at the text type, is it a letter, is it a leaflet
what effect does the text type have on the
reader?
15
Question 1 - Information retrieval
This is one of the easier skills you have to
master for the exam. It is a basic comprehension
skill. You will be asked to locate and write
down information from Source 1. For example, you
may be asked why are there no closed prisons in
Greenland?. You would simply use your scanning
techniques to find the information in text 1 and
write down the answers. SIMPLE!
16
Question 2 presentational devices
Question 2 requires you to write about language
and presentational devices. The presentational
devices you are going to identify and comment on
are obviously dependent on the texts you are
given to read in the exam and the question asked.
However, here are a selection of the most common
to get you started........
17
Question 2 presentational devices
Pictures and illustrations. Most of the source
materials in the exam will have pictures on them.
Remember, you are looking at newspapers,
magazines, web pages, charity leaflets etc all
of these will have carefully chosen pictures on
them. Think about the purpose of your source
material. If it is a charity leaflet for
example, its purpose may be to persuade you to
donate to that charity. You need to comment on
how that picture in the leaflet helps persuade
the reader to part with their money. Perhaps it
could be for the RSPCA and the picture on the
front is of a cute kitten with a broken paw. You
would need to state how that picture a) gets
your attention and b) persuades the readership to
part with their money. There may be a picture of
a smiling person holding up their dog who wants
to thank all the lovely people who support the
RSPCA. Why is this picture there? How would it
persuade the reader to donate?
18
Question 2 presentational devices
Colour Colour is another key feature that you
can comment on in your exam. If you are analysing
the presentational features of an advert, try to
think about the colours and why they have been
chosen. For example, the colour red may be used
to symbolise love or passion, white purity, green
nature, blue the great outdoors. Use your
imagination, there is no set answer providing
you can justify your point of view. Take care
though. It is not enough just to identify a
colour, you clearly have to analyse the intended
effect on the reader.
19
Question 2 presentational devices
  • After analysing the graphics, you may wish to
    look at how the words are presented on the page.
    For this I mean
  • font size
  • any capital letters used
  • any bold type or italics or underlining
  • bullet points
  • the layout of the source material as a whole
  • Keep asking yourself, why has this device been
    used? What is the effect on the reader. Without
    making this analysis, you cannot gain the full
    marks for this question.

20
Questions 2 (and 3) Language How to read
between the lines
One of the key skills you will need for this exam
is to locate, retrieve and interpret information.
This means to read between the lines to look
for clues as to how the writer really feels about
something. Exam Tip! You can discuss both
language and presentational features when writing
about inference i.e. reading between the lines.
21
Reading between the lines
Quite often a writer will give the reader clues
to how they feel about a particular topic without
actually saying the words I like this or I
dont like that. On the following slide are
some examples for you to look out for. These are
only suggestions. Try finding your own ways to
spot the writers feelings on the topic they are
writing about.
22
Reading between the lines
Humour / sarcasm. A writer might poke fun at a
topic or mock it to show that they disagree with
it. Exaggeration. A writer might go over the top
about the topic. This implies that they like or
dont like something. Repetition. A writer could
repeat a statistic or a phrase to show they do or
dont like something. Rhetorical questions. This
is a technique often used in writing an argument
and its function is to get the reader to agree
with what the writer thinks. Positive and
negative language. Words often carry positive and
negative meanings. It might be nice to be called
curvy but not so nice to be fat. Emotive
language. This is language that stirs up the
emotions. If the writer uses language like
unimaginable cruelty when discussing animal
experiments, they are probably not in favour of
them.
23
Top tips for analysing language
For Questions 2 and 3, you need to know how to
analyse language effectively. This is often the
skill that students find most difficult. So what
is so difficult? Sometimes students are simply
finding the correct information and copying down
the text without analysing the intended impact of
the language upon the reader. So, do not copy
out chunks of text, use quotations carefully and
always explain the effect of a word or phrase on
the reader. On the following slides are some top
tricks that writers use to influence their
readers.
24
Analysing language - Tone
When analysing the language in a piece of text,
think about the tone. An easy way to remember
about the tone is to ask yourself, what tone of
voice would be used to read out the text? Would
it be persuasive, informative, argumentative,
light hearted and so on. Once you have
established what the tone is, work out how you
know it is a persuasive or light hearted tone.
What words and phrases are used to set this tone?
Think also about the purpose of the text is it
to sell you something? Does the tone match the
purpose? It would be very odd to read a text
whose purpose was to inform you about global
warming but was using a light hearted, feel good
tone!
25
Questions 2 3 continued
Look for any imagery in the text. Imagery is
where the writer tries to paint a picture in the
readers mind to help them relate to what is
being described. Imagery is often used in poetry
and fiction but you also find it in non fiction
texts. Look out for Similes compares one
thing to another using the words like or as (flat
as a pancake) Metaphor describes one thing as
if it were another (you are a tower of
strength) Remember, it is not enough just to
identify imagery. You need to explain clearly, in
detail and in your own words what effect this
imagery has upon the reader.
26
Questions 2 and 3 continued
Another technique to look out for in your text is
sensational or emotive language. Emotive
language is often used by writers when they want
to manipulate the readers feelings. Quite often
emotive language will be found in adverts,
charity leaflets or a text where the reader
passionately believes in or hates something they
are writing about. Examples could be the
animals used are often cold, lonely and
starving. Remember its not enough to identify
emotive language. You have to clearly explain the
effect it has on the reader.
27
Questions 2 3 continued
A common language technique to spot and comment
on is the use of the personal pronoun you or
us. This technique is commonly used by the
writer to make the text feel more personal to the
reader, as if it is aimed directly at them
personally. Quite often, rhetorical questions
will be used for added emphasis, such as Do you
think its right that....... or Would you like
that for your children? Sometimes, colloquial
language is used. This is the kind of chatty,
informal language that you would use with your
friends. Remember its not enough to identify
the personal pronouns you have to explain in
detail the effect on the reader.
28
Questions 2 3 continued
Repetition is a very common technique and often
(although not exclusively) used in sales. The
word or phrase is repeated throughout the text
to make it stick in the readers mind. It could
be the name of the company, or it could be the
word bargain or words like best ever. It is
not enough to simply identify examples of
repetition you have to explain in detail the
effect on the reader. Something similar is the
use of three. You will know all about this from
writing to argue or persuade. The technique to
spot is where the writer uses a list of three to
emphasise a particular point it is wrong,
disgraceful and we shouldnt stand for
it. Remember its not enough to identify the
repetition you have to explain in detail the
effect on the reader.
29
Questions 2 and 3 continued
Quotations, statistics and anecdotes are used
often in newspapers and magazines and sometimes
in sales texts. They are used to add interest and
credibility to a text. For example, a charity
leaflet might highlight the fact that 156 more
people were helped last year through the generous
donations made by people like you. They might
go on to say that Prince Charles supports the
charity and feels This charity holds a special
place in my heart. They may also choose to
have a few lines about how the charity has helped
a particular person. Robert, 16, was struck down
by this terrible illness during his
GCSEs. Remember it is not enough to identify
quotation, statistics and anecdotes you need to
explain in detail the effect upon the reader.
30
Questions 2 and 3 continued
Humour and or sarcasm is an easy technique to
identify and comment on in an exam. Think about
the purpose of the humour is it there simply to
entertain and make the writing more lively? Or,
is it there to manipulate the reader into
thinking in a particular way. For example, if you
were reading an article about the justice system
in the UK and the judge in a case was mocked as
being old as the hills and doddery as a dodo,
you might be prejudiced about what he
said. Remember, it is not enough to simply
identify humour and sarcasm in the exam you
need to explain in detail the effect upon the
reader.
31
Questions 2 and 3 last bit
Look out for and comment on the following
techniques they tend to impress the
examiner........ Sentences and paragraphs Short
sentences suggest tension and speed. Short
paragraphs are often used in tabloid newspapers
making them easier to read. Very short paragraphs
attract the readers attention. Long sentences
are mainly used for description and are full of
detail. This is the same with long paragraphs.
These are often used in broadsheet
newspapers. Punctuation Look for question and
exclamation marks. Question try to draw a
response from the reader while exclamations often
stand out and attract attention. Use of
imperatives Commands often appear in advice
leaflets, try this tip at home but can also be
used in persuasive texts Give money now. Try
to link the language to the audience You might
wish to comment on more sophisticated language
for an educated audience and a more colloquial
vocabulary to a teenage audience etc.
32
The Final Question - Comparison
The final question will always be a comparison of
the two texts. The key to answering this question
is to a) make sure you are analysing the
presentational devices and the language and b)
ensure you are answering the question in depth
and writing about both texts. An example
question might be Compare and contrast what
Simon Bateson and Sarah Lord say about the use of
capital punishment. (10 marks) So, how do you
compare the texts?
33
Comparing texts
In the final question you will always be asked to
compare the 2 texts. There is no set format for
answering this question. Perhaps the easiest way
is to analyse Text 1 and then compare it to Text
2 saying in what ways they are similar but
different. On the higher paper there are not
usually bullet points to help you structure your
answer. You must therefore structure and plan
yourself. Make sure you use a wide range of
connectives when comparing the texts. Remember
to look for the PAFs of each source and write
about how well each text succeeds in its chosen
purpose.
34
What else should I look for?
It is likely (although not certain) that one of
the source materials on your exam paper could be
either a newspaper or magazine article. For this
reason, it is a good idea to get to know the main
terminology used in this industry.
Broadsheet a newspaper like the Times or the
Guardian. Usually tackles more serious stories.
Smaller headlines and more serious tone. Tabloid
a less serious newspaper like the Sun which
does contain news but also celebrity gossip and
scandal. It will have a less serious tone and a
more limited vocabulary. Headline the title of
the main story on the front page. Strapline
the introductory smaller headline located just
underneath the main headline. Byline the
journalists name who wrote the
story Sub-headings you will find these
breaking up columns of text. They make the story
easier to read and you can find out the main
points of the story by scanning these.
35
Media terms continued
Lead story as its name suggests, it is the main
story on the front page. Feature article a
feature is a topic the journalist believes will
be interesting to the readers. S/he will cover
the topic in some detail. Human interest story
this type of article is often a personal or funny
story, e.g. at Christmas a 100 year old letter
addressed to Santa Claus is found up a chimney
etc. Editorial this is where the editor (the
person in charge of a newspaper) writes his / her
opinion on a particular subject or news story.
This is sometimes quite controversial.
36
What else?
Practice really does make perfect. For best
results keep your junk mail and continue to find
the PAF. Go one step further by analysing both
the language and the presentational features and
getting vital practice for questions 2 and 3.
Soon you will be able to do this in your
sleep!! For practice see your teacher who will
be delighted to give you millions of past papers.
37
Finally!!
  • Top tips for exam success........
  • Prepare for your exam now. Start saving that junk
    mail ..... you know what to do!
  • Start asking for those past papers.
  • Time yourself. You have 1 hour to complete 4/5
    questions. Can you do it?
  • Read every non fiction title you can manage.
    Start to look at different types of newspapers
    and magazines, web pages, travel writing etc.
    Start to look for particular styles know what
    to expect.
  • Get a good nights sleep before your exam
    youll need it!
  • Pack at least two pens in black or blue.
  • Plan your journey. Do you really want to be late?
  • In the exam room, listen carefully to all
    instructions
  • Read the questions before you read the texts.
    This will help you as you already know what you
    are looking for when you read the texts.
  • Read the questions carefully. Use the bullet
    points to help structure your answer.
  • Remember that you get most marks for questions 4
    and 5.
  • Take a deep breath and relax. You can do it!!

38
  • WJEC Eng Language H
  • Unit 2
  • Preparing for the Writing Section

39
All about writing Your guide to getting the best
grade on Paper Two
40
Paper Two of your English exam will assess your
WRITING SKILLS
  • You will be asked to complete
  • Two non fiction writing tasks both are worth 20
    marks
  • You will have an hour to complete this section,
    and must answer both questions
  • You should aim to spend around 30 minutes on each
    writing task. This should include 5 minutes to
    check your work once you have completed each task

41
The tasks
  • The writing tasks will ask you to produce a non
    fiction text, for example, a letter or an email.
    It is likely to be a functional task, such as
    writing to inform or explain.
  • The exam board say
  • This unit will test transactional and discursive
    writing through two equally weighted tasks (20
    marks each). Across the two tasks candidates will
    be offered opportunities to write for a range of
    audiences and purposes, adapting style to form
    and real-life context in, for example, letters,
    articles, leaflets, reviews etc.
  • Both tasks require you to produce a non fiction
    text in which you have the chance to develop your
    ideas in detail, for example, an article for a
    magazine or newspaper. This might involve writing
    to argue or persuade.
  • You will be given a clear form, purpose and
    audience for each task. Usually the audience of
    the text will be mentioned in the task, for
    example, write an email to a friend to let them
    know about. If an audience is not given, you
    will be writing for an examiner.
  • There may be a link between the tasks you are
    asked to complete on Paper Two and texts you read
    on Paper One.
  • The following slide will show you an example

42
  • Answer Question 1 and Question 2.
  • In this unit you will be assessed for your
    writing skills, including the presentation of
    your work. Take special care with handwriting,
    spelling and punctuation.
  • Think about the purpose, audience and, where
    appropriate, the format for your writing.
  • A guide to the amount you should write is given
    at the end of each question.
  • A company that runs play-schemes for children in
    the 3-10 age range is looking to recruit
    part-time staff for the school summer holidays.
  • You decide to apply.
  • Write your letter of application.
  • The quality of your writing is more important
    than its length. You should write about one to
    two pages in your answer book.
  • You have to give a talk to your class with the
    title Mobile Phones a blessing or a curse?
  • Write what you would say.

43
REMINDER
  • When an examiner marks your work, they will look
    at the following Assessment Objectives for
    writing
  • That you can communicate clearly, effectively and
    imaginatively, using and adapting forms and
    selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and
    purpose in ways which engage the reader.
  • Organise information and ideas into structured
    and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole
    texts, using a variety of linguistic and
    structural features to support cohesion and
    overall coherence.
  • Use a range of sentence structures for clarity,
    purpose and effect, with accurate punctuation and
    spelling.

44
Guide to planning your writing
45
YOU MUST PLAN YOUR WRITING
  • Timing
  • Ideally, you want to spend around 30 minutes on
    each task, including around 5 minutes to plan and
    check your work.
  • The examiner will expect your writing to be
    around 4 5 paragraphs which is approximately
    one and a half to two sides if you have average
    sized handwriting.

46
Stage 1 P.A.F
The first thing that you should do in an exam is
read the question carefully. When you are sure
that you understand what you are being asked to
do, look for the PAF. P PURPOSE A AUDIENCE F
FORM The purpose is the most important. It
makes you think about why you are writing . Are
you trying to persuade someone to abolish school
uniform? Are you trying to advise someone about
internet safety? What are you trying to
do? Audience who are you writing for? Are you
writing for your Head teacher or are you writing
for your classmates? Form this asks you to
think about the type of writing. Are you writing
a letter or an email? A magazine article or a
report?
47
TRY Find the PAF in the following examination
questions. Write a letter to your school
magazine which argues for or against homework
being set at Key Stage 4. Write a review for a
teen website about a film or TV programme you
have seen recently. Write a report for your
local newspaper which offers advice on how to
provide more facilities for teenagers. Write an
article for a teen magazine persuading young
people to stop smoking.
48
Stage 2 Spider diagram
After writing your PAF, the next stage is to put
down all of your thoughts on a given topic. Think
about the shorter question from Jan 2011 Write
a letter to your head teacher explaining how to
improve your school or college. Remember
to Write a letter Explain the things that would
make your school or college better. Your P
to explain the things that would make your school
or college better Your A your head teacher Your
F a letter
49
Your next step should be to design a spider
diagram to get down as many thoughts as possible
about the question.
New sports equipment
Longer school day
New buildings
Improve school
New computers
Better food
New uniform
New playing fields
New school rules
More teachers
More text books
50
Stage 3 Developing your ideas
The next step is to develop your ideas by adding
more detail to your plan and to note down what
you will include in each paragraph. Look at how
this plan, based upon the previous spider
diagram, would help you write your essay. Intro
Formal Dear Mr or Ms state briefly why you
are writing to them, that you feel school needs
to change. State that you have a number of
suggestions. Para 1 If school needs to change
something fundamental like uniform and school
rules explain how to change and the impact on
school. Para 2 Explain improvements to
sporting facilities and equipment. Why
important. Para 3 Explain improvements you
would like to see to canteen food. Why
important. Para 4 Explain improvements to
lessons. More text books, better computers, more
teachers, more interesting lessons? Explain what
youd like to see and why. Conclusion
Summarise your main points and thank your head
teacher for reading. Can you think of a final
sentence to push him or her into understanding
why your changes are so important?
51
Basic skills to improve your writing
52
Structuring your writing
  • After you have written your plan, you need to
    think about how to structure your writing. Here
    are some handy hints
  • Start each new paragraph with a topic sentence.
    Topic sentences introduce your paragraph. They
    let the reader know what to expect.
  • Link your paragraphs using connectives words or
    phrases that show your reader how your ideas link
    and work together. Here are some different kinds
    of connectives
  • Time order At first, Then, Later
  • Logical order Therefore, Consequently, As a
    result
  • Contrast On the other hand, In contrast
  • Simple ordering of ideas Firstly, Secondly,
    Finally
  • Development of ideas Because of this, Also,
    Moreover, What is more, In addition

53
Structuring your writing (continued)
  • Think carefully about how to paragraph your work
  • Start by introducing what your writing is going
    to be about
  • Develop your ideas in the next two, three or four
    paragraphs
  • Keep to one main idea for each paragraph
  • Make sure you restate your point of view clearly
    at the end of your writing. You could also save a
    new idea for your conclusion.

54
Look at this question Many older people dont
use computers or the internet, either because
they dont see any value in them or because they
are afraid of modern technology. You have been
asked to give a talk to a group of older people
to persuade them to use computers and the
internet. Write what you would say. 20 The
quality of your writing is more important than
its length. You should write about one to two
pages in your answer book.
55
Some other ways to improve your writing
56
Sentences
Top Tip Try using a range of sentences in your
work. Why? It will make your writing more
interesting and hopefully impress the examiner.
57
Sentences continued
So what kinds of sentences are there? The
grammar bit There are three kinds of sentences
and you should try to use a mixture of all
three Simple sentences Compound
sentences Complex sentences
58
Sentences continued
Short sentences A simple sentence contains one
main idea, with one subject and a verb. It is a
sentence which is complete in itself. The boy
sauntered into the room Boy subject Sauntered
verb As you can see, the sentence is only
about one thing which is a boy sauntering into a
room!
59
Sentences continued
  • Short sentences have a variety of uses.
  • They can
  • Add excitement to your writing
  • The girl started running. She turned. The man was
    still following.
  • Make a powerful point
  • People often promise to stop misbehaving in
    lessons. This never seems to happen someone
    always lets the class down. Something needs to
    change.
  • A single word sentence looks fab!
  • The fog stretched ahead of her, enclosing and
    wrapping itself around the house, the car, the
    world. Silence.

60
Sentences continued
Compound sentences Compound sentences are easy,
they are two simple sentences joined together.
This type of sentence must be balanced though,
each part of the sentence must be able to stand
on its own. Two simple sentences My friend
invited me to a tea party. My parents didnt let
me go. A compound sentence My friend invited me
to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me
go. Do you want to stay here, or would you like
to go shopping with me? I have a lot of work to
finish, so I will be up all night. EASY!
61
Sentences continued
Complex sentences A complex sentence is made up
of at least one main clause and at least one
subordinate or supporting clause. Clauses It
sounds tricky but is in fact very easy. If you
look at most longish sentences, you will notice
that the sentences are made up of different
parts. The main clause is the part of the
sentence that makes sense on its own. The
subordinate clause links to the main clause but
cant stand on its own. The horse galloped
across the field as if something was chasing
him. main clause
subordinate clause
62
Sentences continued
Complex sentences are great because we can
expand them. We can use extra detail to make
the writing come alive and to enable them to
picture what you are writing about. The horse,
who was glad to be free, galloped across the
field as if something was chasing him. We can
also use adjectives and nouns to add more
detail The delighted horse galloped joyously
across the field as if something was chasing
him. Remember Showing range and variety in your
writing gets you marks. This applies as much to
your sentences as to vocabulary, punctuation and
ideas.
63
TRYLook at a leaflet or magazine article. Choose
one paragraph and count how many sentences it
has. Then identify the complex, compound and
simple sentences. How much variety is there?
64
PUNCTUATION
If you want to get a top grade in your exam
youve got to know about punctuation. Its easy
when you know how.
65
Apostrophes
Use apostrophes to Show possession. First find
the owner The pen belonging to the teacher The
bag belonging to the lady Then, add s The
teachers pen The ladys bag But, if the owner
already ends in s then just add the
apostrophe The bikes belonging to the boys The
boys bikes The coat belonging to Mrs Sykes Mrs
Sykes coat
66
Apostrophes Reminders
Apostrophes also show where letters have been
removed. Do not talk dont talk She will not
talk she wont talk She has not got any she
hasnt
67
  • Try!
  • Add the apostrophes in the sentences below
  • The cats whiskers.
  • The teachers pen.
  • There are birds nests in the beech trees.
  • Paul caught the dogs tail.
  • The boys toilets.
  • Mrs Robinsons coat.
  • The miners lamps.
  • Its a big decision.
  • The womens handbags.
  • The builders toolkit.

68
How to use language to get higher marks
69
This section is all about how to use language
creatively. An examiner will see hundreds of
examination papers. How can you get yours to
stand out? Try to remember and use some of the
following tips in your writing. They will help
you gain a higher mark. You know it makes sense!
70
Everything you wanted to know about openings and
endings
71
Openings and endings
One of the most difficult things in English is
deciding how to start a piece of writing and then
how to finish it. Follow these simple tips to
maximise your grade.
72
How to write an effective opening
  • The job of an opening is to grab the readers
    attention. You must hook the reader straight away
    and force them to continue reading.
  • Here are some ways to do this
  • For non fiction
  • Start with a quotation (real or made up)
  • 63 of 16 year olds dont take enough exercise
  • An anecdote
  • It was watching X Factor with my friends that
    really got me into dance
  • A rhetorical question
  • Schools to close? Teachers to resign? This is not
    some vision of the future it is happening now.

73
How to write an effective ending
The conclusion is the ending to your writing it
is the impression that you will leave the reader
with. For a non fiction essay you need to
summarise (not just repeat) your main points and
provide a final perspective on the topic. Try and
use anecdotes, or humour or statistics to
conclude. If you take anything from this speech,
I want you to remember that school uniform is
unnecessary, it is ugly and most parents can ill
afford it. Why does this school persist in making
us students suffer in this way? 97 of students
and 87 of parents think that students in Year 10
and 11 should be given the choice to decide what
they wear. Do the right thing. You know it makes
sense.
74
Different types of writing
One of the most common questions asked by
students is how to set out a letter, an article
etc.. This section is all about the different
types of writing you might be asked to produce in
your writing exam.
75
Simple spelling rules
  • Part of your overall grade for writing will
    depend on your ability to spell a wide range of
    words accurately. Handwriting is not assessed,
    however, if an examiner cannot read your writing
    you are unlikely to score highly.
  • Follow these simple tips to boost your spelling
  • create a list of common spelling errors. Try
    using this link http//www.gcse.com/english/spelli
    ngs.htm
  • learn to spell the most common words using the
    look, cover, write, check method
  • learn the difference between commonly confused
    words such as
  • there/their/theyre
  • two/to/too
  • quite/quiet
  • effect/affect
  • where/were/were
  • accept/except

76
Everything you ever wanted to know about
metaphors, similes and emotive language try
using these devices even in non fiction
  • What is a simile?
  • A simile is a comparison of two things using like
    or as
  • The frost sparkled like diamonds on the pavement
  • What is a metaphor?
  • A metaphor is a comparison of two things where
    one thing is another
  • The boxers iron fist crashed into the opponent
  • What is emotive language?
  • Emotive language is any language that makes
    people feel emotional i.e. anger, sympathy etc..
  • There are many valid reasons why cosmetics should
    not be tested on animals. This hurtful industry
    causes unimaginable agony to these innocent
    animals. Would you condone experiments conducted
    on your own child?
  • Dont forget that you can use statistics, even if
    you have made them up yourself!

77
Different types of writing
  • For your English examination, you will be asked
    to write in a variety of styles e.g. a letter,
    magazine article etc.. and to write for a variety
    of different purposes e.g. to argue, to persuade
    etc..

78
Letter writing
  • To write a letter, you need to go back to your
    PAF. Who is your audience? Your letter will be
    very different if you are writing to your head
    teacher than if you are writing to your best
    friend. You must think carefully about your
    language and your tone.

79
Letter writing
  • Here are some general tips for letter writing.
  • For formal letters
  • Write your address in the top right hand corner
  • Write the business address in the top left hand
    corner
  • Start either with a name (if you are given it in
    the question) or with Dear Sir / Madam
  • Begin by stating why you are writing the letter
  • Write your points clearly and in paragraphs
  • Finish your letter with Yours faithfully if you
    began with Dear Sir / Madam
  • Finish your letter with Yours sincerely if you
    began with a name
  • For informal letters
  • Write your address in the top right hand corner.
    This shows the examiner you know how to set out a
    letter
  • Start with Dear (name of friend)
  • Write your points clearly and in paragraphs
  • Finish your letter informally e.g. lots of love
    or speak soon

80
Writing articles for newspapers and magazines
  • Writing an article for a newspaper or magazine is
    a very common question at GCSE.
  • Follow these top tips for exam success!!
  • Do write a headline, it shows you are aware of
    presentational features. Also use a strapline
    which fits underneath the headline. Use
    subheadings when you change topics.
  • Dont waste your time drawing pictures an empty
    box will suffice and you dont need to bother
    writing in columns.
  • Think carefully about the purpose of your
    article, make sure you sustain the purpose until
    the end of your article.
  • Express your ideas clearly, usually one idea per
    paragraph.

81
Writing a report
  • Writing a report is another common GCSE question.
    More top tips
  • Reports are nearly always factual and ask you to
    do things such as write a report for the school
    magazine about a recent school play or a school
    trip
  • Reports are usually a mix of fact and opinion
    (but remember, your facts dont have to be true)
  • Use a headline like a newspaper article
  • Use reported speech
  • Try using what, when, who and where in your
    opening paragraph to set the scene for the reader
  • Write organised paragraphs which explain what
    happened

82
Writing a review
  • You may be asked to write a review. A review is
    basically your account of an event and your
    thoughts and feelings on it.
  • A review usually follows the same structure
  • A brief description / summary of the concert,
    play, film, TV programme that you are reviewing.
  • A bit more detail with examples to highlight what
    was good or bad about it.
  • Your opinion.
  • Top tips for writing a review
  • If you are asked to write a review about a film,
    dont give away the ending
  • Consider ending with an evaluation and marks out
    of 10
  • If possible, write about any technical details
    e.g. in a film / play review you could write
    about the special effects / settings / the
    director / the acting
  • Your review topic (film / book / holiday /
    concert etc.) can be real or imaginary

83
In addition to writing in a particular style i.e.
a letter or a newspaper report, you will be asked
to write for a particular purpose i.e. to argue
your point of view, to persuade your reader of
something, or to explain a particular topic.
84
Writing an argument
  • Top tips
  • Find your PAF and write a plan examiners want
    to see structured, considered work
  • An argument means you put forward a well
    considered point of view for or against a given
    topic
  • Consider using all or some of the following
  • anecdotes real or imaginary
  • statistics real or imaginary
  • arguments to counter the main alternative views
  • rhetorical questions
  • emotive language
  • rule of three
  • repetition
  • hyperbole

85
Writing to persuade
  • Top tips
  • Find your PAF and write a plan examiners want
    to see structured, considered work
  • Being persuasive means to encourage your readers
    to believe or do something
  • Writing to persuade is generally more emotional
    and one sided than writing to argue
  • Consider using all or some of the following
  • emotive language make your writing particularly
    emotional
  • anecdotes real or imaginary
  • Pronouns - we or you to give a sense of
    belonging
  • List or rule of three
  • statistics - real or imaginary
  • rhetorical questions
  • examples of what could be done to improve the
    situation

86
Writing to advise
  • Top tips
  • Find your PAF and write a plan examiners want
    to see structured, considered work
  • Writing to advise means to give your audience
    help to do something, so depending on your PAF,
    your work needs to be very clearly laid out
  • Consider using all or some of the following
  • bullet points or headings to separate ideas into
    sections
  • diagrams (not too elaborate though!)
  • offer logical solutions
  • commands (then you should..)
  • be encouraging and motivating in your tone
  • try and capture the readers attention (what kind
    of learner are you??)
  • depending on PAF, be polite but informal

87
Writing to explain
  • Top tips
  • Find your PAF and write a plan examiners want
    to see structured, considered work
  • Explaining something means being objective and
    explaining how and why something happens. You may
    be asked to write something formally or explain
    about something that is personal to you
  • Consider using all or some of the following
  • try describing a situation and explaining how and
    why it came about and what effect it had
  • always give reasons and examples for why
    something occurs
  • use statistics or evidence either real or made
    up but make it sound believable
  • be clear and specific
  • focus on the title, if you are asked to write
    about something memorable then write about that
  • consider your language, it should be interesting
    to read

88
Writing to inform
  • Top tips
  • Find your PAF and write a plan examiners want
    to see structured, considered work
  • Informative writing means you are giving clear
    information to your reader in an easy to
    understand style
  • Consider using all or some of the following
  • include both facts and opinions either real or
    imaginary
  • use statistics or evidence either real or
    imaginary. You should sound as if you know about
    the subject
  • personal anecdotes to make it more interesting
  • consider language use carefully who are you
    writing for and how will this influence your
    language use
  • make your information very clear imagine your
    reader knows nothing about the topic

89
Specimen Exam and Mark scheme
90
Test yourself!Specimen mark scheme and analysis
The next slide will give you the opportunity to
try out some of the skills you have learned in
this unit of work. Remember, you must answer both
questions and have 1 hour to complete all of the
writing. A mark scheme is included so you can
assess your work. Good Luck!!
91
  • Answer Question 1 and Question 2.
  • In this unit you will be assessed for your
    writing skills, including the presentation of
    your work. Take special care with handwriting,
    spelling and punctuation.
  • Think about the purpose, audience and, where
    appropriate, the format for your writing.
  • A guide to the amount you should write is given
    at the end of each question.
  • A company that runs play-schemes for children in
    the 3-10 age range is looking to recruit
    part-time staff for the school summer holidays.
  • You decide to apply.
  • Write your letter of application.
  • The quality of your writing is more important
    than its length. You should write about one to
    two pages in your answer book.
  • You have to give a talk to your class with the
    title Mobile Phones a blessing or a curse?
  • Write what you would say.

92
Mark Scheme
  • For each of questions 1 and 2 you will be awarded
    two marks
  • Content and organisation (13 marks)
  • Here the examiner is looking for evidence of
  • Purpose, audience and form
  • Organisation cohesion and use of clear, ordered
    paragraphs
  • Use of a style appropriate to audience and
    purpose
  • A range of vocabulary
  • Sentence structure, punctuation, spelling (7
    marks)
  • Here the examiner is looking for evidence of
  • Sentence use
  • Punctuation
  • Spelling
  • Tense and agreement
  • The following slides will give you the mark
    scheme an examiner would use when marking your
    writing. Check each band carefully and see which
    band your work would best fit.

93
Letter of application for a job. 20 An
understanding of purpose, audience and format is
particularly important in this type of writing.
As the task is of a functional nature, an
understanding of 'real life uses of English is
also important. Content and organisation (13
marks) 0 marks not worthy of credit Band 1
1-3 marks basic awareness of the
purpose and format of the task some awareness
of the reader / intended audience some relevant
comment but analysis is basic simple sequencing
of ideas provides some coherence paragraphs may
be used to show obvious divisions or group ideas
into some order some attempt to adapt style to
purpose / audience (e.g. degree of formality)
there is a limited range of vocabulary with
little variation of word choice for meaning or
effect
94
Letter of application for a job. 20 An
understanding of purpose, audience and format is
particularly important in this type of writing.
As the task is of a functional nature, an
understanding of 'real life uses of English is
also important. Content and organisation (13
marks) Band 2 4-6 marks shows
awareness of the purpose and format of the task
shows awareness of the reader / intended
audience a sense of purpose shown in analysis /
comment and some reasons are given in support of
opinions and ideas sequencing of ideas provides
coherence paragraphs are logically ordered and
sequenced (e.g. topic sentences are supported by
relevant detail) a clear attempt to adapt style
to purpose / audience there is some range of
vocabulary, occasionally selected to convey
precise meaning or to create effect
95
Letter of application for a job. 20 An
understanding of purpose, audience and format is
particularly important in this type of writing.
As the task is of a functional nature, an
understanding of 'real life uses of English is
also important. Content and organisation (13
marks) Band 3 7-9 marks shows clear
understanding of the purpose and format of the
task shows clear awareness of the reader /
intended audience clear sense of purpose shown
in content coverage appropriate reasons given in
support of opinions/ ideas ideas are shaped
into coherent arguments paragraphs or sections
are used consciously to structure the writing
style is adapted to purpose / audience there is
a range of vocabulary selected to convey precise
meaning or to create effect
96
  • Letter of application for a job. 20
  • An understanding of purpose, audience and format
    is particularly important in this type of
    writing. As the task is of a functional nature,
    an understanding of 'real life uses of English
    is also important.
  • Content and organisation (13 marks)
  • Band 4 10-13 marks
  • shows sophisticated understanding of the purpose
    and format of the task
  • shows sustained awareness of the reader /
    intended audience
  • content coverage is well-judged, detailed, and
    pertinent
  • arguments are convincingly developed and
    supported by relevant detail
  • ideas are selected and prioritised to construct
    sophisticated argument
  • paragraphs are effectively varied in length and
    structure to control progression
  • confident and sophisticated use of a range of
    stylistic devices adapted to
  • purpose/audience
  • a wide range of appropriate, ambitious
    vocabulary is used to create effect or
  • convey precise meaning

97
Sentence structure, punctuation and spelling (7
marks) 0 marks not worthy of credit Band 1
1 mark sentences are mostly simple or
compound compound sentences are linked or
sequenced by conjunctions such as and or so
punctuation (full stops, commas, capital letters
to demarcate sentences) is attempted where
appropriate and with some accuracy the spelling
of simple words is usually accurate control of
tense and agreement is uneven Band 2 2-3
marks sentences are varied and both compound
and complex sentences are used there is use of
some subordination to achieve clarity and
economy some control of a range of punctuation,
including the punctuation of direct speech the
spelling of simple and polysyllabic words is
usually accurate control of tense and agreement
is generally secure
98
  • Band 3 4-5 marks
  • a range of grammatical structures is used to
    vary the length and focus of
  • sentences
  • simple, compound and complex sentences are used
    to achieve particular effects
  • a range of punctuation is used accurately to
    structure sentences and texts,
  • sometimes to create deliberate effects, including
    parenthetic commas
  • most spelling, including that of irregular
    words, is usually correct
  • control of tense and agreement is secure
  • Band 4 6-7 marks
  • there is appropriate and effective variation of
    sentence structures
  • there is a sophisticated use of simple, compound
    and complex sentences to
  • achieve particular effects
  • accurate punctuation is used to vary pace,
    clarify meaning, avoid ambiguity and
  • create deliberate effects
  • virtually all spelling, including that of complex
    irregular words, is correct
  • tense changes are used confidently and
    purposefully

99
Additional task-specific guidance Good answers
may include some of the following features a
sustained sense of register and purpose which
meets the requirement for a letter of application
(for example, a suitably formal tone and offering
convincing reasons why the writer is a suitable
applicant) a clear and coherent approach
(offering a range of skills and aptitudes
suitable for the requirements of the job) a
logical structure within which relevant
information is conveyed effectively and clearly
an evident sense of cohesion with material linked
effectively (use of connectives/subordination)
a range of appropriate and well-selected details
to illustrate and give substance to information
offered (relevant details of previous part time
work or offering names of people prepared to
offer a reference) some development of ideas
(perhaps showing evidence of specific skills,
such as working with young children)
positioning and establishing a relationship with
the reader (clear sense of audience) ability to
move from the general to the particular or
vice-versa (specific and relevant examples used
within a coherent approach to the topic) clear
understanding of format
100
Less successful answers may be characterised by
some of the following features uncertain
sense of purpose and register (for example,
ignoring the specific requirements for the job or
showing a limited sense of audience) less
secure control of structure (uncertain or random
sequencing) a tendency for details to be
handled in isolation with limited sense of
linking or cohesion (uneasy with
connectives/subordination) details are thin or
generalised with little sense of development (for
example, I would enjoy working with children but
giving no evidence why this would be the case)
limited development of why the writer would be a
strong candidate and a tendency to simple
assertion (for example, I like adventure
activities so I would be good in this job) very
limited awareness of the reader (for example,
offering details unrelated to the demands of the
post applied for) a tendency for comments about
personal strengths and qualities to stay at
the level of the general and to lack specific
examples limited understanding of the features
of a letter of application
101
Talk to class Mobile Phones a blessing or a
curse? 20 An understanding of purpose,
audience and format is particularly important in
this type of writing. As the task is of a
functional nature, an understanding of 'real
life uses of English is also important. Content
and organisation (13 marks) 0 marks not worthy
of credit Band 1 1-3 marks basic
awareness of the purpose and format of the task
some awareness of the reader / intended
audience some relevant comment but analysis is
basic simple sequencing of ideas provides some
coherence paragraphs may be used to show
obvious divisions or group ideas into
some order some attempt to adapt style to
purpose / audience (e.g. degree of formality)
there is a limited range of vocabulary with
little variation of word choice for meaning or
effect
102
Content and organisation (13 marks) Band 2
4-6 marks shows awareness of the purpose
and format of the task shows awareness of the
reader / intended audience a sense of purpose
shown in content coverage and some reasons are
given in support of opinions and ideas
sequencing of ideas provides coherence
paragraphs are logically ordered and sequenced
(e.g. topic sentences are supported by relevant
detail) a clear attempt to adapt style to
purpose / audience there is some range of
vocabulary, occasionally selected to convey
precise meaning or to create effect
103
Band 3 7-9 marks shows clear
understanding of the purpose and format of the
task shows clear awareness of the reader /
intended audience clear sense of purpose shown
in content coverage appropriate reasons given in
support of opinions / ideas ideas are shaped
into coherent arguments paragraphs are used
consciously to structure the writing style is
adapted to purpose / audience there is a range
of vocabulary selected to convey precise meaning
or to create effect
104
  • Band 4 10-13 marks
  • shows sophisticated understanding of the purpose
    and format of the task
  • shows sustained awareness of the reader /
    intended audience
  • content coverage is well-judged, detailed, and
    pertinent
  • arguments are convincingly developed and
    supported by relevant detail
  • ideas are selected and prioritised to construct
    sophisticated argument
  • paragraphs are effectively varied in
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