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Effective Communication Techniques


Title: Effective Communication Techniques Author: Bilinski Last modified by: Dell Created Date: 7/27/2001 12:37:29 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Communication Techniques

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Project Management Overview
  • By Engr.Dr.Attaullah Shah
  • PhD ( Civil) Engg , MSc Engg ( Strs), BSc Engg (
    Gold Medalist),
  • MBA, MA ( Eco),M.Phil (Eco) MSc Envir Design,
    PGD Computer Sc.
  • Tel 051-9250100
  • E-mail pdaiou_at_yahoo.com.

Bio details of the Speaker
  • Dr. Attaullah Shah
  • Director ( Planning and Projects AIOU)
  • pdaiou_at_yahoo.com. pd_at_aiou.edu.pk,
  • 92-333-5729809, 92-51-9057212
  • Qualification
  • PhD Civil Engineering ,M.Phil Eco ,MSc Structure
  • MBA, MA Eco, MSc Envir Design,BSc Civil Engg
    (Gold Medal), Post Grad Dip Comp (Gold Medal)
  • Professional and Field experience
  • 25 Years
  • Research Publications in refereed journals and
  • 25 Journals publications40 Conference
  • Areas of interests
  • Structural Engineering
  • Sustainable built Environment
  • Construction project Management

Some quotes about project management
  • Let our advance worrying become advance thinking
    and planning. Winston Churchill
  • Plans are only good intentions unless they
    immediately degenerate into hard work. Peter
  • To accomplish great things, we must not only act,
    but also dream not only plan, but also believe.
    Anatole France
  • A project is complete when it starts working for
    you, rather than you working for it.   Scott
  • Get the right people. Then no matter what all
    else you might do wrong after that, the people
    will save you. Thats what management is all
    about.  Tom DeMarco
  • Everybody gets so much information all day long
    that they lose their common sense.  Gertrude

Some quotes about project management
  • One of the true tests of leadership is the
    ability to recognize a problem before it becomes
    an emergency. Arnold Glasow
  • Being a Project Manager is like being an artist,
    you have the different colored process streams
    combining into a work of art Greg Cimmarrusti,
  • Good judgment comes from experience, and
    experience comes from bad judgment. Fred Brooks
  • Of all the things Ive done, the most vital is
    coordinating the talents of those who work for us
    and pointing them towards a certain goal. Walt
  • Project management is The art of creating the
    illusion that any outcome is the result of a
    series of predetermined, deliberate acts when, in
    fact, it was dumb luck.   Harold Kerzner

What is a Project?
  • An temporary endeavor to create a Unique Product
    or Service.
  • A unique one time effort bound by cost, time and
    resources/technical performance ( CST) and has
    defined objectives to satisfy the customer needs.
  • Project is an undertaking having definite
    objectives, and specific beginning and ending
    points, limited budgets, defined scope.
  • Sum of certain activities and tasks required to
    be performed in a specified period of time with
    human and non-human resources for specified
  • ( Is your training a project? )

What is a Project?
  • Project is a one time non-routine opportunity to
    develop a new product.
  • To satisfy the customer to achieve the
    organizational objectives.
  • To be completed with in
  • Allocated budget.
  • Scheduled Time.
  • Approved Technical Performance.
  • Approved and agreed Scope of Work.
  • Without any change in the existing culture.

What is management? The process of Planning,
Organizing, Staffing, controlling and leading.
  • Project management
  • The art of Directing and coordinating the human
    and non human
  • Resources throughout the life of project by using
  • Management techniques to achieve pre-determined
    objectives of
  • scope, cost, time, quality and participants
  • ( Project Management Institute America)
  • Project management includes
  • Project Appraisal
  • ( Before Commencement of Project PC-I, PC-II).
  • Project monitoring.
  • ( During Execution of the Projects PC-III)
  • Project Evaluation
  • ( After Completion of the projects. PC-IV,PC-V)

  • In the early days, project mgmt was mainly used
    for very large, complex projects
  • Dam, ships, refineries, freeways, etc
  • Today, we see proj mgmt for even small software
  • Many organizations today have a new or renewed
    interest in project management.
  • Computer hardware, software, networks, and the
    use of interdisciplinary and global work teams
    have radically changed the work environment.
  • The U.S. spends 2.3 trillion on projects every
    year (1/4 of GDP)
  • World as a whole spends nearly 10 trillion of
    its 40.7 gross product on projects of all kinds.

Advantages of Using Formal Project Management
  • Better control of financial, physical, and human
  • Improved customer relations.
  • Shorter development times.
  • Lower costs.
  • Higher quality and increased reliability.
  • Higher profit margins.
  • Improved productivity.
  • Better internal coordination.
  • Higher worker morale (less stress).

Project and Program Managers
  • Project managers work with project sponsors,
    project teams, and other people involved in
    projects to meet project goals.
  • Program A group of related projects managed in
    a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control
    not available from managing them individually.
  • Program managers oversee programs and often act
    as bosses for project managers.

PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) (2004), p. 16.
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Project Portfolio Management
  • Many organizations support an emerging business
    strategy of project portfolio management
  • Organizations group and manage projects as a
    portfolio of investments that contribute to the
    entire enterprises success.

High risk High payoff Low risk High payoff
High risk Low payoff Low risk Low payoff
Costs of Poor Project Management
  • 31 of all new software development projects are
    cancelled before completion
  • 53 of projects cost gt189 of original estimates
  • 16.2 of software projects completed on time and
    on budget
  • Average overrun is 222 of original estimates
  • Source Standish Group, 1995
  • A survey on overall applications development
    projects revealed
  • 46 of IT projects were "challenged" (completed
    over budget and past the original deadline).
  • 6 of projects succeeded.
  • 28 of projects failed.

Source Standish Group, 1998
Improved Project Performance
  • The Standish Groups CHAOS studies show
    improvements in IT projects in the past decade.

The Standish Group, Latest Standish Group CHAOS
Report Shows Project Success Rates Have Improved
by 50 (March 25, 2003).
Why the Improvements?
  • The reasons for the increase in successful
    projects vary. First, the average cost of a
    project has been more than cut in half. Better
    tools have been created to monitor and control
    progress and better skilled project managers with
    better management processes are being used. The
    fact that there are processes is significant in
  • The Standish Group, CHAOS 2001 A Recipe
    for Success (2001).

Project Success Factors
  • 1. Executive support
  • 2. User involvement
  • 3. Experienced project manager
  • 4. Clear business objectives
  • 5. Minimized scope
  • 6. Standard software infrastructure
  • 7. Firm basic requirements
  • 8. Formal methodology
  • 9. Reliable estimates
  • 10. Other criteria, such as small milestones,
    proper planning, competent staff, and ownership

The Standish Group, Extreme CHAOS (2001).
What the Winners Do
  • Recent research findings show that companies that
    excel in project delivery capability
  • Use an integrated project management toolbox that
    includes standard and advanced tools and lots of
  • Grow project leaders, emphasizing business and
    soft skills.
  • Develop a streamlined project delivery process.
  • Measure project health using metrics, including
    customer satisfaction and return on investment.

Milosevic, Dragan and And Ozbay, Delivering
Projects What the Winners Do, Proceedings of
the Project Management Institute Annual Seminars
Symposium (November 2001).
The Role of the Project Manager
  • Job descriptions vary, but most include
    responsibilities such as planning, scheduling,
    coordinating, and working with people to achieve
    project goals.
  • Remember that 97 percent of successful projects
    were led by experienced project managers.

Fifteen Project Management Job Functions
  • Evaluate project requirements.
  • Identify and evaluate risks.
  • Prepare contingency plan.
  • Identify interdependencies.
  • Identify and track critical milestones.
  • Participate in project phase review.
  • Secure needed resources.
  • Manage the change control process.
  • Report project status.
  • Define scope of project.
  • Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and
    escalation procedures.
  • Develop detailed task list (work breakdown
  • Estimate time requirements.
  • Develop initial project management flow chart.
  • Identify required resources and budget.

Suggested Skills for Project Managers
  • Project managers need a wide variety of skills.
  • They should
  • Be comfortable with change.
  • Understand the organizations they work in and
  • (who to go to, SOP, etc)
  • Lead teams to accomplish project goals.

Suggested Skills for Project Managers
  • Project managers need both hard and soft
  • Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing
    how to use various project management tools and
  • Soft skills include being able to work with
    various types of people.

Suggested Skills for Project Managers
  • Communication skills Listens, persuades.
  • Organizational skills Plans, sets goals,
  • Team-building skills Shows empathy, motivates,
    promotes esprit de corps.
  • Leadership skills Sets examples, provides vision
    (big picture), delegates, positive, energetic.
  • Coping skills Flexible, creative, patient,
  • Technology skills Experience, project knowledge.

Project management consists of
Work Products
Who is responsible?
What to deliver?
Stages of PM
Three Stages of a Project
  • Define project objectives, scope and approach,
    mobilise project team
  • Execute the work plan to achieve desired outcome
  • Wrap up and transition

Project Stages Project Management Model
  • Define project objectives, scope approach,
    mobilise project team
  • Execute the work plan to achieve desired outcome
  • Wrap up and transition

Confirm Definition
Project Selection
Plan the Execution
Complete Project
Report Status
Organise Resources
Control the Work
Project Stages Project Management Model
Confirm Definition
Project Selection
Project Stages Project Management Model
Confirm Definition
  • Understand Project Sponsor expectations
  • Understand Project Scope
  • Understand Project Objectives
  • Confirm any assumptions
  • Identify Project Risks

Confirm Definition
Project Selection
Project Stages Project Management Model
Plan the Execution
  • Define Project Deliverables
  • Develop Work Plans
  • Develop Scope, Change Control, Issue Management
    and Sign-off Processes
  • Develop Risk Mitigation Plan
  • Develop Quality Plan

Plan the Execution
Report Status
Organise Resources
Control the Work
Project Stages Project Management Model
Organise Resources
  • Identify Project Team Roles / Responsibilities
  • Assign Team Members to Work Plan tasks
  • Communicate responsibilities, target dates,
  • Train Team Members
  • Organise physical resources

Plan the Execution
Report Status
Organise Resources
Control the Work
Project Stages Project Management Model
Control the Work
  • Monitor work progress
  • Resolve issues
  • Measure performance

Plan the Execution
Report Status
Organise Resources
Control the Work
Project Stages Project Management Model
Report Status
  • Assess project progress
  • Prepare status reports
  • Communicate progress to relevant audience group
  • Follow up any issues resulting from status meeting

Plan the Execution
Report Status
Organise Resources
Control the Work
Project Stages Project Management Model
Complete Project
  • Complete any development / administrative
  • Obtain sign-off of final project deliverables
  • Transition to maintenance team where appropriate

Complete Project
The Project Management Profession
  • Professional societies such as the Project
    Management Institute (PMI) have grown
    significantly. PMI
  • There are specific interest groups in many areas,
    such as engineering, financial services, health
    care, and IT.
  • Project management research and certification
    programs continue to grow.

Project Management Certification
  • PMI provides certification as a Project
    Management Professional (PMP).
  • A PMP has documented sufficient project
    experience, agreed to follow a code of ethics,
    and passed the PMP exam.
  • The number of people earning PMP certification is
    increasing quickly.
  • PMI and other organizations are offering new
    certification programs

Growth in PMP Certification, 1993-2003
Ethics in Project Management
  • Ethics is an important part of all professions.
  • Project managers often face ethical dilemmas.
  • In order to earn PMP certification, applicants
    must agree to the PMP code of professional
  • Several questions on the PMP exam are related to
    professional responsibility, including ethics.

Project Management Software
  • There are currently hundreds of different
    products to assist in performing project
  • Three main categories of tools
  • Low-end tools Handle single or smaller projects
    well cost under 200 per user.
  • Midrange tools Handle multiple projects and
    users cost 200-500 per user Project 2003 most
    popular (includes an enterprise version).
  • High-end tools Also called enterprise project
    management software often licensed on a per-user
    basis VPMi Enterprise Online (www.vcsonline.com).

Area of Expertise needed by Project Team
Project Management Office
  • A project management office (PMO) is an
    organizational unit to centralize and coordinate
    the management of projects under its domain.
  • A PMO can also be referred to as a program
    management office, project office, or program
  • A PMO oversees the management of projects,
    programs, or a combination of both.
  • The PMO focuses on the coordinated planning,
    prioritization and execution of projects and
    subprojects that are tied to the parent
    organizations or clients overall business
  • PMOs can operate on a continuum, from providing
    project management support functions in the form
    of training, software, standardized policies, and
    procedures, to actual direct management and
    responsibility for achieving the project

Project Management Processes for a Project
  • Project management is accomplished through
    processes, using project management knowledge,
    skills, tools, and techniques that receive inputs
    and generate outputs.
  • In order for a project to be successful, the
    project team must
  • Select appropriate processes within the Project
    Management Process Groups (also known as Process
    Groups) that are required to meet the project
  • Use a defined approach to adapt the product
    specifications and plans to meet project and
    product requirements
  • Comply with requirements to meet stakeholder
    needs, wants and expectations
  • Balance the competing demands of scope, time,
    cost, quality, resources, and risk to produce a
    quality product.

Project management Processes
  • Five Processes.
  • Initiating Authorizing the project or phase
  • Planning Defining Objectives and selecting
  • Execution Managing human and non human resources
    to execute the project.
  • Controlling Monitoring, evaluation and
  • Closing Formal acceptance and close out.

Nine Project Management Knowledge Areas
  • Knowledge areas describe the key competencies
    that project managers must develop.
  • Four core knowledge areas lead to specific
    project objectives (scope, time, cost, and
  • Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means
    through which the project objectives are achieved
    (human resources, communication, risk, and
    procurement management).
  • One knowledge area (project integration
    management) affects and is affected by all of the
    other knowledge areas.
  • All knowledge areas are important!

Knowledge Areas for Project Management
  • Project Integration Management
  • Project Scope Management
  • Project Time Management
  • Project Cost Management
  • Project Quality Management
  • Project Human Resource Management
  • Project Communications Management
  • Project Risk Management
  • Project Procurement Management

Project Management
A Framework for Project Management
Project Integration Management
  • Describes the processes required to ensure that
    the various elements of the project are properly
  • Tradeoffs among competing objectives and
    alternatives to meet or exceed stake holders
    needs or expectations
  • Consists of
  • project plan development
  • Integrating and co-ordinating all project plans
    to create a consistent, coherent document
  • project plan execution
  • Carryout the project plan by performing the
    activities included therein
  • overall change control.
  • Co-ordinating the changes across the entire

Project Scope Management
  • Describes the processes required to ensure that
    the project includes all the work required, and
    only the work required, to complete the project
  • Consists of
  • initiation
  • Authorizing the project phase
  • scope planning
  • Developing a written scope statement as the basis
    for future project decisions
  • scope definition
  • Subdividing the project deliverables into
    smaller, more manageable components
  • scope verification
  • Formalizing the acceptance of the project scope
  • scope change control.
  • Controlling the changes to project scope

Project Time Management
  • Describes the processes required to ensure
    timely completion of the project.
  • Consists of
  • Activity definition
  • Activity sequencing
  • Activity duration estimating
  • Schedule development
  • Schedule control

Project Cost Management
  • Describes the processes required to ensure that
    the project is completed within the approved
  • Consists of
  • Resource planning
  • Identify people, equipment and material
  • Cost estimating
  • Developing an approximation of the cost of
  • Cost budgeting
  • Allocating the overall cost estimate to
    individual work activities
  • Cost control
  • Controlling changes to the project budget

Project Quality Management
  • Describes the processes required to ensure that
    the project will satisfy the needs for which it
    was undertaken.
  • Consists of
  • quality planning
  • Identifying relevant quality standards
  • quality assurance
  • Planned and systematic activities implemented
    within the quality system
  • quality control.
  • Monitoring specific project results

Project Human Resource Management
  • Describes the processes required to make the most
    effective use of the people involved with the
  • Consists of
  • organizational planning
  • Identifying, documenting and assigning project
    roles and responsibilities
  • staff acquisition
  • Getting the human resource needed, assigned to
    and working on the project
  • team development.
  • Developing individual and group competencies to
    enhance project performance

Project Communications Management
  • Describes the processes required to ensure timely
    and appropriate generation, collection,
    dissemination, storage, and ultimate disposition
    of project information
  • Consists of
  • communications planning
  • information distribution
  • performance reporting
  • administrative closure.

Project Risk Management
  • Describes the processes concerned with
    identifying, analyzing, and responding to project
  • Consists of
  • risk identification
  • risk quantification
  • risk response development
  • risk response control
  • An effective software measurement process can
    provide early warning of problems associated with
  • indicators can be used to project any trends
  • early warning can allow action in time to
    prevent problems

Mapping of Project Management Process
Process Group Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Executing Controlling Closing
Project Integration Management Project Plan Development Project Plan Execution Integrated Change Control
Project Scope Management Initiation Scope Planning Scope Definition Scope Verification Scope Change Control
Project Time Management Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
Project Cost Management Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control
Project Quality Management Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control
Project Human Resource Management Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition Team Development
Project Communications Management Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Administrative Closure
Risk Project Management Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control
Project Procurement Management Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Closeout
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Some Funny Quotes of Project Managers
  • As of tomorrow, employees will only be able to
    access the building using individual security
    cards. Pictures will be taken next Wednesday and
    employees will receive their cards in two weeks.
    What I need is a list of specific unknown
    problems we will encounter. E-mail is not to
    be used to pass on information or data. It should
    be used only to be used for company business.
    Turnover is good for the company, as it proves
    that we are doing a good job in training people.
    This project is so important, we can't let
    things that are more important interfere with it.
    Doing it right is no excuse for not meeting the
    schedule. No one will believe you solved this
    problem in one day! We've been working on it for
    months. Now, go act busy for a few weeks and I'll
    let you know when it's time to tell them
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