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The Progressive Movement

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Title: The Progressive Movement


1
The Progressive Movement
  • The muckrakers are often indispensable to
    society but only if they know when to stop raking
    the muck.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

2
Timeline of Events
  • 1874
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union is founded
  • 1889
  • Eiffel Tower opens for visitors
  • 1896
  • William McKinley is elected president

3
Timeline of Events
  • 1898
  • Marie Curie discovers radium
  • 1899
  • Boer War is South Africa begins
  • 1900
  • William McKinley is reelected

4
Timeline of Events
  • 1901
  • McKinley is assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt
    becomes president
  • Commonwealth of Australia is created

5
Timeline of Events
  • 1904
  • Theodore Roosevelt is elected president
  • Ida Tarbell writes The History of Standard Oil
  • Lincoln Steffens writes The Shame of the Cities

6
Timeline of Events
  • 1906
  • Upton Sinclair writes The Jungle about the
    meatpacking industry
  • Meat Inspection Act is passed
  • Pure Food and Drug Act is passed

7
Timeline of Events
  • 1908
  • William Howard Taft is elected president
  • Ray Stannard Baker writes Following the Color
    Line
  • 1909
  • NAACP is founded by W.E.B. DuBois
  • Frank Lloyd Wright builds the Robie House

8
Timeline of Events
  • 1910
  • Mexican Revolution begins
  • 1912
  • 17th Amendment passes allowing for the direct
    election of senators
  • Bull Moose Party forms with Roosevelt as its
    nominee

9
Timeline of Events
  • 1912
  • Woodrow Wilson is elected president
  • 1913
  • Chinas Qin Dynasty topples
  • Federal Reserve Act passes

10
Timeline of Events
  • 1914
  • World War I begins in Europe
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act passes
  • Federal Trade Commission is established

11
Timeline of Events
  • 1916
  • Woodrow Wilson is reelected president
  • 1917
  • United States enters into World War I

12
Timeline of Events
  • 1918
  • 18th Amendment outlaws alcohol
  • Mohandas Gandhi becomes leader of the
    independence movement in India
  • 1920
  • 19th Amendments grants women the right to vote

13
Four Goals of Progressivism
  • By 1900, journalists and writers had exposed the
    unsafe conditions faced by factory workers
  • Reformers tried to get the government to be more
    responsive
  • These reform efforts formed the progressive
    movement, which aimed to restore economic
    opportunities and correct injustices in American
    life

14
Four Goals of Progressivism
  • Although reformers never fully agreed on the
    problems needed to be solved, they all shared at
    least one of the progressivism goals
  • Protecting social welfare
  • Promoting moral improvement
  • Creating economic reform
  • Fostering efficiency

15
Protecting Social Welfare
  • Social welfare reformers worked to soften harsh
    conditions of industrialization
  • The Social Gospel and settlement house movements
    aimed to help the poor with
  • Community houses
  • Churches
  • Social services
  • The Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA)
  • opened libraries
  • sponsored classes
  • built swimming pools and handball courts
  • The Salvation Army
  • fed the poor in soup kitchens
  • cared for children in nurseries
  • sent slum brigades to instruct poor immigrants
    in middle class values of hard work and temperance

16
The first YMCA erected in 1859 Baltimore, MD
17
Protecting Social Welfare
  • Many women were inspired by the settlement houses
    to take action
  • Florence Kelleyadvocate for improving the lives
    of women and children
  • Appointed chief inspector of factories for
    Illinois
  • Helped win passage of the Illinois Factory Act in
    1893
  • The act prohibited child labor and limited
    womens working hours

18
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Other reformers felt morality, not the workplace,
    held the key to improving the lives of poor
    people
  • They wanted immigrants and the poor to improve
    their personal behavior
  • Prohibition was one program aimed at helping
    people uplift themselves

19
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  • Founded in Cleveland 1874
  • Spearheaded the crusade for prhibition
  • Members entered saloons, singing, praying, and
    urging saloonkeepers to stop selling alcohol to
    advance their cause
  • By 1911245,000 members
  • The largest womens group in the nations history
  • Frances Willard urged members to do everything
  • They opened kindergartens for immigrants
  • Visited prisoners and asylums
  • Worked for suffrage
  • The reform activities provided women with
    expanded public roleswhich they used toward
    suffrage

20
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21
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Prohibition led to trouble with immigrant groups
  • Anti-Saloon League the church in action against
    the saloon
  • Founded 1895
  • Sought to close saloons
  • Tried to get laws passed to punish those who
    drank
  • Endorsed politicians who opposed demon rum
  • Carry Nation was a strong advocate for the
    closing of saloons
  • Destroyed saloons with her hatchet
  • Scolded customers
  • Between 1900-1917, many states in the south and
    west had prohibited the sale, production, and use
    of alcohol

22
Above Carry Nation and her hatchet and Bible
Womens temperance movement 1873-74
23
Creating Economic Reform
  • Socialism sprung out the of the Panic of 1893
  • Eugene V. Debs helped organize the Socialist
    Party in 1901
  • Brought about by the uneven balance of big
    business, government, and ordinary people under
    the free-market system of capitalism
  • Progressives distanced themselves from Socialism,
    but knew what Debs was talking about

24
Creating Economic Reform
  • Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of
    business and public life in magazines became
    known as muckrakersrefers to Pilgrims
    Progress in which the man is so busy raking up
    the muck of this world that he does not raise his
    eyes to heaven

25
Fostering Efficiency
  • Many progressives put their faith in scientific
    principles to make society and the workplace more
    efficient
  • Louis Brandeis defended an Oregon Law limiting a
    womans workday to 10 hours
  • Instead of focusing on the argument, he focused
    on the data produced by social scientists
    documenting the high costs of long working hours
  • This type of argumentthe Brandeis Briefbecame a
    model for later reform litigation

26
Fostering Efficiency
  • Fredrick Winslow Taylor began using time and
    motion to improve efficiency by breaking
    manufacturing tasks into simpler parts
  • Taylorism became a management fad
  • Assembly lines did speed up production, but
    required people to work like machines
  • Caused high worker turnover
  • Henry Ford used incentives to attract thousands
    of workers

27
Reforming Local Government
  • Political bosses ran the cities and social
    problems engulfed the cities
  • Natural disasters usually played a part in reform
  • A hurricane and tidal wave nearly destroyed
    Galveston, TX in 1900
  • The city council botched the rebuilding so badly,
    the state legislature appointed a commissionthis
    became a model for other cities
  • A flood in Dayton, Ohio destroyed hundreds of
    acres without warning
  • Due to the swift action of the council, Dayton
    was rebuilt much faster than Galveston 13 years
    before
  • City Councils became the system of government
    used by cities

28
Galveston Hurricane 1900
Dayton Flood 1913
29
Reform Mayors
  • Mayors introduced progressive reforms without
    changing how government was organized
  • Hazen Pingree of Detroit
  • Introduced a fair tax structure, lowered fares
    for public transportation, rooted out corruption,
    set up work relief for the unemployed
  • Detroit city workers built schools, parks, and a
    municipal lighting plant
  • Tom Johnson of Cleveland
  • Converted the utilities to publicly owned
    enterprises
  • Believed citizens should play a more active role
    in city government
  • Held meetings in a large circus tent and invited
    the city to question officials about city
    management

30
Reform Governors
  • Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business
    with the leadership of Robert La
    Follettefighting Bob
  • His major target was the railroadhe taxed
    railroad property the same rate as other
    businesses
  • Set up a commission to regulate rates
  • Forbade railroads to issue free passes to state
    officials
  • Other reform governors included Charles B. Aycock
    of N.C., and James S. Hogg of TX

31
Protecting Working Children
  • As the number of working children increased,
    reformers worked to end child labor
  • Businesses hired children because they performed
    unskilled jobs for lower wages and their small
    hands were perfect for small parts
  • Immigrants sent their children to work because
    they saw them as part of the family economy
  • Wages were so low for adults that children needed
    to work to make ends meet

32
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33
Protecting Working Children
  • Children were more prone to accidents caused by
    fatigue
  • Many developed serious health problems and
    stunted growth

34
Protecting Working Children
  • The National Child Labor Committee (1904) sent
    investigators to gather evidence of children
    working in harsh conditions
  • They then organized exhibitions with photographs
    and statistics to dramatize the childrens plight
  • Joined by labor unions who argued that child
    labor lowered wages for all workers
  • Groups pressured the government to pass the
    Keating-Owen Act in 1916
  • Prohibited the transportation across state lines
    of goods produced with child labor
  • 2 years later, Supreme Court declared it
    unconstitutional due to interference with states
    rights to regulate labor
  • Reformers did succeed in nearly every state by
    effecting legislation that banned child labor and
    set maximum hours

35
Efforts to Limit Working Hours
  • Muller v. OregonLouis D. Brandeis-assisted by
    Florence Kelley and Josephine Goldmark
  • argued that poor working women were much more
    economically insecure than large corporations
  • Convinced the Court to uphold law limiting women
    to a ten-hour workday
  • Bunting v. OregonCourt upheld a ten-hour workday
    for men

36
Efforts to Limit Working Hours
  • Progressives also succeeded in winning workers
    compensation to aid the families of workers who
    were hurt or killed on the job
  • Beginning in 1902, one state after another passed
    legislation requiring employers to pay benefits
    in death cases

37
Reforming Elections
  • William S. URen prompted his state of Oregon to
    adopt the scret ballot, the initiative, the
    referendum, and the recall
  • The initiative and referendum gave citizens the
    power to create laws
  • The recall allowed citizens to remove public
    officials from elected positions by forcing them
    to face another election before the end of their
    term if enough voters asked for it
  • By 1920, 20 states adopted at least one of these
    procedures

38
Reforming Elections
  • In 1899, Minnesota passed the first mandatory
    statewide primary system
  • This enabled voters, instead of political
    machines, to choose candidates for public office
    through a special popular election
  • About 2/3rds of the states had adopted some form
    of direct primary by 1915

39
Direct Election of Senators
  • It was the success of the direct primary that
    paved the way for the 17th Amendment to the
    Constitution
  • Before 1913, each states legislature had chosen
    its own U.S. senators, which put even more power
    in the hands of party bosses and wealthy
    corporation heads
  • To force senators to be more responsive to the
    public, progressives pushed for the popular
    election of senators

40
Direct Election of Senators
  • At first the senate did not go along with it, but
    gradually states began allowing voters to
    nominate senatorial candidates in direct
    primaries
  • As a result, Congress passed the 17th amendment
    in 1912ratified 1913
  • This amendment drew more attention to women in
    public life and the issue of woman suffrage

41
Women in the Work Force
  • Before the civil war, women were expected to
    devote their time to their families
  • By the 19th century, only upper and middle class
    women could afford to do so, poorer women had no
    choice but to work for wages outside the home
  • Farm women had to attend to the household chores,
    plus, raise livestock, plow the fields, and
    harvest the crops

42
Women in the Work Force
  • In cities, women found jobs at an easy rate, but
    were unable to join the unions to which had
    become so popular and necessary
  • 1 out of 5 had jobs 25 in manufacturing
  • The garment trade claimed about half of all women
    industrial workers
  • They typically held the least skilled positions
    and were paid half as much as men
  • Many were single and were presumed to only be
    supporting themselves, while men were assumed to
    be supporting families
  • Women began to fill new jobs in offices, stores,
    and classrooms
  • These jobs required a high school education
  • By 1890, women high school graduates outnumbered
    men
  • New buisiness schools were preparing women to
    work new machinessuch as the typewriterand to
    be stenographers

43
Women in the Work Force
  • Many women without formal education contributed
    to their families by cleaning for other families
  • After 2 million African American women were
    freed, poverty drove them to the work force
  • Many migrated to cities to work as cooks,
    laundresses, scrubwomen, and maids
  • By 1870, nearly 70 of women employed were
    servants

44
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45
Women in Higher Education
  • Many of the women who became active in public
    life in the late 19th century had attended the
    new womens colleges
  • Vassar Collegefaculty included 8 men, and 22
    womenaccepted its first students in 1865
  • Smith and Wellesley Colleges followed in 1875
  • Columbia, Brown, and Harvard Colleges refused to
    admit women, but each established a separate
    university for women

46
Women in Higher Education
  • By the late 19th century, marriage was not the
    only alternative for women
  • They either went to school or joined the work
    force
  • Almost half of college-educated women in the late
    19th century did not marry
  • Their skills were applied to society and reforms

47
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48
Smith College
Wellesley College
49
Women and Reform
  • Because women were not allowed to vote, they
    often worked to reform from within the home
  • Their social housekeeping targeted workplace
    reform, housing reform, educational improvement
    and food and drug laws

50
Women and Reform
  • 1896African-American women founded the national
    Association of Colored Women (NACW) by merging
    two earlier organizations
  • They managed nurseries, reading rooms and
    kindergartens
  • Josephine Ruffin identified the missiion as the
    moral education of the race with which we are
    identified

51
Women and Reform
  • After the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, women
    split over the 14th and 15th amendments, which
    granted equal rights including the right to vote
    to African American men, but excluded women
  • Susan B. Anthonywomens suffrage
    proponentstated I would sooner cut off my right
    hand than ask the ballot for the black man and
    not for women
  • In 1869, Anthony and Stanton founded the National
    Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) which united
    with another group to become the National
    American Women Suffrage Assoc. (NAWSA)

52
Three Part Strategy for Suffrage
  • Suffragist leaders worked a three part strategy
  • First, they tried to convince state legislatures
    to grant women the right to votethey were
    victorious in the territory of Wyoming in 1869
  • Second, women pursued court cases to test the
    14th amendment
  • In 1871-72, Anthony and others attempted to vote
    150 times in 10 states and D.C.
  • The Supreme Court ruled in 1875, that women were
    indeed citizensbut then denied that citizenship
    automatically allowed the right to vote

53
Three Part Strategy for Suffrage
  • Third, women pushed for a national constitutional
    amendment to grant women the vote
  • Stanton succeeded in having the amendment
    introduced in California, but it was killed
  • For 41 years, women lobbied for an amendment, but
    every time voted down

54
A Rough Riding President
  • Theodore Roosevelt was elected V.P. in 1900 with
    McKinley as President
  • He was nominated by Political Bosses who could
    not control himit was a plot to get him out of
    New York
  • When McKinley was shot, he became the youngest
    president in U.S. history at 42 years old

55
A Rough Riding President
  • Roosevelt was born in 1858 to a wealthy family in
    N.Y.
  • He suffered from asthma, but overcame great
    physical feats
  • He mastered marksmanship, horseback riding
  • He boxed and wrestled at Harvard
  • He got into politics at an early age
  • Served three terms in the New York State Assembly
  • New York Citys police commissioner
  • Assistant secretary to the Navy

56
A Rough Riding President
  • Roosevelt advocated for war against Spain in 1898
  • His famous Rough Riders won public acclaim for
    its role in the battle at San Juan Hill, Cuba
  • Roosevelt returned a hero and was elected
    Governor of New York and then V.P.

57
A Rough Riding President
  • When he became president, he dominated the news
    with his exploits
  • He was blinded in the left eye while boxing
  • Galloped 100 miles on horseback just to prove it
    was possible
  • He used his popularity to push his programs
    through
  • His leadership and publicity campaigns helped
    shape the modern presidency
  • He became the model by which new presidents would
    be measured

58
A Rough Riding President
  • Roosevelt felt that the federal government should
    assume control whenever states proved incapable
    of dealing with problems
  • He saw the presidency as a bully pulpit from
    which he could influence the news media and shape
    legislation
  • If big business victimized workers, he saw to it
    that the people received a Square Deal
  • This term is used to describe various progressive
    reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt Administration

59
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60
Trustbusting
  • By 1900, trusts controlled about 4/5ths of the
    industries in the U.S.
  • Some trusts, like the Standard Oil Co. had earned
    bad reputations for their unfair business
    practices
  • Many had created monopolies and then took
    advantage of the lack of competitions to drive
    prices up
  • The Sherman Anti-Trust Act could not help due to
    the vague language of the bill

61
Trustbusting
  • Roosevelt made headlines when he ordered the
    Justice Dept. to sue the Northern Securities Co.
    for their monopoly over northwestern railroads
  • In 1904, the Supreme Court dissolved the company
  • Although, the administration filed 44 antitrust
    suits, winning a number of them and breaking up
    some trusts, it was unable to slow the merger
    movement of business

62
1902 Coal Strike
  • 140,000 coal miners in PA
  • Demanded a 20 pay raise a 9 hour workday the
    right to form a Union
  • Mine operators refused5 months later, Roosevelt
    called both sides to the White House
  • It was settled, due to Roosevelts threat to take
    over the minesthey would both submit their
    differences to an arbitration commissiona third
    party that would mediate the dispute

63
1902 Coal Strike
  • 1903the commission had decided
  • The miners won a 10 pay hike a 9 hour workday
  • No Union
  • And no right to strike within the next 3 years
  • Roosevelt set a new precedent
  • From then on, whenever a strike threatened the
    welfare of the people, the federal government
    intervened
  • He also proved disputes could be handled in an
    orderly way

64
Railroad Regulation
  • 1887-Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act
    to regulate railroads
  • The ICC was set up to enforce the law but had
    little power
  • With Roosevelts urging, Congress passed the
    Elkins Act of 1903 which made it illegal for
    railroad officials to give, and shippers to
    receive, rebates for using particular railroads
  • It also stated that railroads could not change
    set rates without notifying the public

65
Railroad Regulation
  • The Hepburn Act of 1906 reduced the number of
    free passes used for bribery
  • It also gave the ICC power to set maximum
    railroad rates
  • Its passage boosted the governments power to
    regulate railroads

66
Regulating Food and Drug
  • Following Upton Sinclairs The Jungle, Roosevelt
    responded by appointing a committee to
    investigate the meat packing plants
  • In 1906, roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat
    Inspection Act
  • Dictated strict cleanliness requirements for
    meatpackers and created the program of federal
    meat inspection that was in use until new
    techniques were founded in 1920

67
The Jungle
68
Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Before advertising regulations, manufacturers
    claimed that their products accomplished
    everything from curing cancer to growing hair
  • Popular childrens medicines contained opium,
    cocaine, or alcohol
  • Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley, chief chemist for
    Dept. of Agriculture, criticized manufacturers
    for using harsh preservatives
  • 1906-Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act,
    which halted the sale of contaminated foods and
    medicines and called for truth labeling
  • It did not ban harmful products outright, but did
    prove that if given correct information, people
    will act wisely

69
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70
Conservation Measures
  • Despite the establishment of the U.S. Forest
    Bureau in 1887 and withdrawal from public sale 45
    million acres of forest for reserve
  • In the late 19th century, Americans exploited
    their natural environment
  • Pioneer farmers leveled forests and plowed up
    prairies
  • Ranchers allowed their cattle to overgraze the
    plains
  • Coal companies cluttered the land with refuse
    from mines
  • Lumber companies ignored the effect of logging
    operations on flood control and neglected to
    plant trees to replace the ones lost

71
Conservation Measures
  • Cities also dumped untreated sewage and
    industrial wastes into rivers, poisoning the
    streams and creating health hazards

72
Conservation Measures
  • Roosevelt condemned the view that U.S. resources
    were endless
  • He made conservation the primary concern
  • John Muir persuaded the president to set aside
    148 million acres of forest reserves
  • He also set aside 1.5 million acres of
    water-power sites and another 80 million that
    experts from the U.S. Geological Survey would
    explore for mineral and water resources

73
Conservation Measures
  • Roosevelt established over 50 wildlife
    sanctuaries and several national parks
  • In 1905, Roosevelt named Gifford Pinchot as head
    of the U.S. Forest Service
  • He was a professional conservationist who advised
    Roosevelt to conserve forest and grazing lands by
    keeping large tracts of federal land exempt from
    private sale
  • Roosevelt and Pinchot did not share the same
    views as Muirwho said the wilderness should be
    completely preserved
  • They viewed conservationism as preserving some
    wilderness while others would be used for the
    common good

74
Gifford PinchotJohn Muir
75
Conservation Measures
  • Under the National Reclamation Act of 1902, money
    from the sale of public lands in the West funded
    large-scale irrigation projects, such as the
    Roosevelt Dam in Arizona and the Shoshone Dam in
    Wyoming
  • The Newlands Act (National Reclamation Act of
    1902) established the precedent that the federal
    government would manage the precious water
    resources of the West

76
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  • Roosevelts concern for Civil Rights did not
    match his concern for conservation
  • Roosevelts father was from the North, but his
    mother was the epitome of a southern belle
  • Like other progressives, Roosevelt failed to
    support Civil Rights for African-Americanshe did
    support individuals though
  • He appointed an African-American as head of the
    Charleston, SC customhouse
  • As a symbolic gesture, he invited Booker T.
    Washington to the White House
  • However, he did dismiss an entire black regiment
    accused with conspiracy of protecting others
    charged with murder in Brownsville, Texas

77
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  • Washingtons visit to the White House was
    criticized by Du Boisfor his accommodation of
    segregationists and for blaming black poverty on
    blacks and urging them to accept discrimination
  • Du Bois and other advocates held a Civil Rights
    Conference at Niagara Falls in 1905
  • In 1909, African-Americans and whites joined
    together to form the NAACP (National Association
    for the Advancement of Colored People)
  • The NAACP aimed for nothing less than full
    equality among the races
  • That goal found little support in the Progressive
    Movement
  • The two presidents that followed also did nothing
    to advance racial equality

78
Founders of the NAACP Morrfield Storey, Mary
Ovington, Du Bois
79
Taft Becomes President
  • William Howard Taft became president in 1904
    after being handpicked by Roosevelt
  • William Jennings Bryan was the opponent
  • Vote for Taft this time. Vote for Bryan any
    time
  • Republicans had an easy victory

80
Taft Stumbles
  • Taft pursued a cautiously progressive agenda
  • He sought to consolidate rather than expand
    Roosevelts reforms
  • He received little credit for his accomplishments
  • His legal victories, such as busting 90 trusts in
    a four-year term, did not boost his popularity
  • Taft hesitated to use the presidency as a bully
    pulpit

81
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • Taft campaigned on lower tariffs
  • The house proposed the Payne bill that lowered
    tariffs
  • The senate proposed the Aldrich bill that made
    fewer cuts and increased many rates
  • Amid cries of betrayal from the progressive wing,
    Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • It only moderated the high rates of the Aldrich
    Bill
  • He made his difficulties worse when he stated it
    was the best bill the Republican party ever
    passed

82
Disputing Public Lands
  • Taft angered conservationists by appointing
    Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior
  • Ballinger disapproved of conservation of land in
    the West, and removed 1 million acres of forest
    and mining lands from the reserved list
  • When an employee was fired for speaking out, he
    wrote a muckraking article against Ballinger

83
Disputing Public Lands
  • After the article was published and Pinchot had
    spoken out against Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot
    from the U.S. Forest Service

84
Problems Within the Party
  • Republican conservatives and progressives split
    over Tafts support of the political boss Joseph
    CannonSpeaker of the House
  • Uncle Joe often disregarded seniority in
    filling committee slots and disregarded or
    weakened progressive bills
  • Reform minded Republicans decided that their only
    alternative was to strip Cannon of his power
  • With the help of democrats, they succeeded in
    March 1910
  • They created a resolution that called for the
    entire House to elect the Committee on Rules
    without the Speaker

85
Problems Within the Party
  • By midterm elections of 1910, the voters voiced
    their opinions over the high cost of living,
    which they blamed on the Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • They also believed Taft to be against
    conservation
  • The Republicans lost the elections and the
    Democrats had gained control for the first time
    in 18 years

86
Bull Moose Party
  • While Taft was running the country, Roosevelt was
    on Safari in Africa
  • He returned to a heroes welcome and gave a speech
    proposing New Nationalismthe federal
    government would exert its power over the welfare
    of the people
  • By 1912, displeased with Taft, he decided to run
    for president again
  • The primaries showed Roosevelt the favorite, but
    Taft had the advantage of being the incumbant

87
Bull Moose Party
  • Taft delegates moved to make Roosevelts
    delegates Taft delegates
  • TRs delegates would have none of that and they
    formed a new party, the Progressive Party
  • They would soon be known as the Bull Moose Party
    after Roosevelts boast that he was as strong as
    a bull moose
  • The partys platform called for
  • the direct election of senators,
  • adoption of initiative, referendum, and recall,
  • woman suffrage,
  • workmens compensation,
  • an eight hour work-day,
  • a minimum wage for women,
  • A federal law agains tchild labor,
  • And a federal trade commission to regulate
    business

88
Bull Moose Party
  • The split in Republican ranks handed the
    Democrats their first real chance at the White
    House since the election of Grover Cleveland in
    1892
  • Woodrow Wilson, a reform governor, became their
    candidate in 1912
  • He went on to win the election

89
Democrats in the White House
  • The election had offered voters choices
  • Wilsons New Freedom
  • Tafts conservatism
  • Roosevelts progressivism
  • Eugene V. Debs and the Socialist Party
  • Both Roosevelt and Wilson supported stronger
    government, but in different ways
  • Debs was against capitalism
  • Taft was in the middle of the road

90
Democrats in the White House
  • Winning only 42 of the vote, Wilson won an
    overwhelming majority of electoral votes
  • With his election he could claim a mandate to
    break up trusts and expand the governments role
    in social reform

91
Wilson Wins Financial Reforms
  • Wilson claimed progressive ideals, but had a
    different approach than Roosevelt

92
Wilsons Background
  • Wilson spent his youth in the South during the
    Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The son of a Presbyterian minister, he received a
    strict upbringing
  • He worked as a lawyer, a history professor, and
    later as president of Princeton University
  • In 1910, he became governor of New Jersey
  • As president, he moved to enact his New Freedom

93
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • During Wilsons administration, Congress enacted
    two anti-trust measures
  • Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 sought to
    strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
  • Prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock
    of another if doing so would create a monopoly
    if a company violated the law, its officers could
    be prosecuted
  • The Clayton Act also specified that labor unions
    and farm organizations not only had a right to
    exist but also would no longer be subject to
    antitrust laws

94
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • The Clayton Antitrust Act made strikes, peaceful
    picketing, boycotts, and the collection of strike
    benefits became legal
  • Injunctions against strikers were prohibited
    unless damage was incurred
  • Samuel Gompers (AFL) called it a Magna Carta of
    Labor

95
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • The second major antitrust measure, the Federal
    Trade Commission Act of 1914, set up the Federal
    Trade Commission
  • The watchdog agency was given the power to
    investigate possible violations of regulatory
    statutes, to require periodic reports from
    corporations, and to put an end to a number of
    unfair business practices

96
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • Under Wilson, the FTC administered almost 400
    cease and desist orders to companies engaged in
    illegal activity

97
A New Tax System
  • In an effort to curb big business, Wilson worked
    to lower tariff rates
  • Wilson lobbied hard in 1913 for the Underwood
    Act, which would reduce tariff rates for the
    first time since the Civil War
  • Business lobbied to block tariff reductions
  • Because of the new presidents use of the bully
    pulpit, the Senate voted to cut tariff rates even
    more deeply than the House had done

98
Federal Income Tax
  • With lower tariffs, the government needed to make
    up the revenue that was lost
  • The 16th amendment, ratified in 1913, legalized a
    graduated federal income tax, which provided
    revenue by taxing individual earnings and
    corporate profits
  • The Graduated Taxtaxed higher incomes more than
    incomes in the bottom bracket

99
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100
Federal Reserve System
  • Wilson, next, turned his attention to financial
    reform
  • The nation needed a way to strengthen the banks
    and adjust to the amount of money in circulation
  • the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 divided the
    nation into 12 districts and established a
    regional central bank in each districtthese
    banks then served the other banks

101
Federal Reserve Banks
  • The new banks could issue new paper currency in
    emergency situations, and member banks could use
    the new currency to make loans to their customers
  • By 1923, 70 of the nations banking resources
    were part of the Federal Reserve System

102
Local Suffrage Battles
  • The suffrage movement was given new strength by
    growing numbers of college-educated women
  • Two Massachusetts organizations, the Boston Equal
    Suffrage Association for Good Government and the
    College Equal Suffrage league, used door-to-door
    campaigns to reach potential supporters
  • Founded by Maud Wood Park, the Boston group
    spread the message to the poor and working-class
    women

103
Local Suffrage Battles
  • Trolley cars would stop at each stop where crowds
    would gather to hear a woman speaking in public
  • Many wealthy young women who visited Europe as
    part of their education became involved in the
    suffrage movement in Britain
  • Inspired by British acts, American women returned
    to the U.S. armed with similar approaches in
    their own campaigns for suffrage

104
Catt and the National Government
  • Carrie Chapman Catt became the president of NAWSA
    and served from 1900-04 and resumed the
    presidency in 1915
  • When she returned she concentrated on five
    tactics
  • Painstaking organization
  • Close ties between local, state, and national
    workers
  • Establishing a wide base of support
  • Cautious lobbying
  • Gracious ladylike behavior

105
Catt and the National Government
  • Although suffragists saw victories, the greater
    number of failures led some to radical tactics
  • Lucy Burns and Alice Paul formed their own more
    radical organization, the Congressional Union,
    and its successor the National Womans Party
  • They pressured the federal government to pass a
    suffrage amendment, and by 1917 Paul had
    organized her followers to mount a
    round-the-clock picket line around the White
    House
  • Picketers were arrested, jailed, and even
    force-fed when they attempted a hunger strike

106
Catt and the National Government
  • The 19th amendment was ratified in 1920 granting
    women the right to vote72 years after women had
    first convened and demanded the vote at the
    Seneca Falls convention in 1848

107
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • Wilson retreated from Civil Rights issues
  • During the campaign, he won support of the
    NAACPs black intellectuals and white liberals by
    promising to treat blacks equally and to speak
    out against lynching
  • Wilson opposed federal anti-lynching legislation,
    arguing that these crimes fell under state
    jurisdiction

108
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • Segregation continued under Wilsons
    administration
  • Wilson appointed to his cabinet fellow white
    Southerners who extended segregation
  • The NAACP felt betrayed
  • On November 12, 1914, the presidents reception
    of an African-American delegation brought the
    confrontation to a bitter climax
  • William Trotter, editor-in-chief of the Guardian,
    an African-American Boston newspaper, let the
    delegation
  • Trotter complained that African Americans from 38
    states had asked the president to reverse the
    segregation of government employees, but that
    segregation had since increased

109
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • An angry Trotter shook his finger at the
    president to emphasize a point, the furious
    Wilson demanded that the delegation leave
  • Wilsons refusal to extend civil rights to
    African Americans pointed to the limits of
    progressivism under his administration

110
The Twilight of Progressivism
  • The outbreak of war in 1914 demanded Americas
    involvement
  • WWI would dominate Wilsons presidency, and the
    Progressive Era would come to an end
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