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The Progressive Reform Era (1900-1920)

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The Progressive Reform Era (1900-1920) ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: Do all reform movements improve American society and politics? Were the Progressives successful in making ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Progressive Reform Era (1900-1920)


1
The Progressive Reform Era (1900-1920)
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
  • Do all reform movements improve American society
    and politics?
  • Were the Progressives successful in making
    government more responsive to the will of the
    people?
  • Does government have a responsibility to help the
    needy?

2
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3
Origins of Progressivism
  • Definition those who favor progress towards
    better conditions in government and society
  • A diverse group of reformers united by a belief
    in the public interest
  • Grew out of Populist group
  • Major difference Populists focused on farmers
    and Progressives focused on cities
  • New reformers were reacting to effects
  • 1. rapid industrial growth
  • 2. immigration
  • 3. urbanization

4
The 4 Basic Goals
  1. Government should be accountable to its citizens
  2. Government should reduce power and influence of
    wealthy interests
  3. Government should have more powers to improve the
    lives of its citizens
  4. Government should become more efficient and less
    corrupt.

5
Writers as Reformers
  • Henry George To combat the problem of poverty,
    the government should put single tax on
    landowners, prevents land speculation
  • Edward Bellamy A utopian country where
    government has taken over big business to get rid
    of poverty

6
Muckrakers
Name given by Teddy Roosevelt those who muck
or Rake manure and dirt --- expose the wrongdoings
Upton Sinclair Exposed the dangers of the
meatpacking industry
7
Famous Muckrakers
  • Lincoln Stephens
  • The Shame of Cities
  • exposed political corruption
  • Ida Tarbell
  • Exposed abuses committed by Rockefellers
    Standard Oil Company

8
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Journalist/Photographer exposed the dangerous
conditions of tenements and slums to New York
upper and middle class
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11
Progressive Reform OrganizationsMiddle-class,
and Women
  • Labor Movement
  • Grew slowly
  • Work for better wages, conditions, etc.
  • Socialist Party
  • End capitalism, redistribute wealth, government
    control of industries
  • Womens Groups
  • Winning the vote was essential.

12
Women Reformers workplace reform
  • Jane Addams Hull House
  • Community centers set up to help newly arrived
    immigrants
  • http//tigger.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/urbanexp/m
    ain.cgi?fileimg/show_gallery.pttgallery5
  • Florence Kelley
  • Laws protecting child labor, Better working
    conditions
  • Mother Jones
  • Organized unions in the coal mines
  • Some Resistance though from very people
    Progressives trying to help. Why?

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14
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
  • 146 workers died
  • Doors were locked from outside
  • many women jumped to their deaths
  • Aftermath New workplace protections were put in
    place
  • Sprinklers,
  • fire drills,
  • unlock exits

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17
Municipal Reforms
  • Attacking city bosses Boss Tweed
  • Setting up a Commission form of Govt
  • Five appointed administrators, no mayor
  • Hurricane disaster in Texas, 6000 dead
  • City ownership of Utilities gas, water,
    electric
  • Welfare Services parks, playground,

18
State reforms
Direct primary Voters choose their candidates
17th Amend. US Senators elected by popular vote
Initiative voters can put bills before Congress
Referendum - Voters vote on bills directly
Recall voters can remove public official from office
19
Wisconsin The Great Laboratory of Reform
  • Robert LaFollette, Fighting Bob
  • Clean up govt
  • Wisconsin Idea
  • Using public and academic experts to help draft
    reform legislation

20
Progressive Presidents
21
The Bully Pulpit
  • Phrase coined by Teddy Roosevelt
  • The Presidency was a bully pulpit, a terrific
    platform to advocate an agenda

22
Teddys Square Deal
  • Youngest President to take office at 42
  • Domestic Program consisting of
  • 1. control of corporations
  • 2. Consumer Protection
  • 3. conservation of natural resources

23
Teddy as a Progressive
  • Believed there were good and bad trusts
    regulate them
  • Pure Food and Drug Act accurate labeling and
    handling of foods
  • Labor Department added in 1913
  • Take care to protect nations natural
  • resources
  • National Forest Service

24
New Constitutional Amendments
  • 16th federal income tax
  • 17th direct election of senators
  • 18th Prohibition of alcohol
  • 19th womens right to vote

25
Election of 1908
  • Teddy Roosevelt did not run for 3rd term
  • Happily passed policies over to Taft as successor

26
William Taft
  • More cautious, quiet, unwilling to compromise
  • Made enemies with many progressives
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • Taft appointed Richard Ballinger as Sec of
    Interior and Ballinger fired Gifford Pinchot

27
William Taft and Progressive Reform
  • A Trust Buster broke up more trusts, monopolies
    than Roosevelt had
  • Reserved more public land for parks
  • Supported passage of 16th and 17th amendments
  • Mann-Elkins Act govt regulate telephone and
    telegraph lines reducing monopolies

28
The Election of 1912
  • Roosevelt challenged Taft under a new idea New
    Nationalism
  • walked out of convention - Bull Moose party
  • Woodrow Wilson New Freedom
  • Fair competition and protection against
  • monopolies
  • Eugene V. Debs Socialist Party
  • Woodrow Wilson wins bc Republicans split the
    Vote, Roosevelt v. Taft

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31
Woodrow Wilson and Progressive Reform
  • Reduces tariffs
  • Clayton Anti-trust Act
  • FTC gave federal govt power to regulate unfair
    business practices
  • Federal Reserve
  • Divided country into 12 federal district banks
  • Regulates currency and circulation

32
Wilsons Second Term
  • 1st Jewish Supreme Court Justice is appointed,
    William Brandeis
  • Won 1916 election under slogan,
  • He kept us out of the war

33
The Limits of Progressivism
  • No help for Women Rights
  • No help for Ethnic minorities
  • Japanese, Chinese, Mexicans
  • Religious minorities (Catholics and Jews)
  • No help for ending Jim Crow
  • Plessy v. Ferguson held that separate but equal
    facilities was okay
  • racial discrimination continues

US entrance into WWI ends Americas interest in
reform!
34
Black Leaders and reform
  • Booker T. Washington
  • W.E.B. DuBois

NAACP
Tuskagee Institute of Alabama
35
Ida B. Wells Anti-lynching campaign
1892 230 lynchings
36
Original Leaders of Womens Suffrage
  • 1848 Seneca Falls Convention
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B.
    Anthony
  • AWSA worked on state level to get vote
  • Susan B. Anthony arrested civil disobedience
  • Two Paths for Suffrage
  • votes at state level
  • Federal amendment

37
Suffrage in 20th Century
  • National American Womens Suffrage Association
    (1890)
  • Younger generation replaces Anthony and Stanton
  • Carrie Chapman Catt - NAWSA
  • Alice Paul more aggressive, CU
  • Catt felt CUs plan was too aggressive, might
    alienate moderate supporters

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39
World War Ones effect on Womens Suffrage
  • Women very patriotic
  • Went to work in factories and in volunteer army
    corps
  • Hypocritical

19th Amendment Womens Right to Vote
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