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Behavior based safety

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Why Safety Programs Do Not Work. Safety is a priority, not a value! Safety is not managed in the same manner as production, quality, and cost issues! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Behavior based safety


1
Behavior based safety
2
(No Transcript)
3
Objectives Today
  • Identify differences between traditional vs. BBS.
  • Know when and when not to implement BBS.
  • Explain why most traditional safety programs
    dont work!
  • Understand why positive reinforcement is much
    more powerful than negative reinforcement.

4
Why Safety Programs Do Not Work
  • Safety is a priority, not a value!
  • Safety is not managed in the same manner as
    production, quality, and cost issues!
  • Safety is not driven through continuous
    improvement!

5
Fallacies or Realities in Safety Fables?
  • Conditions cause accidents!
  • Enforcing rules improves safety!
  • Safety professionals can keep workers safe!
  • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are
    working well!
  • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents
    will improve safety!
  • Awareness training improves safety!
  • Rewards improve safety!

6
Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs
  • A culture that says safety is important around
    here!
  • A tight accountability system!

7
Safety Intervention Strategies (by NSC)
Approach of Studies of Subjects Reduction
Behavior Based 7 2,444 59.6
Ergonomics 3 n/a 51.6
Engineering Change 4 n/a 29.0
Problem Solving 1 76 20.0
Government Action 2 2 18.3
Mgt. Audits 4 n/a 17.0
Stress Management 2 1,300 15.0
Poster Campaign 2 6,100 14.0
Personnel Selection 26 19,177 3.7
Near miss reports 2 n/a 0
8
Behavior based safety what is it?
  • An excellent tool for collecting data on the
    quality of a companys safety management system.
  • A scientific way to understand why people behave
    the way they do when it comes to safety.
  • Properly applied, an effective next step towards
    creating a truly pro-active safety culture where
    loss prevention is a core value.
  • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to
    implement and sustain.

9
Behavior based safety what is it not?
  • Only about observation and feedback.
  • Concerned only about the behaviors of line
    employees.
  • A substitution for traditional risk management
    techniques.
  • About cheating manipulating people aversive
    control.
  • A focus on incident rates without a focus on
    behavior.
  • A process that does not need employee involvement.

10
interventions
Always Consider These 3 Components
Safety Management System
Behaviors
Engineering Controls
11
Traditional hierarchy of safety
  • Interventions Included
  • Attempts to eliminate the hazard.
  • Having employees work around the hazard.
  • Guarding or warning employees about the hazard.
  • Training employees to deal safely with the hazard.

12
Safety management system interventions
  • 7 Components
  • Management leadership
  • Vision, values, commitment
  • Safety goals objectives
  • Costs of safety performance
  • Responsibility accountability
  • Defined for management employees
  • Accountable for performance
  • Safety organization
  • Safety committees
  • Safety staff resource
  • Safety budget
  • Safe work practices procedures
  • General job specific
  • Housekeeping
  • Contractors
  • Emergency
  • Safety review improvement
  • A Plan / Do / Check / Act process
  • Accident investigation process
  • Safety audit / inspection process
  • Safety training
  • Based on needs assessments
  • Designed presented effectively
  • For both management employees
  • Results in observable changes in behavior on the
    job
  • Safety communications
  • Internal external
  • Appropriate for audience
  • Effectiveness of communication methods

13
If safety interventions are effective
  • You will see
  • of safe behaviors increasing and the at-risk
    behaviors decreasing.
  • Reporting of near misses / hits increasing.
  • Both the number of observations and level of
    participation increasing.
  • Frequency severity of injuries decreasing.
  • Increasing acceptance of responsibility and
    accountability for personal behavior.

14
Business is Behavior
  • A business succeeds or fails through the
    performance of all of its employees.
  • Success Good performance
  • Failure Bad performance
  • Performance the combined results of a series of
    behaviors
  • Aubrey Daniels, author and behavioral
    psychologist

15
Suggested BBS Process
  • Discovery - Determine Behaviors That Have
    Greatest Loss Impact.
  • Design - Identify Team Who Will Define Design
    BBS Process.
  • System Up - Implement BBS Observation Process
    Collect Data.
  • System Check - Ensure BBS Process Has Been
    Effectively Implemented.

16
Observations, feedback data collection
  • Use a design team of hourly workers, supervisors
    and managers, to design the process - forms,
    training, data collection and ID roles
    responsibilities.
  • Clearly define critical behaviors that will be
    observed - what is safe vs. at-risk?
  • Give feedback on safe at-risk behavior
    observed.
  • Determine who will act on data collected through
    observations.

17
Use prior experience data to target jobs for
observation
  • Loss runs from insurance carrier or broker
  • OSHA logs
  • First aid logs
  • Near miss / hit reports
  • Absenteeism / turnover reports

18
Define critical behaviors what is safe what
is at risk?
  • Focus on relevant behaviors that will have a
    direct impact on losses.
  • Many behaviors that are directly related to the
    losses are unconscious behaviors that occur
    quickly.
  • Select critical behaviors to focus on through
    actual observation of people at work - not just
    through discussion brainstorming.

19
Obstacles To Success
  • Poorly Maintained Facilities
  • Top-down Management Practices
  • Poor Planning/Execution
  • Inadequate Training

20
Keys to Success
  • Meaningful Employee Empowerment.
  • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS
    Process.
  • Managing BBS Process with Integrity.

21
Human behavior
  • Is a function of
  • Activators (what needs to be done)
  • Competencies (how it needs to be done)
  • Consequences (what happens if it is done)

22
Human Behavior
  • Is both
  • Observable
  • Measurable
  • ThereforeBehavior can be manager!

23
Attitudes
Are inside a persons head -therefore they are
not observable or measurable. HoweverAttitudes
can be changed by changing behaviors
24
ABC Model
  • Antecedents Trigger Behavior
  • Behavior Human Performance
  • Consequences Either Reinforce or Punish
    Behavior

25
Definitions
  • Activators - A person, place, thing or event that
    happens before a behavior takes place that
    encourages you to perform that behavior.
  • Activators only set the stage for behavior or
    performance - they dont control it.

26
Examples of Activators
27
definitions
Behavior - Any directly measurable thing that
a person does, including speaking, acting, and
performing physical functions.
28
Examples of behavior
29
definitions
  • Consequences - Events that follow behaviors.
  • Consequences increase or decrease the probability
    that the behaviors will occur again in the future.

If you dont send in that payment well take you
to court
Oh please let it be Bob!
30
Examples of consequences
31
Consequences how would you view them?
Sunbathing
Aggressive Drivers
32
Only 4 Types of Consequences
  • Positive Reinforcement (R)
  • "Do this you'll be rewarded"
  • Negative Reinforcement (R-)
  • "Do this or else you'll be penalized"
  • Punishment (P)
  • "If you do this, you'll be penalized"
  • Extinction (E)
  • "Ignore it and it'll go away"

33
Consequences Influence Behaviors Based Upon
Individual Perceptions of
  • Based upon individual perceptions of
  • Significance - positive or negative
  • Timing immediate or future
  • Consistency certain or uncertain


Magnitude - large or small
Impact - personal or other
34
Both Positive (R) Negative (R-) Reinforcement
Can Increase Behavior
  • R any consequence that follows a behavior and
    increases the probability that the behavior will
    occur more often in the future - You get
    something you want.
  • R- a consequence that strengthens any behavior
    that reduces or terminates the consequence - You
    escape or avoid something you dont want.

35
Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing em up!
R
One more report like this and youre outa here!!
R-
36
The effects of positive reinforcement
Performance
R
Time
37
Both Punishment Extinction Decrease Behavior
  • Punishment - a procedure in which a punisher
    (consequence that decreases the frequency of the
    behavior it follows) is presented.
  • - You may get something you dont want.
  • Extinction - withholding or non-delivery of
    positive reinforcement for previously reinforced
    behavior.
  • - You dont get what you want.

38
You bonehead!! You can kiss that bonus for this
year good-bye.... and take a few days off without
pay!!!
Punishment
Let him cry honey. If we get up every night when
he cries hell never learn to go to sleep
peacefully.
Extinction
39
The effects of punishment
Performance
Punishment
Time
40
The effects of extinction
Performance
Extinction
Time
41
If you see this type of performance curve you can
bet management, by negative reinforcement is the
predominant management style
Per formance
Time
42
What Employees Want
  • A Safe Workplace
  • A Positive Workplace
  • To Take Care of One Another
  • To Stop the Hurt!

43
What Management Wants
  • An Accident Free Workplace.
  • Empowered Employees.
  • Pro-active Rather Than Re-active Work Process.
  • To Minimize Direct and Indirect Costs and Threat
    of Liability From Accidents.

44
Why is one sign often ignored and the other one
often followed?
45
If you want to know what people find to be
reinforcing
Observe what they do when they have the freedom
to choose.
46
The behavior based safety challenge
To create conditions that encourage people to
collaborate because they want to not because
they have to!
47
A values-based process
  • Focus on the processnot resultsthey will come
    later!

48
Avoid The Following Headline
  • Behavior Based Safety Scores Show Significant
    Improvement while injury rate climbs!

49
Why Do We Need to Change?
  • If you do what youve always done, youll get
    what you always got!
  • - W. Edwards Deming
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