PURPOSES/AIMS%20OF%20EDUCATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PURPOSES/AIMS OF EDUCATION While many purposes of education exist, and many people have their own ideas of what education should be, listed and explained below are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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While many purposes of education exist, and many
people have their own ideas of what education
should be, listed and explained below are several
generally accepted purposes for schooling that
spring from our educational history in America
and modern beliefs about education.
 1. Education for Intellectual Attainment
the belief that schools should concentrate on
activities, exercises, and courses of study
that develop ones mind or intellectual
ability. This belief is based upon the
assumption that the brain is like a muscle that
develops with mental exercise and schools should
challenge the learner with tasks that stimulate
the brain.
General Purposes
2. Education for Citizenship the idea that
schools serve the larger society by producing
students who can function in the American
democracy . This purpose recognizes that an
educated citizen is essential to maintaining the
American economic and political system.
3. Education for Vocational Preparation this
is the belief that schools should produce
students who can go into the work force and
become productive. It is the recognition that a
practical aspect of schooling must be
satisfied. In an educational system attempting
to educate all citizens, it is recognized that
not all graduates can go to college and trained
workers are needed after high school.
4. Education for Individual Development this
is the belief that education develops the
potential of each person. Each person is unique
and education uplifts the individual
intellectually, physically, and emotionally.
Education is seen as the vehicle for personal
development and success in life.
In 1918 the National Education Associations
Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary
Education identified seven specific goals for the
public schools. These goals have influenced
education throughout the 20th century and still
have great influence today. The seven cardinal
principles were designed to articulate the goals
for the comprehensive high school at a time when
the high schools and the public school system in
America grew during the period after World War
I. The seven cardinal principles recognized that
schooling had a larger purpose than just
preparing students for colleges and universities.
Listed below are the seven principles.
1. Health the recognition that as public
education grew and compulsory school attendance
laws were passed in all the states, the health
of the population could be impacted by paying
attention to health issues in schools. Courses
in health, nutrition, and physical education
were instituted. Modern courses include the
study of such social issues as AIDS, sex
education, and alcohol/drug education.
2. Command of Fundamental Processes this is
the old reading, writing, arithmetic approach
to education, the belief that educated people
must have a firm command of reading,
mathematics, and writing ability. We hear a
lot of talk today about the basics in
education and the need to make sure that all
children can read when they leave public
3. Worthy Home Membership the belief that
schools should prepare students to establish a
healthy, stable home. Here is where courses in
home economics started, with an emphasis on
preparing young women to cook and maintain a
house. Today, both young men and women take
courses in this area.
4. Vocational Preparation the belief,
explained above, that schools should produce
workers for the growing economy.
5. Citizenship the belief, explained above,
that democracy depends on an educated citizenry
, and schools, as the institution charged with
the responsibility for education everybody, is
in a unique role to maintain the Republic.
6. Worthy Use of Leisure Time as the work week
began to shorten, it was recognized that
Americans would have more leisure time. This
principle supports the notion that schools
should prepare young people for a healthy life
style, including physical activity and
participation in healthy leisure activities.
7. Ethical Character the belief that schools
should address issues of right or wrong and
moral concerns. Recently, a national debate
has arisen over the teaching of religion in
schools and the proper role that schools should
play in moral/ethical education.
While the seven cardinal principles of education
continue to influence what we teach in schools,
a few other aims of education are beginning to
influence education in America, particularly
regarding how we teach in schools. Your work
in the schools of tomorrow will certainly engage
you in these areas.
1. Learning to Use Information educators
recognize that students cannot be expected to
learn everything about a subject. In fact,
information is growing at a rate far faster than
at any time in human history. So, learning to
use information becomes as important as learning
certain basic information. Acquiring,
analyzing, and reporting information become
important skills. Applying ones knowledge
becomes as important as learning certain
information about a subject. Of course, the
computer becomes an ever increasing tool in
school classrooms.
2. Concept Development since we cannot
possible learn all that is known about a
subject, and information is increasing ever
faster, then, learning the important ideas
becomes more important. The modern emphasis on
learning content is to concentrate on the big
ideas and not allow student to become mired in
3. Problem Solving along with the emphasis on
big ideas is the belief that students need to
apply their understanding of information to
real life problems. The problem solving
approach draws heavily on the scientific method,
where information is generated, analyzed, and
applied to a question of importance.
4. Constructivism this approach gets students
involved in using information, even constructing
information that is applied to their
understanding of concepts and generalization.
Students do more than memorize facts. They
construct meaning from the information acquired
or given.
5. Inquiry a method of instruction where
students collect, analyze, and apply their
understanding to problems or issues. Inquiry
is the basis for all science and relies heavily
on using data rather than suppositions or
6. Social Concerns Americans tend to look to
their schools to solve issues that plague
society. When auto accidents kill thousands
each year and inflate insurance rates, then
schools institute driver education courses.
When Americans are concerned about manners, then
schools launch programs that address proper
social behavior. The list of issues that
schools are required to address seems to grow.
Schools that education young people fall into
two general categories Private or Public
Schools. Recently states have allowed parents
to educate their children in a home school
setting. In Kentucky the public schools are
referred to legally as the common schools. Our
discussion pertains to the organization of
public(common) schools only.
Public schools in America are primarily funded
at the local and state levels. Since no mention
of education is made specifically in the United
States Constitution, then the states under the
reserve powers have taken on the responsibility
to fund and run public schools. The power to run
public schools at the local level is vested in a
Board of Education, duly elected from the
community, and given broad authority to govern
the schools in its district.
The chief administrator in a local school
district is the superintendent, who is appointed
by the Board of Education. The superintendent is
allowed to hire other administrators, including
supervisors, office staff, and the principals of
the local schools, which are all approved by the
In Kentucky, each school, unless it fulfills a
few special characteristics, is required to have
a School Council that is given some significant
powers to operate a local school. The School
Council operates under a plan approved by the
Board of Education that is in line with Kentucky
law. School Councils are composed of teachers,
parents and administrators, under a ratio of
three teachers, two parents, and one principal.
The composition of the council can be changed as
long as this ratio is maintained. School
councils in Kentucky have considerable power and
have jurisdiction over such areas as discipline
policies, curriculum, staffing, and scheduling,
to name a few. Each council develops a policy on
how to administer the powers allowed under the
While we tend to view schools and their
characteristics as monolithic, in fact, schools
vary widely, even in the same school district.
Some schools are large, others small, and their
clients vary, from middle class, to lower
classes, in terms of family income. Some schools
have a high degree of parental involvement, while
others struggle to get input from parents. Other
schools are located in areas where property
values are high and the public allows a high
degree of monetary support for the schools,
resulting in a disparity among schools regarding
the money available to support education.
Recently, as a result of research, educators
realize that significant educational change
usually occurs at the school level as a result of
the educators in a particular school building
with the support of the parents and the
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