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Chapter 10

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Title: Chapter 10


1
Chapter 10 Motivating Employees and Creating
Self-Managed Teams
2
Chapter 10 Learning Goals
  • What are the basic principles of Frederick
    Taylors concept of scientific management?
  • What did Elton Mayos Hawthorne studies reveal
    about worker motivation?
  • What is Maslows hierarchy of needs, and how do
    these needs relate to motivation?
  • How are McGregors Theories X and Y used to
    explain worker motivation?
  • What are the basic components of Herzbergs
    motivator-hygiene theory?

3
Chapter 10 Learning Goals (contd.)
  • What three contemporary theories on employee
    motivation offer insights into improving employee
    performance?
  • How can managers redesign existing jobs to
    increase employee motivation and performance?
  • What different types of teams are being used in
    organizations today?
  • What initiatives are organizations using today to
    motivate and retain employees?

4
Motivating Employees
  • Employees are a firms most important resource but
    also most difficult to manage
  • So, how can managers create a workplace that
    motivates employees and allows them to perform at
    their best?

5
Evolution of Motivation Theory
  • 1. Scientific Management
  • 2. Hawthorne Studies
  • 3. Hierarchy of Needs
  • 4. Theories X and Y
  • 5. Motivator-Hygiene Theory

6
Scientific Management
  • Designed by Fredrick Taylor
  • Assumes all people are motivated by economic
    means
  • Based on 4 principles
  • Develop a scientific approach to each job element
  • Scientifically select, train, teach, develop
    employees
  • Encourage cooperation between workers managers
  • Divide work among workers managers based on who
    is best suited for it

7
The Hawthorne Studies
  • Experimented with job design, length of work day
    and week, break times, and incentives
  • Hawthorne Effect
  • Social needs also play an important role in
    employee motivation

8
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Based on universal human needs
  • Individuals act to meet their unmet needs
  • Managers try to create workplace that will
    increase the likelihood that employees will meet
    all of their needs
  • If appealing to an already met need, its hard to
    motivate an employee

9
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization needs
Esteemneeds
Social needs
Safety needs
Physiological needs
10
McGregors Theories X and Y
  • 2 contrasting sets of assumptions about human
    nature
  • Theory X pessimistic
  • Theory Y optimistic
  • A managers view of human nature affects the way
    they motivate and manage employees
  • McGregor believed Theory Y explained most
    employees

11
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • What do people really want from their work
    experience?
  • Motivating factors create job satisfaction
  • Hygiene factors create job dissatisfaction
  • Proper management of hygiene factors can prevent
    dissatisfaction but cannot provide motivation
  • Management needs to focus on job satisfiers

12
Contemporary Views of Motivation
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Goal Setting Theory

13
Expectancy Theory
  • How motivated an employee is depends on
  • The link between effort performance
  • The link between performance outcome
  • The link between outcomes individual needs

14
Equity Theory
  • Based on employees perception of how fairly they
    are being treated and the rewards they are
    receiving
  • Outcomes-to-inputs ratio is compared to
  • Past experience within the company
  • Past experience outside the company
  • Others experience within the company
  • Others experience outside the company

15
Equity Theory, cont.
  • Upward social comparison comparing oneself to
    another who is better off on a particular
    attribute
  • frequently results in decreased satisfaction
  • Downward social comparison comparing oneself to
    another who is worse off on a particular
    attribute
  • frequently results in increased satisfaction

16
Equity Theory, cont.
  • If employees perceive an inequity they will take
    action
  • Managers need to understand employees
    perceptions and reduce concerns of inequity

17
Goal Setting Theory
  • Working toward a goal is primary source of
    motivation
  • 3 components
  • Specific goals
  • Difficult goals
  • Feedback
  • Allow employees to participate in goal setting
    process

18
Applying Motivational Theory
  • Job Design
  • Job enlargement
  • Job enrichment
  • Job rotation or cross training
  • Work Schedule
  • Compressed work week
  • Flextime
  • Job sharing
  • Telecommuting

19
Applying Motivational Theory, cont.
  • Recognition, Empowerment, Economic Incentives
  • Formal recognition
  • Employee empowerment
  • Monetary incentives
  • Variable pay

20
Using Teams
  • Group Behavior
  • Socialization
  • Group cohesiveness
  • Interpersonal cohesiveness strong bonds liking
    between people
  • Task cohesiveness strong commitment to the group
    task among members
  • Cohesiveness can increase team performance, but
    interpersonally cohesive teams may lack task focus

Source Kenrick et al., Social Psychology, p. 441.
21
Pros and Cons of Teams
  • Cons
  • take longer to reach solution
  • members may suppress disagreement
  • group may be dominated by a few individuals
  • lack of accountability
  • Pros
  • more information knowledge
  • can generate more alternatives
  • often higher-quality decisions
  • group participation increases acceptance of
    solutions

22
Using Teams, cont.
  • Work Groups vs- Work Teams
  • Work teams create synergy
  • Types of teams
  • Problem solving
  • Self managed
  • Cross functional
  • Virtual

23
Building Blocks of High Performance Teams
  • 1. Skills of team members
  • 2. Accountability
  • 3. Commitment
  • Problem solving
  • Technical/functional
  • Interpersonal
  • Small number of members
  • Mutual accountability
  • Individual accountability
  • Specific goals
  • Common approach
  • Meaningful purpose

24
Trends in Motivation
  • Education Training Opportunities
  • Gives employees feelings of competence and
    self-worth
  • Employee Ownership
  • Gives employees feelings of responsibility for
    performance
  • Work-Life Benefits
  • Employees have less stress are more focused and
    productive

25
  • Review
  • Motivation Theories
  • Applying Motivational Theories
  • Job Design
  • Work Schedule Options
  • Recognition, empowerment, economic incentives
  • Teams
  • Groups vs Teams
  • Types of Teams
  • High performance teams
  • Trends
  • Looking Ahead Exam 4
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