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The%20Job%20Selection%20Process

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Title: The%20Job%20Selection%20Process


1
The Job Selection Process
  • Introduction to Occupations

2
Keep your eyes and ears open
  • Talk to people you know about exploring careers
  • List all the careers you notice in a week
  • Look around as you travel, play, eat, shop, or
    hang out
  • Think about movies, TV and magazines.
  • If people are doing what youd like, find out
    more.

3
What is a job?
  • What you do to make money
  • Career?
  • A series of jobs that have a shared focus or
    interest-profession
  • Alternate Career Path
  • One that follows another route
  • You many need post-secondary training
  • Education beyond high-school level

4
Job Clusters
  • Jobs that are related
  • Job Descriptions can be found in the
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles
  • Occupational Outlook Handbook
  • Onet-Federal Gov. Occupational Information
    Network
  • Choices software

5
Job Clusters
  • Agribusiness and Natural Resources
  • breeder
  • groomer
  • poultry farmer
  • Business and Office
  • receptionist
  • bookkeeper
  • computer servicer
  • Communications and Media
  • cable TV technician
  • book editor
  • computer artist
  • Construction
  • air-conditioning, heating
  • mechanic
  • roofer

6
More Clusters
  • Family and consumer services
  • child-care or pet-care worker
  • jeweler
  • floral designer
  • Environment
  • environmental technician
  • sanitary engineer
  • Fine arts and humanities
  • actor
  • cartoonist
  • dancer/musician
  • Health
  • dental hygienist, nurses aide
  • home health aide
  • doctor/dentist

7
More Clusters
  • Hospitality and recreation
  • cruise director
  • fitness instructor
  • baker
  • Manufacturing
  • machine operator
  • toolmaker
  • engineer
  • Marine science
  • ocean technician
  • diver
  • marine engineer
  • Marketing and distribution
  • insurance agent
  • real estate agent
  • retail buyer

8
More Clusters
  • Personal service
  • barber/hairstylist
  • cosmetologist
  • massage therapist
  • Public services
  • teacher
  • firefighter
  • paralegal aide
  • Transportation
  • airline reservations agent
  • railroad conductor
  • automotive mechanic

9
Why do people work?
  • Values-
  • What is important, desirable and worthwhile in
    your life
  • Money
  • Security
  • Learning experiences
  • Feelings of self-worth
  • Sense of Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Social Relationships
  • Sense of Purpose

10
Interests and Skills
  • Skills
  • abilities that have been developed
  • Something you can do well
  • Something that can be improved with practice
  • Skills required for success
  • Job-related skills
  • Ability to communicate
  • Cooperative attitude
  • Good attendance
  • Punctuality
  • Appropriate hygiene and grooming
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Writing

11
Attitude
  • Your state of mind and feelings about things

Smile and be positive
Overcome Bad Habits
Act and Speak Pleasantly
Be Cheerful and Enthusiastic
Be Willing to Listen
Overcome Self-Pity
Get Along with People
Be a Problem-Solver
12
Working with Data-People-Things
  • People
  • Humans and human resources
  • Data
  • Statistics, facts, words, or numbers
  • Things
  • Equipment, machines, or tools

13
Personal Skills
  • Required from employees regardless of career
  • Human Relations Skills
  • Getting along with others
  • Empathy
  • Teamwork
  • Communication Skills
  • Learning Skills
  • Skills and knowledge acquired through formal
    education
  • Informal Education-skills gained from jobs or
    activities outside of school
  • Thinking Skills
  • Problem solving
  • Decision making
  • Critical thinking
  • Analysis
  • Creative thinking

14
Exploratory (Informational) Interviews
  • Use others to build a list of people who work in
    careers that you find interesting.
  • Call the appropriate person and arrange an
    exploratory interview
  • a short informal talk with someone who works in a
    career that appeals to you

15
Job Shadowing
  • following a worker for a few days on the job
  • learning the ropes by watching and listening

16
Part-Time Work
  • allows you to learn about a career from the
    inside
  • gain experience
  • make personal contacts
  • make money

Work Experience Programs
  • give you a chance to learn job skills while you
    are still in high school
  • earns you class credit and a grade

17
Education
  • All jobs have basic educational/training
    requirements
  • High school
  • Vocational/technical program
  • Post-secondary
  • 2 year college-Associates degree
  • 4 year college-Bachelors degree
  • Military Service
  • the largest employer in the United States.

18
Training
  • Apprenticeship
  • A course of training by working with a skilled
    craftsman
  • On the job training classroom theory
  • Trade Schools
  • Special schools offering training for just one
    job
  • Culinary
  • Nursing
  • Cosmetology

19
Licenses
  • Certificate given by state that tells everyone
    you have successfully completed a state approved
    training program
  • Must pass state exam to become certified
  • Cosmetology
  • Architecture
  • Teaching

20
Training Information
  • Apprenticeships
  • Adolescent Vocational Exploration
  • Progressive Adolescent Vocational Exploration
  • Youth Work Skills
  • Another Chance Initiative for Education, Vocation
    or Employment
  • Jobs for Youth Apprenticeship Program
  • Junior Green Teams
  • Boards of Cooperative Education Services
  • Chamber of Commerce O-J-T Programs

21
Fastest Growing Occupations Largest numerical increase in employment
Bachelors Degree Bachelors Degree
Database administrators and computer support specialists Computer engineers Systems analysts Systems analysts Teachers, secondary school Database administrators and computer support specialists
Associate Degree Associate Degree
Paralegals Health Information Technicians Dental Hygienists Registered Nurses Paralegals Dental Hygienists
Post-Secondary Vocational Training Post-Secondary Vocational Training
Data processing equipment repairs Emergency medical technicians Manicurists Registered Nurses Paralegals Dental Hygienists
22
Fastest Growing Occupations Largest numerical increase in employment
Work Experience Work Experience
Food service and lodging managers Teachers and instructors, voc-ed Lawn service managers Clerical supervisors and managers Marketing and sales supervisors Food service and lodging managers
More than 12 months of On The Job Training More than 12 months of On The Job Training
Desktop publishing specialists Flight attendants Musicians Cooks, restaurants Correction officers Musicians
1-12 months of combined OTJ and Informal Training 1-12 months of combined OTJ and Informal Training
Physical/corrective therapy assistants Medical assistants Medical assistants Instructors/coaches, sports/training Social and human services assts.
Short-term Training and Experience Short-term Training and Experience
Personal and home care aides Home health aides Amusement/recreation attendants Cashiers Salespersons, retails Truck drivers, light and heavy
23
Physical Requirements
  • Some jobs require a heavy dependence on one
    specific body sense

Vision Hearing
Jeweler Air traffic control Electronic component assembler Piano tuner Telephone operator Radio dispatcher
Touch Taste
Masseuse Dentist Surgeon Wine taster Chef Dietician
Smell Smell
Perfume master Coffee roaster Chef Perfume master Coffee roaster Chef
24
Physical Requirements
Physical Requirements for the Workplace
25
Employment Trends
  • The kind of work that is available
  • The number of jobs in any field and who they are
    open to
  • The way the work is done
  • Changing due to
  • Technology
  • Attitudes
  • Anti-discrimination laws

26
Researching Workforce Trends
Industry
Which industry provides the greatest number of jobs? Which industry provides the fewest?
Geography
Which area/state provides the highest average wages?
Age/Sex, Race, Disabilities
Compare the number of males to females employed. Compare employment for persons under 25 to over 25 years of age. Compare disabled and non-disabled employment figures.
Occupation
Which occupation will have the greatest number of job openings in the next few years? Which occupations are being phased out?
Education
How does the level of education achieved affect the jobs available? Is there a difference in the number of jobs available to H.S. grads versus college grads?
27
Disabled Workers
  • Technology has helped them to function in the
    workplace
  • Handicap-accessible buildings
  • Redesigned furniture
  • Voice-activated computers
  • Job Links for the Handicapped
  • www50.pcedpd.gov/pdepd
  • Minorities
  • African-American
  • Latino
  • Asian
  • Women
  • Older workers
  • Affirmative Action

28
Discrimination
  • Title IX
  • Ensures that equal programs for male and female
    students exist in schools
  • Illegal for hiring and firing based on gender,
    age, marital status, race, religion or ethnic
    origin
  • Affirmative Action
  • Jobs have been renamed
  • StewardessFlight Attendant
  • PolicemanLaw Enforcement Officer

29
The Global Economy
  • Requires more workers to be bilingual
  • Workers are competing for jobs worldwide, not
    just locally

30
Assessing Your Job Preferences
  • What career you want
  • Is travel time worth it?
  • What type of working conditions do you want?
  • Indoors/outdoors
  • Alone/with people
  • Small/large company
  • Physical/desk job

31
Traditional vs. Nontraditional Jobs
  • Traditional Jobs for Men and Women
  • Woman---Secretary, Nurse, Teacher, etc.
  • Domestic services
  • Occupational Segregation/Gender Barriers
  • Man---Construction, Maintenance, President, etc.
  • Nontraditional Jobs for Men and Women
  • Women---
  • Men---
  • Career Mobility?

32
Getting the Job
Obtain a Social Security Number
Local social security office
Secure Working Papers
Minors (14-17) need this work permit Can be obtained from Attendance Office
Fill out a W-4 Form
Lists tax withholding information Obtained from employer on 1st day
33
Non-Print Job Leads
  • Networking-communicating with people you know or
    can get to know to share information and advice.
  • Make a contact list-a list of people you know.
  • Ask for any information that will lead to a job.
  • Build your contact list by getting a referral
    from everyone you talk to.
  • Use School Resources
  • school counselor
  • teachers
  • placement office
  • school-to-work programs-bring schools and local
    businesses together.

34
On-Line Job Leads
  • Company web sites
  • Human resource departments
  • Newsgroups
  • Bulletin boards
  • Resume posting services
  • Online classified ads

35
Print Job Leads
  • Job Advertisements
  • Classified ads
  • Newspaper
  • Magazines
  • Blind Ads
  • Dont give employers name
  • Weekly or monthly newspapers devoted to job
    advertising
  • Yellow Pages of phone book
  • Chamber of Commerce business directory
  • Professional Trade Magazines

36
Other Job Leads
  • College Career Resources Office
  • Local State Job Services Office
  • Public Library
  • Practical Experience
  • Volunteer
  • Co-op job-receive school credit
  • Internship
  • Part-time work
  • Employment Agencies
  • matchmaker between job seekers and companies with
    job openings.
  • Job seekers fill out applications at the agency.
  • Using the Telephone
  • hot calls-calls to referrals or follow up a lead
  • cold calls-blind calls

37
Applying for a Job
  • Getting a job comes down to how well you present
    yourself in your phone calls, job application,
    resume and cover letter.
  • Employers are looking for the best person to fill
    the job.
  • Communicate Effectively
  • The way you talk and write is one of the first
    and strongest impressions youll make.
  • Use Standard English.

38
Resume
  • a one-page summary of your personal information,
    education, skills, work experience, activities
    and interests.
  • You will send it to an employer when applying for
    a job by mail or via the Internet.
  • An employer may request a copy be attached to an
    application or brought to an interview.
  • A resume can get you an interview or kill you
    chance for a job. Make yourself look good.

39
Resume
  • A personal data sheet typewritten on 8 ½ x 11
    paper
  • Includes
  • Name
  • Address
  • Phone number
  • Educational experience
  • Relevant courses youve taken
  • Skills
  • Work experience
  • Volunteer positions
  • Significant honors
  • Interests
  • References with
  • Names
  • Titles
  • Addresses
  • Phone numbers

40
Resumes
  • Choose carefully what youll include, what youll
    emphasize and how youll describe your
    experience.
  • Do not include any negative information, if you
    have no work experience, dont mention it.
  • Focus on your skills, education and training you
    do have.

41
Objective or Summary
  • the hook that grabs the readers attention
  • tells the reader what you want to do and/or what
    you are qualified to do
  • Education
  • list your highest degree first
  • type of degree, major, college name and date
    awarded
  • may go after experience

42
Experience
  • describe you present and previous positions in
    reverse chronological order
  • include dates of employment, company names and
    locations and specific job titles
  • show progression/promotions within an
    organization
  • may go ahead of education

43
Skills
  • include your personal characteristics, special
    knowledge, achievements and products
  • any identifiable ability or fact that employers
    value and will pay for
  • Activities
  • hobbies
  • sports
  • extracurricular activities

44
Words
  • use action verbs
  • dont use same word twice
  • use a thesaurus
  • no first-person pronouns (I, We)
  • drop articles (the, a, an)
  • dont abbreviate
  • lose the helping verbs (have, had, may, might)
  • lose the being verbs (am, is, are, was, were)
    stronger
  • dont shift tense
  • dont overwrite (replace expeditious with swift)
  • eliminate complex sentences

45
Do not include
  • Salary needs
  • reasons for leaving other jobs
  • date available for employment
  • references, print them on a separate page
  • health
  • leisure activities
  • unexplained time gaps
  • marital status
  • age
  • parents occupations
  • ethnicity or national origin
  • physical description or photograph

46
The Resume Look
  • use a word processing software
  • print on a laser or inkjet printer
  • use a quality paper
  • size 10-14 font
  • Times New Roman, Courier, Garamond, NC
    Schoolbook, Gothic, Helvetica or Arial
  • Typing or spelling errors are UNACCEPTABLE!

47
Electronic Resumes
  • Companies scan resumes into their computers and
    store them in databases.
  • These databases look for KEYWORDS that describe
    skills or job experiences theyre seeking.

48
References
  • You must have at least 3.
  • These are people who will recommend you to an
    employer.
  • Be prepared to list them on the application.
  • Employers trust teachers or former employers the
    most.
  • Make sure you ask permission.
  • They should not be related to you.

49
Cover Letters
  • Your opportunity to convince an employer that
    hiring you would benefit the company.
  • Do not send your resume by itself, always include
    a cover letter.
  • A one-page letter telling the employer who you
    are and why youre sending the resume.
  • Sometimes called an application letter
  • Concise and to the point.

50
Cover Letters have three parts
  • The Opening-it explains why you are writing.
  • Say where or from whom you learned about the job.
  • You wish to be considered as an applicant for the
    position.
  • The Body-is your sales pitch.
  • It tells why you are right for the job.
  • Point out how your education/experience could
    help you perform the job.
  • The Closing-tells how you will follow up.
  • Include your phone number so the employer can
    contact you.
  • State your resume is enclosed.
  • State that you would like an interview at the
    employers convenience.

51
The Job Application
  • This form asks questions about your skills, work
    experience, education and interests.
  • Always fill a job application out completely and
    accurately, using a pen.
  • Read and follow directions exactly.
  • Keep it neat and clean.
  • Be positive, keep your options open.
  • Write NA (not applicable) or draw a line through
    spaces that do not apply to you.

52
Taking Tests
  • When applying for a job, you may have to take one
    or more tests.
  • Performance test-evaluates how well you can do a
    particular task.
  • Drug test-blood or urine test for illegal drugs.
  • Polygraph test-a lie detector test.

53
Interviewing
  • a formal meeting between an employer and a job
    applicant.
  • It is the employers chance to meet you as a
    person, not just as a name on a resume.
  • Its where research and rehearsal pay off.

54
Know Before You Go
  • Do your research and ask intelligent questions.
  • Use books, magazines and articles about the
    company and current industry events.
  • Ask the Public Relations department for the
    annual report.
  • Visit the companys Internet site for up-to-the
    minute information.
  • Talk to people who work for the company.

55
Rehearsal Time
  • Practice will improve your interview performance.
  • Practice your telephone skills-speak clearly and
    repeat the appointment time and location
  • Interview with a friend-have them ask you typical
    questions and comment on your interview style
  • Use a Mirror-are you sitting straight? Are you
    fidgeting?
  • Use a tape recorder-Are your words clear?
  • Prepare answers to typical questions-use the list
    given.

56
Dress for Success
  • What does an employer see first when you walk
    through the door?
  • Not your personality-your clothes!
  • Carefully plan what youll wear-dress for what
    youd wear for a day on the job, but a little bit
    better.
  • Think conservative-let your skills stand out, not
    your outfit.
  • Be neat, clean and well-groomed with shined shoes
    and no crazy jewelry.

57
Dos and Donts
  • Do
  • arrive on time and alone
  • Dress appropriately
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Smile and be polite
  • have a positive attitude
  • act enthusiastically
  • make sure you are up on current events
  • Dont
  • make yourself at home in the office until you
    have been invited
  • chew gum or smoke
  • Slouch or cross your arms
  • Discuss your personal life
  • Make negative remarks about anything
  • Tell what terms you will accept
  • give one-word answers
  • appear desperate

58
From Door to Door
  • Arrive at the interview alone and on time
  • Bring a pen, a notepad and two copies of your
    resume
  • Be prepared to fill out an application

59
During an Interview
  • Body Talk-the gestures, posture and eye contact
    you use to send messages.
  • Eye Contact-shows that youre paying attention.
  • Firm Handshake-signals self-confidence
  • Nodding your head-shows you are thinking
  • Good Manners count too.

60
Speaking for Success
  • Success depends not only on what you say, but how
    you say it.
  • A clear, confident voice immediately creates a
    positive, adult impression.
  • Listen attentively, it will keep you calm and
    focused.
  • Enunciate and dont speak too quickly.

61
Typical Questions
  • Look at your notes
  • An interviewer tries to find out who you are and
    what you can do for the company.
  • Honesty is the best policy.
  • If you dont understand a question, ask for
    clarification.
  • Interviewers prefer specific questions.

62
Tough Questions
  • Dont be surprised.
  • Stay clam.
  • Address one question at a time.

63
After the Interview Following Up
  • The interview process doesnt end when you walk
    out the door.
  • Jot down some notes.
  • Send a follow-up letter.
  • A letter thanking the employer for their time and
    the opportunity to interview with them.
  • Call Back.

64
Accepting
  • You dont have to say yes immediately.
  • You can ask for time to think about it.
  • Send an acceptance letter and keep a copy.

65
Rejecting
  • Dont say no at the interview.
  • Thank the interviewer.
  • Give a reason for your answer.
  • Keep your options open.

66
Portfolio
  • A collection of documents showing proof of your
    accomplishments, performance and work history.
  • A place for you to organize information about
    yourself.
  • It will continually change and be updated.
  • A showcase of student work.
  • It often clinches the deal.

67
It will need to
  • Consider career options
  • Perform skill assessments
  • Help make decisions and plans
  • Prepare for interviews

68
Types of Portfolios
  • Divide it into 3 general categories
  • Living
  • Learning
  • Working
  • Or...
  • Who I Am
  • Exploring
  • Deciding
  • Planning
  • Acting
  • Organize it in a way that makes sense to you

69
What to include in it
  • Cover Letter
  • Resume
  • Last grade report
  • Autobiography
  • Copies of licenses
  • Evidence of involvement/pictures
  • Tests/Worksheets
  • Writings
  • Videos
  • Newspapers articles
  • A list of courses you are taking or have taken

70
What to include
  • Certificates of Achievement
  • Volunteering
  • Honor/Merit roll
  • Courses
  • Attendance
  • Letters of Recommendation/Teacher Observations
  • Special skills fact sheet
  • A personal philosophy statement
  • A description of experiences that dont fit in
    resume
  • Projects that show your highest level of skill
  • Written papers from a course

71
Packaging Your Portfolio
  • Package it in a colorful, 2-pocket
    portfolio/folder
  • Dont enclose any originals, only photocopies
  • They might want to keep it
  • Always take one to an interview
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