Demonstrate%20the%20ability%20to%20provide%20cognitive%20instruction%20using%20functional%20life%20activities%20for%20students%20with%20profound%20mental%20retardation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title: Demonstrate%20the%20ability%20to%20provide%20cognitive%20instruction%20using%20functional%20life%20activities%20for%20students%20with%20profound%20mental%20retardation

SpEd 417/517 Course Objective
  • Demonstrate the ability to provide cognitive
    instruction using functional life activities for
    students with profound mental retardation

Westling Fox Chapter 7
  • Effective teaching
  • determining objectives to teach
  • function over form
  • extending the objective
  • partial participation
  • Good general teaching practice
  • Learning new behaviors and skills
  • Operant learning

Principles of effective teaching
  • Functional tasks and materials
  • Natural settings and cues
  • Transdisciplinary services and integrated therapy
  • Interaction with individuals who do not have
  • Data-based instruction
  • Partial participation
  • Scheduling matrix

Prioritizing Objectives
  • Categories of behaviors
  • Simple, discreet behaviors - simple movements
    that occur across different settings
  • Continuous, ongoing behaviors - how long will a
    behavior occur
  • Complex, chained skills - chain of related
    behaviors required to complete a task
  • Functional routines - task analyses that contain
    several behaviors in a chain
  • access to a particular activity in the natural
  • initiated by a natural cue in the environment
  • natural consequence serves as reinforcer -
    critical event

Prioritizing Objectives
  • Behavioral cusp - behavioral change that has
    consequences for the learner that go beyond
  • access to new reinforcers, contigencies,
  • generativeness
  • competition with inappropriate responses
  • number of people affected
  • social validity

Operant Learning
  • behavior occurs as a function of the environment
  • behavior consequence high probability of
    future occurrence
  • antecedent (discriminative stimuli) behavior
    consequence high probability of future
    occurrence when antecedent is present
  • differential reinforcement leads to learned
  • stimulus control when a behavior is influenced
    to occur or not occur by certain environmental
    conditions (antecedents and reinforcers)

Systematic Instruction
  • Early form - adult controlled learning situations
    including task selection, preparation of
    materials, use of direct prompts, determination
    of acceptable performance, and schedules of
  • Combination of environmental, incidental, and
    systematic strategies that are neither intrusive
    or stigmatizing can be most effective and least
    restrictive alternatives
  • Art and Science
  • Analytical approach is the science - define
    needs and solutions and evaluate effectiveness
  • Intuitive approach is the art - necessary when
    solutions are not predictable or effective

Principles of systematic instruction
  • How often and where instruction will occur?
  • How the student will be prepared for instruction?
  • What system and type of cues and prompts will be
    used to elicit the desired performance?
  • What adaptations will be used to enhance
  • How performance will be assessed?
  • How will home/school communicate about

Westling Fox Chapter 7
  • Instructional tactics
  • Prompting systems
  • Non-direct instruction
  • Modifying stimulus materials
  • Natural cues
  • Reinforcing correct responses
  • Delivery of reinforcement
  • Correcting errors
  • Increasing compliance
  • Writing an instructional program

Instructional Tactics
  • Modifying stimulus materials
  • stimulus shaping and fading
  • modifying complexity
  • Natural cues
  • Reinforcing correct responses
  • selecting reinforcers
  • preference assessment
  • food and drink as reinforcers
  • Correcting errors
  • types of errors
  • error correction procedure
  • Increasing compliance

Instructional Tactics
  • Instructional prompts - gestural, verbal,
    auditory, pictorial, model, physical, mixed
  • Use of prompts
  • Constant time delay vs. progressive time delay
  • System of least prompts
  • Most to least prompts
  • Antecedent prompt and test
  • Nondirect instruction
  • observational vs. incidental learning

Behavioral Supports
  • Reducing problem behavior - functional analysis
  • Description of behavior
  • Identification of variable
  • Hypothesis - what maintains behavior
  • Predictors and consequences
  • Behavioral support plan
  • Description of problem behavior
  • Hypothesis
  • Environmental procedures to address problem
  • Plan for implementing changes in immediate
  • Consequences
  • Monitoring and evaluation procedures

Westling Fox Chapter 8
  • Generalization
  • train and hope
  • use of consequences
  • arranging antecedents
  • use of peers
  • self-mediation
  • Applying generalization strategies
  • tactics of generalization programming
  • incorporating peers
  • self-instruction
  • decision rules
  • general case method

Westling Fox Chapter 8
  • Teaching skill maintenance
  • skill overlearning
  • learning through distributed
  • distributed practice
  • intermittent reinforcement
  • ratio vs. interval
  • building on learned skills
  • maintenance schedule
  • home and community application
  • Writing instructional programs to include
    generalization and maintenance

Environmental Analysis
  • Ecological inventory
  • analysis of activities required within a
    particular setting
  • delineate the types of performance and skills
    that would be expected by a person without a
    disability in the environment
  • following analysis, the ability to function in
    the environment is directly observed to determine
    instructional needs and interventions

  • Consider different learning environments
  • classroom setting
  • simulated activity
  • real-life setting
  • Consider each domain area and one activity
  • Home Living
  • making bed
  • cooking
  • Community
  • making purchase
  • using the bus

  • Vocational
  • job interview
  • washing dishes
  • Recreation/Leisure
  • playing darts
  • going on a date
  • School
  • using the library
  • completing a science experiment

  • Classroom
  • what materials are needed?
  • what does the environment look like?
  • are there any natural cues?
  • Simulated activity
  • how would materials look different?
  • how could the environment enhance success?
  • what about natural cues?
  • Real life setting
  • what is the amount time and financial investment?
  • what is the environment like?
  • how are natural cues presented?

Curriculum Instruction
  • Curriculum
  • Determines strengths, interests, dreams, and
  • Determine capabilities and challenges for child
  • Decide the challenges to be addressed
  • Write activity-based goals and objectives
  • Instruction
  • Determine individual student plans
  • Determine individual teaching strategies
  • Develop strategies for measuring progress

  • General education curriculum
  • General education curriculum adapted to focus on
    the most essential skills
  • Sequenced functional skills curriculum
  • Embedded functional skills curriculum

  • The intervention methods associated with each of
    the various disciplines, as well as the more
    multifaceted interventions designed by an
    educational team collectively.
  • The goal is to enable students with disabilities
    to participate in a variety of home, school, and
    community routines, with a variety of people,
    using the supports and responding to the cues
    that occur naturally in those settings.

  • Teams need to consider appropriate adaptations
    and supports (ie. AT, related services) to allow
    student to benefit from special education.
  • Due to unique learning needs, instructional
    stategies need to be designed in consideration of
    special physical, sensory, and health issues.
  • Teams need to have the ability to determine the
    difference between specific impairments and
    behaviors. If behavior is identified as the
    issue, then teams need to implement strategies to
    reduce challenging behaviors

Stages of learning
  • Acquisition - learn it
  • Maintenance - use it routinely
  • Fluency or proficiency - make it better or faster
  • Generalization - use it anywhere and whenever

General education reform literature
  • Advocates instruction designed to reach children
    and youth of diverse cultures, abilities, and
    learning styles
  • Actively involve them through hands-on and
    exploratory activities, interdisciplinary and
    thematic instruction, and community-referenced
  • Guide them to work individually, with partners,
    and in small groups to learn the academic
    curriculum as well as the social
  • Only as special as necessary - participate in
    regular curriculum as long as it meets the
    students needs

Integration phases
  • Full inclusion - ages 3-6
  • Integration - ages 7-10
  • Community intensive - ages 11-13
  • Transition - ages 14-18
  • Integrated work and community living - ages 18-22

Determine individual student plan
  • Scheduling matrix
  • ensures meaningful inclusion
  • opportunity to learn skills at naturally
    occurring time and in response to natural cues
  • practice skills in different situations
  • organizing day
  • Methods for participation in regular education
  • specific adaptations
  • curriculum adaptation strategies
  • Same curriculum (S)
  • Multilevel curriculum (ML)
  • Curriculum overlapping (CO)

Scheduling Matrix
Determine individual teaching strategies
  • Prepare student for instruction
  • positioning
  • transition time
  • opportunities for movement
  • awareness of daily routine
  • Determine individual learning styles -
    multi-sensory emphasis

Develop strategies for measuring progress
  • Will it be useful or meaningful?
  • Is it practical?
  • Portfolio assessment

Ecological Inventory Assignment 2
  • Life Domain - describe domain area
  • Environment - describe the environment where
    activity will take place
  • Sub-environment - describe actual location of
  • Activity - describe activity
  • Skills - list at least 10 detailed skills/steps
    that are required to complete task for
    non-disabled person

Ecological Inventory
  • Domain Recreation/Leisure Leisure is recognized
    as a state of being which is characterized by an
    individual's perceived freedom, intrinsic
    motivation and feelings of pleasure the leisure
    state is usually achieved through participation
    in recreational activities.

Ecological Inventory
  • Environment Local YMCA The F-M Family YMCA is a
    not-for-profit community service organization
    dedicated to enhancing the spirit, mind, and body
    of all persons through quality leadership,
    programs, services, and facilities.

Ecological Inventory
  • Sub-Environment Climbing wall room Sensory
    Characteristics Large open room, sound of
    humming from vents, sounds of other
    climbers/helpers, bright lights, contrasting
    colors of rocks/wall, feeling of rocks on
    hands/feet, shifting body position, moving
    extremities, pulling of muscles to climb upward,
    swinging of body from pulley system, ringing of
    bell, descending body

Ecological Inventory
  • Activity Climbing on the climbing wall Its an
    exciting and adventurous total body workout that
    combines grace, precision and skill. Climbing
    develops a unique combination of balance,
    strength and flexibility providing a complete
    experience for the body as well as the mind and

Ecological Inventory
  • Standing while putting on gear
  • Grasping straps while stepping into gear
  • Pulling gear up to waist
  • Pulling straps up to shoulders
  • Waiting for gear to be strapped to pulley system
  • Reaching above head and grasping rocks
  • Stepping with one foot onto rock
  • Alternately placing feet and hands on rocks
  • Maintaining postural control to hang onto rocks

Ecological Inventory
  • Reaching to ring bell at the top of the wall
  • Releasing rocks to allowing body to hang from
    pulley system
  • Pushing off wall with legs while being lowered to
  • Waiting for gear to be released
  • Pulling off gear from shoulders and waist
  • Stepping out of gear